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peculiar elegance, and of great national importance,
THE MIGRATORY LOCUST. as it forms part of the communication between Liver
(Gryllus migratorius.) pool and Dublin. It was commenced in 1822, with a view to supersede the dangerous ferry which formerly The following intelligence has lately been published : existed here; the designs for it were by Mr. Telford,
“ Locusts have appeared in such swarms in some departand it was opened to the public on the 1st of June, 1826. ments of the west of France, and have become so deThe towers, on which the chains rest, are built in the Sarthe have assigned a sum of 6000 francs for their de
structive to vegetation, that the Council General of the same style of architecture as the castle, so as to har- struction, at the rate of ten sous a bushel.” monize with it; and a slight effort of the imagination
If such a dreadful scourge has made its appearance, would lead us to suppose that the present structure the knowledge of the destruction which these insects was the original drawbridge of the ancient fortress. bring upon the countries they infest, will make us, The chains of the bridge are fastened at the west ex
it is hoped, thankful to that kind Providence, which, tremity into the rock beneath the castle, and at the castern end into an island rock, which is connected favoured country, has settled us in a region free from
among the other advantages bestowed upon this with the shore by an embankment, upwards of 2000
their inroads *. feet in length. The length of the bridge, between the supporting towers, is 327 feet, and the height of the gion upon the Dnieper, and particularly that inhabited
In respect to Europe, Thevenot tells us that the reroadway, above high water of spring-tides, about 15 by the Cossacks, is greatly infested with Locusts, feet. An additional postage of one penny is charged for every letter conveyed over Conway Bridge, and especially in a dry season. They come in vast clouds,
which extend fifteen, and sometimes eighteen miles, this money is applied to the repayment of the sums
and are nine to twelve in breadth. The air is renadvanced for the building. From the time of the erection of the Bridge, to October 1831, the sum
dered quite obscure ; in two hours they devour all the thus raised and paid into the Exchequer, amounted
corn wherever they settle, and oftentimes a famine to 13,7321,' so that in little more than five years, four inches deep and more.
ensues ; at night, the ground is covered with them upwards of three millions of letters must have been
The Sieur Beauplan, in speaking of the Ukraine, conveyed along this road. The river Conway has been celebrated from the gives the following account of them. (CHURCBILL'S
Collection of Voyages, vol. i.) earliest period, for its pearl-fishery. Pliny asserts,
“Next to the flies, let us talk of the grasshopthat Julius Cæsar dedicated to Venus Genitrix, in her temple at Rome, a breast-plate, set with British pers (or locusts). I have seen this plague several pearls ; and Suetonius says, that the chief motive These creatures do not only come in legions, but in
years, one after another, particularly in 1645 and 1646. assigned by the Romans for the invasion of Britain, whole clouds, five or six leagues in length, and two or was to obtain possession of the pearl-fishery. This three in breadth. It is not easy to express their numbranch of commerce is not, however, held in much estimation at the present day, though the species of bers, for all the air is full and darkened; and when they muscle, called by Linnæus the Niya Nargaritifera
, alight to feed, the plains are all covered. They make which produced the pearls, is still found in the river. hours they devour all close to the ground; then,
a murmuring noise as they eat, and in less than two A pearl presented to the queen of Charles II. by Sir rising, they suffer themselves to be carried away by R. Wynne, was placed in the regal crown. The town of Conway was formerly surrounded by nished to see the air so full of them, that I could
the wind. Having stayed at Novogorod, I was astohigh massive walls, one mile and a half in circumference, strengthened at intervals by twenty-four cir- houses being filled, even the stables, barns, chambers,
not eat in my chamber without a candle ; all the cular and semicircular towers, great part of which, garrets, cellars, &c. After they had consumed at with the four principal gateways, yet remain in a
that grew in the country, and having gained strength tolerable state of preservation. A Cistercian Abbey was founded at this place by Llewellyn ap Jorwerth to do as much mischief in another place. I have seen
to fly, the wind took them up and carried them away, in 1185, but scarcely any vestiges of it exist.
them at night, when they sit to rest themselves, that the roads have been four inches thick of them, one
upon another. By the wheels of our carts and the On! where is the voice of the summer heard ?
feet of our horses bruising these creatures, there came In the flow of the stream, in the song of the bird ; from them a stink, which not only offended the nose In the hum of the honey-laden bee;
but the brain. I was not able to endure the stench, In the sound of the reaper's songs of glee;
but was forced to wash my nose with vinegar, and In the sweet sad note of the nightingale's song: to hold an handkerchief dipped in it to my nostrils Such music doth only to summer belong.
perpetually. About October, they make a hole in the Oh! where is the smile of the summer seen?
ground with their tails, and, having laid their eggs, In the golden cups that spring o'er the green; and covered them with their feet, they die, for they In the light that maketh the bright blue sky Shine like a golden canopy!
never live above six months and a half; and, though But summer its sweetest smile bestows,
the rains should come they would not destroy the eggs, On the crimson leaves of the blushing rose !
nor does the frost, though never so sharp, hurt Surely, if heaven has given to earth,
them; but they continue to the spring, which is One thought, in which we may guess its mirth,
about mid April, when, the sun warming the earth, 'Tis the radiant smile of the summer glow,
they are hatched and leap about, being six weeks old As it wakes into life all things below;
before they can fly. But we are as captive birds that sigh
The most fearful accounts are from Africa, where To wing our tlight to a brighter sky.--C. L. B. the heat of the climate, and the nature of the soil in The borly is the shell of the soul, and dress the husk of countries of Europe, were visited by these insects; but here they
In the year 1747-8, England, with France and many other that shell; but the husk often tells what the kernel is. did little mischief, as the natural coldness of the climate soon put a
period to their existence. But in the year 1693, two vast flights of
locusts were observed in the counties of Merioncth and Pembroke, Cato Major would say, that wise men learned more by in Wales, where they made considerable depredations among tho fools, than fools by wise men. -Bacon.
young wheat.- Encycl. Ldin,
many places, contribute to the production of these timber; by a sudden blast of wind they were wasted. insects in astonishing numbers. The consequences away in different portions, and having for a while are so terrible that they would not gain belief, were been supported in the air, they were ultimately all it not that authors of different countries, and of plunged into the sea. After this, the surf threw up different ages, afford so particular and uniform evi- upon that long extended coast, in such immense dence, that it cannot be called in question.
heaps, their dead and corrupted bodies, that there Francis Alvarez, ambassador from Portugal to ensued from their putrefaction a most unsupportable Abyssinia, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and poisonous stench. This soon brought on a thus speaks of these calamities :-"In this country pestilence, which affected every species of animals, there is a very great and horrible plague. This arises so that all birds, and sheep, and cattle, also the wild from an innumerable company of locusts, which eat beasts of the field, died, and their carcasses being and consume all the corn and trees. And the num- soon rendered putrid by the foulness of the air, ber of these creatures is so great, as to be incredible : added greatly to the general corruption. In respect they cover the earth and fill the air in such wise, that to men, it is impossible, without horror, to describe it is a hard matter to see the sun ; and if the damage the shocking devastation. In Numidia, eighty which they do were general through all the provinces, thousand persons perished. Upon that part of the the people would perish with famine. But one year, sea-coast which bordered upon the region of Carthey destroy one province, some nes two or three ; | thage and Utica, the number of those, who were and wherever they go, the country remaineth more carried off by this pestilence, is said to have been ruined and destroyed, than if it had been set on fire. two hundred thousand. While I was in a certain district, there arose a great These accounts show how dreadful must have been storm and thunder towards the sea, which came the plague of locusts in the land of Egypt, and how right against them. It lasted three hours, with an miraculous their sudden removal, without leaving exceeding great shower and tempest, and filled all any young ones behind them. No expression can the rivers. And when the water ceased, it was a more truly or more terribly describe the ruin these dreadful thing to see the dead locusts, which we insects create, than that of the prophet: the land is as measured to be above two fathom high, upon the the Garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desobanks of the rivers.
late wilderness. And highly poetical as is the descrip“At another time, I went with the ambassador Zagation of them in the Book of Joel, yet it is proved by the Zabo, to a town and mountain called Agoan ; and we above accounts to be literally true in every particular. travelled five days' journey, through places wholly But so much of good does the mercy of Providence waste and destroyed. The trees were without leaves, interpose among the evils of life, that these insects and the barks of them were all devoured ; and no are looked for, in some parts of Arabia and Libya, as grass was to be seen. And if we had not been warned a blessing, and a deliverance from famine; for they to carry victuals with us, we and our cattle had eat them, either boiled, or dried in the sun and perished. The country was all covered with locusts, pounded. Many ancient authors inform us that they without wings; and they told us, that they were the were used for food, and so Burckhardt says they are seed of those which had eaten up all ; and that as at present, in some parts of Syria bordering on the soon as their wings were grown, they would seek desert ; and it is an agreed point with him, as well after the old ones. The number of them was so as others, that they were the food of St. John the great that I will not speak of it, because I shall not Baptist, in the wilderness.-BRYANT, on the Plagues be believed.
of Egypt. “ While we abode in the same signorie of Albuguun, in a place called Aquate, there came at another THE TENDENCY OF PLANTS TO FOLLOW Light. In the time such an infinite swarm of locusts, as it is in spring, a potato was left behind in a cellar, where some
roots had been kept during the winter, and which had only credible to declare. They began to come about three
a small aperture of light at the upper part of one of its o'clock in the afternoon, and ceased not till mid- sides. The potato, which lay in the opposite corner of night. The next day, in the morning, they began this aperture, shot out a runner, which first ran twenty to depart, so that by nine there was not one of them feet along the ground, then crept up along the wall, and left; and the trees remained without their leaves. so through the opening by which light was admitted.The same day came another squadron;
and these left neither tree nor bough unpilled : they con
THEY who look with a severe and indignant eye upon all tinued the space of five days. The compass that the recreations by which the cares of men are relieved, and these locusts took was nine miles. The country did the union of society is cemented, are, in two respects, injunot seem to be burnt up, but rather to be covered rious to religion. First, they exhibit it to others under a with snow, by reason of the whiteness of the trees, forbidding form, by clothing it with the garb of so much which were all pilled.”
unnecessary austerity: and next, they deprive the world of But the most grievous calamity of this kind hap- the line between innocent and dangerous pleasures. By a
the benefit which their example might afford, in drawing pened the regions of Africa, in the time of the temperate participation of those which are innocent, they Romans; and particularly affected those parts which might successfully exact that authority which a virtuous were subject to their empire. About the year of Rome and respectable character always possesses, in restraining 628, and 123 years before the Christian æra, when undue excess. They would show the young and unwary, Africa had scarcely recovered itself from the miseries
at what point they ought to stop. They would have it in of the last Punic war, it underwent another desolation, their power to regulate, in some degree, the public manterrible in its effects, and contrary to all experience. put vice to the blush. But, through injudicious severity,
ners ; to check extravagance, to humble presumption, and For after that immense numbers of locusts had they fall short of the good they might perform. By an formed themselves in a huge body all over the region, indiscriminate censure of all amusement, they detract from and had ruined all hopes of any fruits of the earth : the weight of their reproof, when amusement becomes after they had consumed all the herbage of the field, undoubtedly sinful. By totally withdrawing themselves without sparing the roots, and the leaves of the trees
from the circle of cheerful life, they deliver up the enterwith the tendrils upon which they grew, and had corrupted ; and permit the blind power of fashion, uncon
tainments of society, into the hands of the loose and the gone so far as to penetrate with their teeth through trolled, to establish its own standards, and to exercise its the bark, however bitter, and into the dry and solid dangerous sway over the world.---BLAIR.
ON HATS. No. I. The word Hat seems to be derived from the Saxon Daet, German, Hatt, i. e. a cover for the head. The modern term is used in distinction from a bonnet or cap; but, anciently, even a helmet was so denominated, as in the romance of Kyng Alesaunder,
Of sum weore the brayn outspat
Al under theo iren hat. The hats of the Saxons (the most ancient of which we can find any mention made), were supposed to have been by no means universally worn; felt or woollen hats, however, they are known to have possessed. In the Canterbury Tales of Chaucer, the merchant wears
on his head a Flaundrish beaver steeple, standing a quarter of a yard above the hat;" and, in the Chronicle of Froissart, we hear
crowne of their heads; some more, some lesse, as frequently of the hats of the time of Edward III. please the fantasies of their inconstant mindes. Other. and Richard II., some of which were in this shape; ments of a house. Another sort have rounde crownes,
some be flat, and broade on the crowne, like the battlesometimes with one kind of band, sometimes with another,—now black, now white, now russed, now redde, now grene, now yellow; now this, now that; never content with one colour or fashion two daies to an end.
And as the fashions be rare and strange, so is the stuffe whereof their hattes be made divers also; for some are of silk, some of velvet, some of taffatie,
some of sarcenet, some of wool, and, which is more White Hats were, even in those days, worn at Ghent, curious, some of a certaine kinde of fine haire ; in Flanders, and seem to have been used as the these they call bever hattes of xx., xxx., or xl. shil. political badge of a party, though this is not quite lings price, fetched from beyonde the seas, from whence certain. “Hats of biever and eustryde's (ostrich) a greate sorte of other vanities doe come besides; fethers,” are also mentioned. In the Journal of and so common a thing it is, that every servyng Beckington, secretary to Henry VI., 14-12, is men- man, countreiman, and other, even all indifferently tioned a “scarlet hat given as a new year's gift.” doe weare of these hattes; for he is of no account Among the inventory of effects of Sir John Fastolfe, or estimation amongst men, if he have not a velvet 1459, “ j hatte of bever, lynyd withe damaske gilt, or taffatie hat, and that must be pinched and cunand also ij strawen hattes." In the Ship of Fools, ningly carved of the best fashion.” Shortly afterprinted in 1517, is an account of “ the great hats wards the rim became remarkably broad, and when that is set all upon one side." We have thus shown much worn was liable to hang down, from thence the the antiquity of white hats, beaver hats, and hats name of slouched hats. In 1607, a horseman's hat worn on one side.
is recommended to be a hat which will sit close In the reign of Henry VIII. we find hats fre- and firme upon your head, with an indifferent nar. quently mentioned, and in the privy-purse expenses row verge or brim, so that in the saults or bounds of of that monarch is this entry :-“ Item, paid for a your horse it may neither through widenesse or unhatte and plume for the King in Boleyn, (Boulogne,) wieldinesse fall from your head, nor with the breadth xys." As the value of money was much greater then of the brim fall into your eies, and impeach your than it is at present, we may conclude that hats were sight, both which are verie grosse errors." still articles of luxury, and only worn by the rich. play, called A Challenge for Beauty, written by The following are taken from a painting at Cowdray Heywood in 1636, there is a song describing the House, done in 1544; and it is somewhat singular fashions of different
in words which will to observe, how closely one shape resembles that so equally apply to the present period :familiar to us in prints and pictures about fifty
The Turk in linen wraps his head,
The Persian bis in lawn too; years old.
The Russe with sables furs his cap,
And change will not be drawn to;
The French inconstant ever ;
Give me your English beaver.
be seen from these shapes. In the expenses of a nobleman at college, 1577, we find «
a broad riding-hat ;" "a hat lined with velvet.” About this time high-crowned hats came into fashion ; one of these is here represented,—it is that of Douglas, Earl of Morton; the second is that of Sir Philip Sidney, the most accomplished gentleman of his day. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, hats appear to have become common, and beaver hats seem to have been first introduced into common wear. The following curious passage is from a rare book, published about 1585, called Stubb's Anatomie of Abuses.—“ Sometimes they use them sharpe on the crowne, pearking up like the spire or shaft of al
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL
No. I. THE TIDES. EVERY body knows how useful the Tides are. Upon the sea-coast we constantly see a number of ships, all waiting at anchor for some hours, while the crews are able to take their rest. We keep looking at them, and, at a certain time, without any change of
wind having taken place, we see them all busy set1660.
ting their sails and weighing anchor, and, in a few The inconvenience of these very broad brims being hours more, they are all out of sight : they were, in at length perceived, first one, and then two flaps fact, waiting for the change of the tide. If the wind was were made to turn up, as follows, until about the unfavourable, they could never make head against it,
as long as the tide was against them too; but with the tide in their favour they can pursue their voyage, even against an unfavourable wind.
In rivers, the use of the tides is seen still more plainly. The tide brings not only a current, but a whole supply of water every twelve hours; and the continual change, which can be quite calculated upon, is just as useful as having a wind constantly fair up and down a river, alternately, for a certain number of
hours every day. time of Queen Anne, the third flap was turned up, Besides the immense importance of the tides to and the regular cocked hat formed. Cocked hats, of navigation, no one can calculate how conducive they
are to health and cleanliness. Such a river as the Thames is thoroughly washed out, twice a day, by a current, carrying with it, towards the sea, all the drainage of a population of a million and a half of people, and as often bringing up clear water and fresh air. It is a system of lungs, breathing regularly twice in about twenty-four hours.
Hundreds of people are deriving benefits from this various sorts, were for the ensuing fifty or sixty beautiful arrangement of Providence, without thinkyears, much in vogue. In the Tatler and Spectator ing at all about it; and many others are contented to they are frequently alluded to, and the “Monmouth
see such changes happen, without trying to compreCock," the “ Ramillies Cock," the “ Hunting Cock," hend how they are brought about. Now it is certain, and the “ Military Cock," are alluded to. In
that the more we study the works of Nature, the No. 532 is a letter from John Sly, Haberdasher of clearer proof we find of the wisdom of God who conHats, in which he says, “his hats for men of law trived them all; and the tides are a very remarkable and physic do but just turn up, to give a little life to instance of a vast variety of beneficial effects arising their sagacity; his military hats glare full in the face;
from one simple cause. and he has prepared a familiar easy cock for all good
We shall endeavour to show how the tides are procompanions, between the above extremes.” About duced ; and we hope none of our readers will be 1750, round hats became very prevalent among the prevented from trying to understand the explanation, lower orders, and cocked hats were considered as a
under the notion that it is too difficult to be compremark of distinction from them. In the Rambler,
hended without previous study: we promise them dated 1751, a young gentleman says, that his mother that the subject requires only ordinary attention, and exclaimed," she would rather follow me to the grave plain common sense, and that it will well repay the than see me tear my clothes and hang down my
trouble of attending to it. head, sneak about with dirty shoes, blotted fingers,
It is soon seen that the tides are in some way hair unpowdered, and hat uncocked." About 1780 occasioned by the moon; for the time of high and round hats first became fashionable, and about 1790 low water comes back to the same hour whenever cocked hats disappeared from common wear.
the moon is at the same age. [Abridged and arranged from a paper in the Archeologia.]
The height of the tide on different days plainly depends also upon the age of the moon. The highest tides
are always found about the time of new and full moon, Among the ancients, especially in the East, every one and the lowest when the moon is in her quarters. that came to a marriage-feast was expected to appear in a What is to be explained then is, why the waters handsome and elegant dress, which was called the wedding-should rise and fall twice in rather more than twentygarment. This was frequently a white robe; and when the four hours, and how this fluctuation is connected guest was a stranger, or was not able to provide such a robe, it was usual for the master of the feast to furnish with the position of the moon. For this purpose, we him with one: and if he who gave the entertainment was will first see what the effect of the moon would be, if marriage-robes for the whole assembly. To this custom shall afterwards easily discover what changes will be we have allusions in Homer, and other classic writers; and made, when we consider the actual condition of the there are some traces of it in the entertainments of the Turkish court at this very day*. It must be remarked, also, globe made up of land and water. that it was in a very high degree indecorous and offensive
TIDES OF AN OPEN OCEAN. to good manners, to intrude into the festivity without this garment. Bishop PORTEUS.
It is well known that the moon is a solid body,
which goes round the earth every month, in a direcAt the entertainment, given by the Grand Vizier to Lord Elgin tion from West to East, and, from the real motion and his suite, in the Palace of the Seraglio, pelisses were given to all the guests.
of the earth on its axis, appears to move round from
East to West every day. Supposing, then, m to be a point in the circumference A E B, in the plane of
place, and a low water at about six hours after that
Such is the sort of tides which would take place
see, on another occasion, what changes are introwhich a stone falls to the ground; and this force, is partly of land and partly of water. the greater, the nearer the attracted body is to that which attracts; thus A would be attracted by m more
ENGLISH PROSE WRITERS. than c is, and c would be more attracted by m than B is. If these three particles, A, C, and B, were quite
No. II. HOOKER. at liberty to move towards M at the end of any time,
As a short life of Hooker has already appeared in as a minute, A would have moved towards m through this Magazine, I shall proceed at once to give some a greater space than c had, and c through a greater extracts from his works. In setting about this task, space than b had; hence a would be further from c, I feel that a few unconnected passages can no more and c further from B, than each was at first. And give a just notion of this great writer's power, than if the motion of b be regarded only with reference to a few stones, however beautiful, could convey an the point c, considered as at rest, the effect would be adequate idea of the magnificence of a temple. the same as if it were really drawn away from c, by The first sentence of his preface may be a specimen the attraction of some other body (m) exactly oppo- of the fulness and gravity of his style, which is as site to M*.
opposite as can be imagined to the “ asthmatic publiIf, then, ACB were a sphere of water, a particle at cations of our own day.” A or at b would be lifted a little above its ordinary “ Though for no other cause, yet for this; that level, reckoned from c, and all the water near a and posterity may know we have not loosely through B would also be lifted, but in a less degree'; hence silence permitted things to pass away as in a dream, the form of the globe would be altered ; it would no
there shall be for men's information extant thus
although to know be life, and joy to make mention
upon earth: therefore it behoveth our words to be
selves with medicine, that God hath been fain to Now suppose this watery globe to turn round make wounds medicinable; to cure by vice when upon an axis, Ff, at right angles to the plane Bea, it virtue hath strucken; to suffer the just man to fall, is plain that, for any place in the circumference B E A, that, being raised, he may be taught what power it there would be two high waters in each revolution ; was that upheld him standing. I am not afraid to one when it comes to a, the other at B; and two allirm it boldly with St. Augustine, that men puffed lui waters, one at E, the other at a point exactly up with a proud opinion of their own sanctity and opposite to E.
holiness, receive a benefit at the hands of God, and For every point as a on the globe, between A and are assisted with his grace, when with his grace F, there would also be a high and low water twice in they are not assisted, but permitted, and that grievevery revolution, but not so high nor so low, as for ously, to transgress. Whereby as they were in over
* It may appear somewhat strange to those who have not thought great liking of themselves supplanted, so the dislike
tal tears wherewith my sin and weakness was be-
wailed, have procured my endless joy: my strength
“ These things, wheresoever they fall, cannot but be then stopped, as at acb, it is plain that the distance of a from c
trouble and molest the mind. Whether we be thereis now one foot two inches, and the distance of b from c is one foot one inch, instead of one foot. The effect, therefore, of the attrac- fore moved vainly with that which seemeth hurtful tion of m has been to scparate the two bodics, B and c, as well as and is not; or have just cause of grief, being pressed
A and c.