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ice that not a particle was seen floating, were circumstances portion to the eagerness of the hope, was the bitterness of so encouraging, and so clifferent from any thing we had the disappointment; and the expression of the general yet seen, that every heart panted to explore this passage, opinion was loud in disapprobation. The attempt, it was which was to conduct us all to glory and to fortune." The said, had been abandoned at the very moment which preships stood directly into this spacious inlet, but they had sented the brightest prospect of success, and with a precipiscarcely advanced ten leagues, when the Isabella (Captain tation as unaccountable as it was ill-advised. The imRoss's vessel,) bore up, and stood out of the inlet under all perfect view of a distant ridge of hills was declared to be sail, followed, of course, by the Alexander. The com- an insufficient ground for the hasty conclusion, that with mander, it appeared, had distinctly seen the land round them terminated the inlet from which they were seen; and the bottom, forming a connected chain of mountains with Captain Ross's omission to avail himself of the opportunity those which extended along the north and south sides.” “It of closely examining and surveying the western shores of is impossible," says our writer before quoted, “ to picture Baffin's Bay, and thus greatly improving the very defective to you the gloom that was immediately spread over every geography of our charts in that respect, was universally countenance, all their sanguine hopes being thus unex- regarded as an act of unpardonable negligence. The opinion pectedly dashed to the ground. At the very spot where of the government seemed also to be, that not so much had the Isabella hore up, the depth of water was 650 fathoms ; been done as might have been done, and by no means and the temperature continued the same as at the entrance : sufficient to establish the non-existence of an opening into the Alexander was about four or five miles astern of her the Polar Sea from Baffin's Bay, and the consequent imconsoft at that time, but not the least appearance of land practicability of a North-West Passage in that quarter. was visible in the direction of the inlet from her crow'snest." The ridge which appeared to Captain Ross, as ex

CAPTAIN PARRY'S FIRST VOYAGE. tending from north to south across the bottom of the sound, ACCORDINGLY a new expedition was fitted out, to proceed was named by him Croker's Mountains; and a promontory to Lancaster Sound, in order to ascertain whether it were which projected from about their centre, was called Cape an inlet terminated by land, or a strait opening to the westRosamond. After landing near the southern point of its ward ; and, in the event of its proving to be the latter, to entrance, the expedition quitted Lancaster Sound, the dis- pass through it, and examine its direction and communicaappointment which they had experienced casting a damp tions, with the view to reach Behring's Strait. Should it on all their future proceedings.

appear, however, that there was no passage through this The month of September having now set in, their course inlet, Alderman Jones's Sound, Sir Thomas Smith's Sound, was shaped homewards, passing along the western shores of and Cumberland Strait, were to be explored in succession ; Baffin's Bay, sometimes in sight of the land, but seldom so and in the case of no better success, any other opening that near as to obtain much information respecting the nature might lead to the seas adjoining the eastern or northern of the coast. The land every where exhibited the same coast of America, was to be attempted. Two strong vessels, appearance of high mountains covered with snow; and the the Hecla, of 375 tons, and the Griper, of 180 tons, were numerous bays and openings that were passed were gene- selected for this purpose; and having been strengthened rally filled with large glaciers of ice, and quite impenetra- in a similar manner to the Isabella and Alexander, and ble. On the first of October, they reached the mouth of furnished with provisions and stores for two years, were Cumberland Strait; but, from the advanced period of the placed,—the former, under the orders of Lieutenant (now season, Captain Ross did not conceive himself authorized Sir Edward) Parry, who had accompanied Captain Ross to proceed up to explore it. From hence they stood di- in the preceding voyage, and was appointed commander rectly for Cape Farewell, which they passed on the 9th, in of the present expedition, the latter under those of Lieua tremendous storm ; and on the 30th arrived at Shetland, tenant Matthew Liddon. The ships were manned with a after an absence of six months. During this passage full complement of excellent seamen; nearly the whole of across the Atlantic, the Aurora Borealis was frequently those who had served on the former occasion, having seen, sometimes in grand and beautiful coruscations. again volunteered their services.

We have spoken of the confident anticipation of success They left England on the 11th of May ; on the 1st of that existed in the public mind, in regard to the issue of August, they approached Lancaster Sound, and here the this, the most complete expedition that had ever been interesting portion of their voyage commenced. All sail equipped for the purposes of northern discovery. In pro-was crowded; and a strong easterly breeze carried them



we were

rapidly to the westward. “It is more easy" continues was now far advanced, it became necessary for them to Captain Parry “ to imagine, than to describe the almost search for a secure harbour, in which to lie safely during breathless anxiety which was now visible in every coun- the ensuing winter. Nor had they returned too early; for, tenance, while, as the breeze increased to a gale, we ran on their arrival in the Bay of the Hecla and Griper, the quickly up the sound. The mast-heads were crowded by head of which they had selected for this purpose, the the officers and men during the whole afternoon ; and an whole of its surface was so completely covered with new unconcerned observer, if any could have been unconcerned ice, that they were obliged to open a canal with saws, to on such an occasion, would have been amused by the eager- admit the passage of the ships ; an operation which occuness with which the various reports from the crow's-nest pied the greatest part of three days, during which they cut were received, all, however, hitherto favourable to our most through nearly two miles and a third of new ice, the average sanguine hopes." Thus continuing to advance to the west- thickness of which was seven inches. ward, our navigators had before midnight passed the limits Being now fairly fixed in winter quarters, “ the station of the previous voyage, and yet had met with no obstacles where, in all probability," Captain Parry says, to impede their further advance. On the contrary, every destined to remain for at least eight or nine months, during indication seemed favourable; the sea was deep, in colour three of which we were not to see the face of the sun, and swell resembling the ocean; and the opposite shores it became requisite to take all possible precautions for of the inlet (which was named Barrou''s Strait) still pre- the safety of the ships, and the preservation of their stores. served a wide distance. On reaching longitude 89° 18', a The whole of the masts were dismantled, except the lower small island was discovered a-head, from which a complete ones, and the Hecla's main-top mast. A frame-work was barrier of ice stretched across to the northern shore of the erected over each of the ships, which was planked, and passage. This obstructed all progress to the westward; afterwards roofed with a cloth of wadding-tilt, similar to but the channel to the south, still presented a broad inlet, the usual covering of waggons. All the heavy stores and open and navigable. In descending this opening, (to timber were removed from the upper-deck, and taken on which, the name of Prince Regent's Inlet was given,) the shore, in order to give as much room as possible for exercompass, which had for some time past been remarked to cise. The snow was banked up round the ships as high as be sluggish in its movements, exhibited the curious pheno- the main-chains, and warmth and dryness in the interior menon of actually losing all power of motion, “the directive were provided for by stoves and orens. Judicious regulapower of the needle becoming so weak, as to be overcome tions were established for the distribution of provisions, so by the attraction of the ship ; so that the needle might now as to meet at once the suggestions of economy, and a be properly said to point to the North Pole of the ship." prudent regard for health. The personal cleanliness and For the purposes of navigation, therefore, the compasses good order of the men, were secured by a regular inspection were no longer consulted ; and the binnacles were removed both morning and evening, and the most prompt and as useless lumber from the deck; the true courses of the effectual means adopted for detecting and checking the ship, and the direction of the wind, being noted by observa- slightest appearance of scurvy. The men were allowed to tions of the sun's azimuth, (when that luminary was take exercise on shore; or, if the weather were too inclement, visible,) and the apparent time. After proceeding about to run round the deck to the tune of an organ, or to one of 120 miles, they were again stopped by the ice, and com- their own songs. IIunting-parties were frequently sent on pelled to return to Barrow's Strait. Here, to their great shore, in search of rein-deer and grouse, until these animals surprise, they found that the icy barrier, which, but a few migrated, when only foxes and wolves remained behind. days before had impeded their progress to the westward, In these excursions, the severe effects of the cold were was now entirely removed. They continued, therefore, sometimes attended by danger; several frust-bites took their course in that direction, and soon reached a wide place, and, in one or two cases, where the ordinary practice, opening to the north, (Wellington Channel,) in which they of immersing the injured part in snow, failed, amputation could not discern either land or ice.

was obliged to be resorted to. The appearances of an open westerly passage were now In order to guard against the predisposition to attacks of favourable in the extreme; and the ships, after a quarter scurvy, induced by mental depression, recourse was had to of an hour's “boring“ through a narrow stream of ice, con- theatrical amusements. A weekly newspaper was also set tinued their course without obstruction. The land to the on foot, called The North Georgia Gazette and Il'inter northward seemed to consist of a series of islands; but it Chronicle; and by these means our hardy adventurers had assumed a different structure, and instead of rising contrived, in some measure, to relieve the dull and tedious precipitously from the sea, offered a sloping sandy beach. monotony of their gloomy existence. The scene, indeed, Cornwallis Island, Bathurst Island, and Byam Martin without, was cheerless in the extreme; to use the words of Island, were reached in succession, and, on the eastern Captain Parry, "it was the death-like stillness of the most point of this latter, Captain Sabine and a party landed, to dreary desolation, and the total absence of animated exmake observations, and to examine the natural productions istence." Its character is well expressed in the view, of the shore. They found the remains of Esq imaux habi- page 213. tations, in four different places, and very recent traces of Thus occupied, time passed more quickly than they could the rein-deer and musk-ox were visible. A comparison of | have expected, and the shortest day, or rather the middle the magnetic observations made here, with those made in i of the long night, came upon them unawares. At a little Prince Regent's Inlet, led them to conclude that they had, in before and after noon, there was so much light afforded, as sailing over the intervening space, crossed immediately to to enable them to read small print, but only by turning it the northward of the Magnetic Pole; but their peculiar directly towards the south. The new year commenced with situation prevented them from devoting their attention to mild weather, but its severity soon increased, until it was this interesting subject in any great degree. From the with difficulty that they could pass and repass between the prevalence of fogs and ice, the difficulty of steering a two ships. The Aurora Borealis now made its appearance ; proper course became very great, and a tedious navigation and, on the 15th of January, they were gratified by a sight could only be effected through the narrow channel of water, of the only very brilliant and diversified display which which stretched between the ice and the land on the north, occurred during the whole winter. On the third of Fesometimes extended to four or five miles in width, at others bruary, the upper limb of the sun was seen from the Hecla's contracted to only a few hundred yards. Another large main-top, for the first time since the eleventh of November, island, which they named Melville Island, was now a period of eighty-four days; and, on the seventh, his full reached; and, on the 4th of September, they succeeded in orb was above the horizon. This month was the coldest crossing the meridian of 110° west longitude, in the lati- they had yet experienced, but its severity was, in some tude of 74° 44' 20'', by which they became entitled to the degree, compensated by the sun's presence. sum of 50001., being the first reward in the scale, granted The mildness with which the month of March was by the Act of Parliament for the discovery of the longitude. ushered in, inspired our navigators with the hope, that the

A firm barrier of ice now opposed their further progress, season had at length taken that favourable turn, for which and compelled them to anchor, for the first time since they they had so long been anxiously looking. On the thirtieth had left the coast of England; and the spot selected for this of April, the thermometer rose to the freezing (or rather purpose, was named the Bay of the Hecla and Griper. thawing) point, being the first time that such an eient After a further examination of Melville Island, they had occurred for noarly eight months. The first ptarmizan struggled hard to get to the westward, and, by the 17th, made its appearance on the twelfth of May, and the next succeeded in reaching longitude 112° 51'; here the obsta- day were seen the tracks of rein-deer and musk-oxen, cles to their further progress were insuperable, and they indicating their route to be directly to the northward. were compelled to return to the eastward ; and, as the season the evening of the twenty-fourth, a snart shower of rain


was hailed with surprise and delight; and, on the 1st of ruption he succeeded, and emerged into a magnificent June, the weather was so favourable, that Captain Parry harbour, which was named the Duke of York's Bay. determined to proceed on a journey across Melville Island, On the 21st of August, our navigators found themselves to the northern shore. After an absence of fifteen days, in Repulse Bay, in which not a piece of ice was to be he returnel, having accomplished his object without per- seen that could obstruct them in its thorough examination. ceiving any land to the northward or westward. In the The main object of the voyage may be said to have now mean while, the equipment of the ships had proceeded with commenced. From the 22nd of August to the end of Sepdiligence; and the gradual dissolution of the ice upon the tember, they were engaged in the difficult and wearisome sea, and of the snow upon the land, seemed to promise a labour of exploring every inlet and opening that might by speedy release. It was not, however, till the 1st of August, possibility afford a passage to the west; a task which was that the ships were enabled to leave Winter Harbour, and executed with indefatigable and zealous perseverance, and proceed to the westward; but their progress was soon a minute precision, never surpassed. The difficulties were stopped by the dangerous and impassable state of the ice. indeed appalling ; nevertheless, the unremitting exertions After struggling until the 16th, when they had reached of our skilful seamon succeeded in examining an extent of the longitude of 11.3° 46' 43", in latitude 74° 27' 50', the coast exceeding 200 leagues, and in surveying the large attempt to proceed further was abandoned as impracticable, inlets which appear on our charts, under the names of and the ships were secured until the opportunity should Lyon's Inlet, Hoppner's Inlet, Gore Bay, Ross Bay, be favourable for returning. While thus engaged, a herd together with a number of smaller coves and creeks. of musk-oxen were seen at a little distance, and a party Scarcely, however, had they completed their toilsome occudespatched in pursuit; they succeeded in killing a fine bull, pation, when unequivocal symptoms of the setting in of whose unwieldiness had separated him from the rest, and winter were apparent, and warned them that it was time in the evening another was obtained. The supply of fresh to look for some spot where they might securely brave the meat which they afforded was welcome; the first giving inclemency of the approaching season. 369 and the other 352 pounds of beef, which was served A small island was fixed upon, and named Winter Island; out to the crews in lieu of salt meat, and much relished, and here they established themselves in a manner similar notwithstanding the strong taste of musk which pervaded it. to that adopted on the preceding occasion, but with all the

On the 26th the ships were again in motion, and all sail improvements which their previous experience had sugwas made to the eastward. They quitted Lancaster Sound | gested. The same precautions for the safety of the ships on the 31st, and immediately commenced a survey of the and stores were taken ; and the same sources of occupation western coast of Baffin's Bay, which they continued until and amusement, that had formerly proved so beneficial, stopped by the ice in the latitude of 68o. From hence they were again resorted to. In addition to the theatrical enterwere obliged to run to the eastward, and, after repeated tainments, they had occasional performances of music; fruitless attempts to approach the land, being convinced of and the establishment of a school in each ship, served at the impossibility of any further examination, determined once to divert and to improve the men's minds. The to make the best of their way for England, which they advantages of this last institution were great and manifest; reached early in November, to the great joy of all their it is suflicient to mark as one of the results, that on the countrymen, and to the infinite satisfaction of those at whose return of the ships to England, “Every man on board could immediate suggestion the enterprise had been planned. read his Bible." But, perhaps, of all the circumstances

which more immediately contributed to their interest and CAPTAIN PARRY'S SECOND VOYAGE.

amusement, the most effectual was the unexpected appear

ance, on the 1st of February, of a number of strange people The results of this voyage of Captain Parry, though not coming towards the ships over the ice. They were disfavourable to the practicability of a North-West Passage in

covered to be a party of Esquimaux; and a friendly interthat particular direction in which he had sought it, were, course was immediately formed with them. Captains certainly, highly encouraging as to its existence, and very Parry and Lyon accompanied them to their huts on shore, important in a geographical point of view. The peculiar and were agreeably diverted by the uncommon spectacle of position and arrangement of the numerous islands, through a snow village.-See engraving, page 209. which he succeeded in working his way to the westward, “ When it is remembered," says Captain Parry, appeared to cause an accumulation of ice, so firmly jammed these habitations were fully within sight of the ships, and between their opposite shores, as to present an effectual | how many eyes were continually on the look-out among barrier to his proceeding further in that same latitude. us for any thing that could afford variety or interest in These obstacles, it was thought, would be diminished, if our present situation, our surprise may, in some degree, an opening could be found, seven or eight degrees lower be imagined, at finding an establishment of huts, with than that of Sir James Lancaster's Sound, and in the

canoes, sledges, dogs, and above sixty men, women, and same parallel as that in which the northern coast of children, as regularly, and to all appearance as permanently America was supposed to lie. It was necessary, therefore, fixed, as if they had occupied the same spot for the whole that the eastern coast of that continent should be minutely winter.” In the construction of these extraordinary houses, examined to the northward, from the highest point to

not a single material was used but snow and ice. They which it had been clearly ascertained to reach, in order that were formed of oblong blocks of the former substance, six its north-east extremity might be accurately determined. or seven inches thick, and about two feet long, disposed in For this purpose Captain Parry was ordered to proceed on successive layers in a circular form, each layer resting on a second expedition with his old ship, the Hecla, attended by its edge, and inclining inward until the sides of the buildlthe Fury, a ship similarly prepared, for her consort. Their ing approached so near as to leave only a small aperture internal fittings were soinewhat altered, so as to render at the top, into which the key stone [block] was fitted with them more cominodious ; the seamen's berths were removed

much nicety. The interior was no less remarkable ; after from the sides, which are the coldest parts, and slung in

creeping through two continuous passages, each about ten the central part of the deck; charrel cork was placed

feet long and from four to five feet in height, and each between the sides and the internal lining of plank, as an possessing an arched doorway, our voyagers came to a additional security against the cold; and a simple and very small circular apartment, which opened by three doorways effectual apparatus for distributing heated air, was also into as many inhabited apartments, one on each side of, fitted in each ship.

and the other opposite to, the entrance. “The interior of The two vesseis left the Nore on the 8th of May, 1821, these huts presented a scene no less novel than interesting. and, crossing the Atlantic, proceeded through Hudson's The women were seated on the beds at the sides of the Strait with as much speed as the difficulties of the

huts, each having her little fire-place or lamp, with all her navigation would permit. It was not till the end of domestic utensils about her; the children crept behind their August that they reached the eastern extremity of the mothers, and the dogs, except the female ones, which channel, formed between Southampton Island and the were indulged with a part of the beds, slunk out past us in coast to the north, and which Captain Parry believed to dismay.” be the same that Middleton, in 1742, termed the Frozen

The stature of the Esquimaux is described as somewhat Strait. The ice was here abundant, but consisted of lower than that of Europeans in general. One man, unbroken detached masses. After the most anxious con- usually tall, measured five feet ten inches. Their faces sideration, he came to the resolution of attempting to are round and full, their eyes small, black and narrow, force a passage through it, by which he would be saved their nose is also small, and sunk in between the cheek the necessity of proceeding round Southampton Island, a bones, but not much flattened. Their hands and feet are distance of from 170 to 200 leagues. With much inter- remarkably little, and their legs straight, with large knees;

" that

their skin is smooth, and of a light brown complexion ; | quarters were therefore established or. the eastern snore, their clothing is warm and comfortable, and consists both of at Port Bowen, in which the ships remained until the end deer-skin and seal-skin. It comprises, usually, a jacket of July in the following year. In attempting then to proand trousers; and in the winter they wear a double suit. ceed along the western shore of the inlet, the Fury was Their legs and feet are so well clothed, that no degree of much damaged by the ice; and a gale of wind, which aftercold can well affect them. Their general appearance is wards followed, drove her on shore, by which she was so well delineated in the engraving below.

much injured that it was deemed necessary to abandon her. It was not till the 2nd of July, that the ships finally This event put an end to all further progress, and the effected their escape, and commenced their course to the Hecla returned home. northward up Fox's Channel, with the view of rounding In order to co-operate with this expedition, Captain Lyon the peninsula, (named Melville), which the statements of was despatched from England with the Griper in 1824, to the Esquimaux led them to believe, formed the north- winter in Repulse Bay, and thence to proceed to the northem eastern point of America. Through an intricate and shores of America, round its north-eastern point. The whole dangerous navigation, they reached a channel turning to of this voyage was a continued struggle against bad weather, the westward, to which was given the name of the Strait of and before he could reach Repulse Bay, Captain Lyon's the Fury and Hecla. Scarcely had they formed the hope ship was so disabled that he was compelled to return. of being now in the direct route to the Polar Sea, when Notwithstanding the failure of these attempts, the they were stopped by an unbroken sheet of ice, which bore ardour of Captain Parry was in no wise damped. He evident marks of having been long fixed there. All their ofered himself to the Admiralty, to engage in the project attempts to force a passage were unsuccessful, and at of proceeding from Spitzbergen to the North Pole, across length they returned to the mouth of the strait, and were the barrier of ice which had impeded Captain Buchan's again compelled to winter at an island, called Igloolik. Here advance in 1818. The offer, backed by the recommenthey were visited by another and a more numerous party of dation of the Royal Society was accepted, and the Hecla was Esquimaux. The houses of these were constructed of snow, again fitted out. Two boats were constructed, as light as similarly to those in Winter Island ; some, however, were they could be made, consistent with strength; they were lined with skins; the entrance-passages to others were covered with waterproof canvass and lined with felt. Runformed of large flat slabs of ice, cemented by snow and ners were fixed on each side of the keel; in order to meet water; and there were some entirely constructed of tlris the uncertainty of the space to be passed, being water or material, of a circular or octangular form.

ice. On the 4th of April, 1827, Captain Parry departed, The ships were extricated, by means of sawing, from and on the 21st of June had entered on the arduous part of their winter quarters by the middle of August, and returned his undertaking. It is scarcely necessary to say that it was to Shetland on the 10th of October, 1823.

unsuccessful. The ice, which had been represented as conCAPTAIN PARRY'S THIRD VOYAGE, AND

sisting of one uniform level sheet, was found to present every JOURNEY ON THE ICE.

diversity of surface, and soon after the party had reached

the latitude of 82° 36', they had the mortification to be The result of this laborious undertaking, sufficiently proved carried backwards by the drifting of the snow-fields, on the futility of attempting a North-West Passage, by the way which they were travelling. The expedition therefore of Hudson's Bay. The most likely route of succeeding returned to England. appeared to Captain Parry to be, now, through Prince Regent's Inlet, which, running to the south-west, is ob- We have already exceeded our limits, but the subject is liquely opened by the current round the north of America. far from exhausted. We shall, therefore, return to it in Accordingly, a third expedition was fitted out, consisting our next Supplement, where we purpose giving an account of the same ships, and nearly the same officers and men. of the land journeys of Captain Franklin with Dr. RichardThis was intrusted to Captain Parry, who departed on the son, and of the co-operative voyage of Captain Beechey; 19th of May, 1824. This certainly was the least successful concluding with some particulars of the late remarkable of this navigator's efforts. Owing to the state of the ice, he residence of Captain Ross, for four years, in the Arctic had not reached Prince Regent's Inlet before the season Regions, and the progress of Captain Back, who has been was too far advanced for commencing operations. Winter | despatched in search of him.

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LONDJ; JOIN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND.-Published in WEEKLY NUMBERS, price One Penny, and in MonhiY PARTS,

price SIXPENCE, and sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.


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believe, undescribed species of herring. The value of The Pilchard, (Clupea pilchardus,) is a species of the this fishery was well known as long back as the reign herring-tribe, and differs from the common herring, of Elizabeth, when an Act of Parliament containing chiefly, in being rather shorter in the head, and the following clause, was passed : thicker in the body, and in having its dorsal or back- Statute of 35th Elizabeth.—“ No stranger should fin, somewhat forwarder; but it may be more readily transport beyond seas, any Pilcherd or other fish distinguished by its scales, which are nearly half as in cask, vnlesse hee did bring into the realme for large again as those of a herring of the same size. every sixe tunnes, two hundred of clap boord fit to

make cask, and so rateably, vpon payne of forfeiting the sayd Pilcherd or fish."

The reason the stranger was obliged to bring in a certain quantity of wood, appears to have arisen from the circumstance of Cornwall being nearly without timber of any kind.

There are several signs by which the presence of It is found, during the months of August and Sep- a shoal of Pilchards may be known; the luminous tember, in great shoals, or schools, as they are called appearance of the sea at night, the number of birds by the fishermen, on the south-west coast of Eng- of prey which accompany it, and, when seen from a land, and affords employment, for a time, to a great moderate distance, the appearance of the water, number of boats and men, belonging to the fishing which seems for miles around, to be, as it were, boiltowns of Cornwall. This fish is alsс met with off the ing or bubbling. French coast, and other parts of Europe; but its When the annual visit of the Pilchards is exchief place of resort appears to be the coasts of Corn- pected, to prevent their passing unnoticed, men are wall and Devon. The Pilchard is rarely met with continually on the alert, watching from all the in the London markets, but there is a fish, found elevated spots on the coast, from which stations sparingly among the sprats, which has obtained its they are also able by signs to direct the operations of name, which in reality, is merely a small, and we their friends at sea, so that they may be enabled to Vol. III,


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