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ST. AUGUSTINE'S ABBEY, CANTERBURY. religious houses in the kingdom. Soon after the arriThis interesting relic of a former age is standing in val of Augustine, the monk, who was sent hither by the condition represented in the engraving, beyond the Pope Gregory, Ethelbert, king of Kent, joined him in walls of Canterbury, a short distance eastward of the founding this monastery, in the year 605. It was deCathedral precincts. It was a part of the Monastery dicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, but afterwards went of St. Augustine, formerly one of the richest and largest by the name of St. Augustine's, having been fixed upon
by that prelate as a burial-place for himself and his were also buried within the Abbey, as weïi as others successors, and for the kings of Kent. Accordingly, of royal blood. It appears by Dugdale, who gives a we find that Ethelbert was buried in the church, and, print of it as it was in his time (1655), that many of near him, Bertha, his queen. His son and successor, the early Archbishops of Canterbury had this as their Edbald, who built a chapel here, and his wife, Emma | burial-place, a privilege which the monks soon
claimed as their right. But Cuthbert, who became heads, and other embellishments at the intersections Archbishop in 739, procured a licence from the Pope of the arches in the lower parts of the building, are for himself and his successors, to be buried in Christ much darkened and disfigured, partly in consequence Church Monastery (the Cathedral); and, having of the smoke and steam of a brewery, the business obtained the king's confirmation of the grant, he of which is carried on immediately within the gate, gave orders, towards the close of his life, that no by a person of the appropriate name of Beer. No notice whatever of his decease should be given, till wanton injury is, however, done to any part of the after his interment, lest the Benedictine monks of St. structure; on the contrary, we are informed, that it Augustine should demand his body for their church, is, as far as possible, kept up, and that a few years to place it near the other archbishops, the showing of since, a sum was collected towards preventing its whose tombs had already become a source of great going entirely to decay. riches to the monastery. Cuthbert is said to have Should any of our readers, when at Canterbury, been the first in this country who allowed bodies to be be induced, by this description of the place, to enter buried near churches built within the walls of cities. the old gate of St. Augustine's Monastery, we would
St. Augustine's Monastery, after being deprived by recommend them to view the ruined chapel; to mark William the First, but afterwards restored by the the vast circuit of the Abbey-walls, which to this same king, gradually rose to such eminence, that its day show its extent; and (as a curious instance of privileges were equal
, if not superior, to any in Eng- ancient masonry,) to notice a remarkable piece of land; the Abbot being allowed a mint and coinage, flint-work in the north-east corner within the gate, in a vote in Parliament as a Baron, and various other which the flints are squared, and fitted smoothly advantages. The last of its Abbots was John Essex, together like so many bricks. The other gate at the who, at the period of the Reformation under Henry southern end of the west front, is called the Cemetery the Eighth, is said to have refused to surrender the gate, from its having led to the ancient burial-ground. Abbey, until the sight of two pieces of cannon, placed | It is very like that of St. Augustine's, but less veneon a hill near at hand, induced him to give up the rable in appearance, having been altered and adapted keys. The annual revenues, on its dissolution, are to the purposes of a modern dwelling-house. stated to have been upwards of £1400.
The principal buildings were subsequently stripped CHRISTMAS CUSTOM IN THE NORTH OF of their lead, and some of them pulled down, the
GERMANY. materials being converted to various uses, and other THERE is a Christmas custom at Ratzeburg, which parts of the structure left to decay. Queen Mary pleased and interested me. The children make little granted the lands to Cardinal Pole, after whose death presents to their parents and to each other; and the they reverted to the Crown ; they were then given to parents to the children. For three or four months Lord Cobham by Elizabeth, who kept court here for before Christmas, the girls are all busy, and the boys several days, during one of her progresses. The save up their pocket-money to make or purchase treason of Lord Cobham having occasioned their for- these presents. What the present is to be, is caufeiture, James the first transferred them to Robert tiously kept secret, and the girls have a world of Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, at a small annual contrivances to conceal it; such as working when rent. Since that time they have passed through the they are out on visits, and the others are not with hands of the families of Wotton and Hales. The them; getting up in the morning before day-light, &c. buildings were in the possession of Thomas Lord Then on the evening before Christmas-day, one of Wotton, at the marriage of King Charles the First the parlours is lighted up by the children, into which with the Princess Henrietta, which took place within the parents must not go. A great yew-bough is them, in the year 1625; and Charles the Second fastened on the table, at a little distance from the lodged here, on his passage through Canterbury, at wall, a multitude of little tapers are fastened in the his restoration.
bough, but so as not to catch it till they are nearly Of this extensive Abbey, the wall of which enclosed. burnt out; and coloured paper, &c., hangs and a space of about sixteen acres of ground, and the Autters from the twigs. Under this bough the chillength of whose west front alone was 250 feet, little dren lay in great order the presents they mean for now remains. At each extremity of the west front their parents, still concealing in their pockets what was a gate. These are still standing, and, as may they intend for each other. Then the parents are be judged from the specimen of one of them given introduced, and each presents his little gift, and then in this number, are, considering their age, in good bring out the rest one by one from their pockets, preservation. St. AUGUSTINE'S GATE, formerly the and present them with kisses and embraces. Where grand entrance, was erected about the year 1300. I witnessed this scene, there were eight or nine The centre is rich in ornamental work, consisting children, and the eldest daughter and the mother wept of small lancet-shaped arches, supported by light aloud for tenderness: and the tears ran down the columns. Two lofty and graceful towers rise above face of the father, and he clasped all his children so the roof. The old wooden doors, under finely- tight his breast, it seemed as if he did it to stifle arched recess, are carved in the ancient style; and the sob that was rising within him.
I was very the vaulting within the entrance is light and beautiful. ) much affected. The shadow of the bough and its Over this gate, is a good-sized room, which possesses appendages on the wall, and arching over on the marks of antiquity, and is reported to be that in ceiling, made a pretty picture; and then the raptures. which Queen Elizabeth was entertained.
of the very little ones, when at last the twigs and afterwards used by some of the ruder inhabitants of their needles began to take fire and snap.
Oh it was Canterbury for the cruel and disgraceful sport of a delight for them. On the next day, in the great cock-fighting ; but it is now unemployed. Pro- parlour, the parents lay out on the table, the presents ceeding from the door of this room, some narrow for the children; a scene of more soher joy succeeds, and time-eaten stone steps lead up to the top of the as on this day, after an old custom, the mother says northern turret, within which are to be seen numerous privately to each of her daughters, and the father to grotesque carvings of the human face, distorted by his sons, that which he has observed most praisethe fertile ingenuity of the old sculptors. The worthy, and that which was most faulty in their opposite turret has a similar flight of stairs. The conduct.--COLERidge's Friend,
of the poor.
SELF-SUPPORTING DISPENSARIES. We must, however, point out, that the poor man
is by no means the sole party benefited by it. To We are always glad when we can make our Magazine the medical practitioner it must be no small gain to a vehicle for communicating information, respecting receive a reasonable remuneration for his time and any plans really calculated to improve the condition trouble, without resorting to that system, which There is no want of a benevolent dis
must be so painful to a man of liberal education and position in the present day. Thousands, we believe feelings, the farming the sick poor, for the wretched we may say* millions, of pounds, are annually ex- pittance which parochial economists will give; often pended in this country, with a view to relieve poverty to the individual who will undertake the job at the and distress. It is, however, to be feared that many lowest bidding. of the plans pursued, have no other tendency than It may be added, as a further and indirect adto increase, and to perpetuate, the evils which they vantage of this system, that it tends to give a profess to remove. But, of late, sounder views on general encouragement to that spirit of independence this subject have begun to prevail; and it is acknow- | in the poorer classes, which our poor-laws, aided by ledged that almost the only way, by which we can the thoughtless and indiscriminate manner in which really benefit the poor, is to teach them prudence and private charity is too often dispensed, tend so fearforethought, and to lead them to depend, for their fully to weaken. And we must also observe, that it maintenance and comfort, upon their own industry, is in perfect accordance with the spirit of reciprocal forbearance, and frugality.
aid and co-operation, with the apostolical precept of Among the benevolent institutions which are based bearing one another's burdens,—which distinguishes all upon this principle, there is scarcely one more valu- associations of mutual assurance, all Friendly Societies able than a Dispensary, which was established origi-formed upon sound views and calculations, in contrast nally at Southam, in Warwickshire, under the title to the less social principle of Savings Banks. of a Self-supporting Dispensary. The outline of the The Self-supporting Dispensaries, unquestionably, plan, which is all that we can pretend to give at pre- are principally suited to towns. There are, however, sent, is this ;—the institution is intended for persons but few of our larger villages without a sufficiently principally supporting themselves by labour; and skilful surgeon and apothecary; and a few adjoining these persons, by making, when in health, a small parishes, although small, may combine together, and weekly contribution, become entitled to medical afford enough contributors for the establishment and advice and assistance in illness; while the sums con- support of one of these institutions. tributed, being thrown into a common fund, afford a In their perfection, these Dispensaries should be remuneration to the medical attendant, under the entirely dependent on the contributions of the benefit direction of a committee. Of this plan we shall best, (or free) members, without any further aid from perhaps, perceive the advantages, by considering the their richer neighbours, than their countenance and following contingencies to which a poor man, unfor their superior information in managing the funds. tunately, is but too liable. We will suppose him to In some cases, however, Honorary members are be sober, industrious, and prudent ; we will even admitted; and their subscriptions go toward the take the favourable supposition that, after his mar- expenses of the outfit, toward paying the rent of the riage, he is both able and willing to maintain himself house, and procuring for the patients the advantages and his family in independence; but who can secure of wine, and of some medicines, and other comforts him from illness in the person of himself, his wife, more costly than the regular income of the Dispensary or his children? and if this calamity befall him, what, can afford to supply. in the great majority of cases, is the consequence ? It is not, however, our intention to enter into the Without imagining any unfair charges to be made, details of this plan at present. As we before said, his doctor's bill is likely to absorb all his small a Dispensary on this principie was first established savings, if not to involve him for a considerable time at Southam, under the direction of Mr. H.L. Smith, in debt. With this dismal prospect, it is well known a liberal and enlightened, and truly humane, surthat many a poor man sickens and pines, perhaps geon of that place. The same gentleman has since dies, of maladies which might have been easily been instrumental in planting them at Derby, Burtonremoved by medical skill, in an early stage of the upon-Trent, Coventry, Willesbourn, Atherston, Rugby, complaint. His other alternatives are, to apply to and other places. Where they have been allowed the presumptuous ignorance of the Quack-Doctor ; fair play, and have experienced that firm and cordial or, what is yet more probable, to avail himself of support, which is always requisite for the first estathe ready resource of the Parish, and thus to take blishment of any plan likely to affect existing intethe first step in that downward and slippery path of rests, they have invariably been attended with excelpauperism, from which few are able afterwards to lent success. And we doubt whether it would be recover themselves. The principal and most import- possible, in the present day, to point out another ant feature of the Self-supporting Dispensaries is, plan, better calculated to promote the real and that they afford a protection against every one of substantial interests of the labouring classes. these evils. The contributor, or assurer (for these
G, C. Dispensaries are nothing but societies of mutual assurance against sickness), is able to obtain sound Let us never exercise cruelty upon the smallest creature medical aid ; to obtain it from the moment when he that is within our power, but ever remember, that every begins to fail , and that without forfeiting his inde- thing which breathes is the object of Divine benevolence;
that they who would receive mercy from God, are expected pendence, without impairing his resources, and with
to practise it towards all that have life; and that the truly out enduring those melancholy forebodings of want, merciful man will be merciful to his beast.—Mrs. TRIMMER. which press so heavily on the mind of the sick labourer or artisan, avů aggravate the pains and the I would advise all in general, that they would take into dangers of his complaint; and this advantage appears serious consideration the true and genuine ends of knowto be so great, that hardly another word need be ledge; that they seek it not either for pleasure, or contention, said to recommend the system.
or contempt of others, or for profit, or fame, or for honour
and promotion, or such like adulterate or inferior ends: but See, in the Pietas Londinensis, what sums are given away in the I for merit and emolument of life, that they may regulate Metropolis alone.
and perfect the same in charity.-Bacon.
ENGLISH PROSE WRITERS.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH was the fourth son of Walter Raleigh, Esq., of Fardel, near Plymouth. He studied at Oriel College, Oxford, for a short time, but, when only seventeen, was one of a hundred gentlemen whom Queen Elizabeth allowed to assist the Protestants in France. He served afterwards in the Netherlands, under Sir John Norris, in 1578; the next year he joined an unsuccessful expedition to America; and distinguished himself, in 1580, in Ireland. In 1581 he was introduced to court, in the following manner:-" Coming out of Ireland to the English Court in good habit (his clothes being then a considerable part of his estate,) he found the Queen walking, till, meeting with a plashy place, she seemed to scruple going thereon; presently Raleigh cast and spread his new plush cloak on the ground, whereon the Queen trod, greatly rewarding him afterwards with many suits, "for his so free and seasonable tender of so fair a foot-cloth." He availed himself of his court-favour, to obtain letters patent for discovering unknown countries, and took possession of that part of America which is called Virginia, after the virgin Queen.
Upon his return, he was returned to Parliament for Devonshire, and soon afterwards knighted. He was also favoured by a licence, to sell wines throughout the kingdom (!) In the following years he sent out his own fleet twice to Virginia, and introduced tobacco into England. Queen Elizabeth had no objection to this herb, as it was likely to prove a valuable article of commerce; but King James, her successor, hated it, and even wrote a book against it.
From this time to 1597, his enterprising spirit was gratified by two expeditions to Guiana, the first of which was conducted by himself, and by his being employed at sea in active service against the Spaniards. On the fall of his rival, Essex, he disgraced himself by entreating Sir Robert Cecil to show him no mercy. Though Sir Robert took his advice, there was no sincere friendship between him and Raleigh: and on the accession of James, the latter was stript of his preferments, and accused and condemned of high-treason. The real cause of his disgrace can only be conjectured: a Raleigh's plot was spoken of and generally believed; but the barbarous partiality, overbearing manner, and foul language of the attorneygeneral, Coke, prevents us from accepting his condemnation as a proof of his guilt.
After being kept for a month at Winchester, in daily expectation of death, he was reprieved and confined for some years in the Tower, where he composed many works, particularly the first volume of an excellent History of the world. After twelve years' imprisonment, he received a commission from the king to explore the gold-mines of Guiana. It
Sir Walter advanced rapidly in the Queen's favour, and was enriched by her with places and lands. The Earl of Leicester, his former patron, became jealous, and set up in opposition to him Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. He continued in favour, and engaged in various public employments, both civil and military, till 1593, when he justly offended the Queen by an intrigue with the daughter of Sir Nicholas Throg-ance; morton. Both he and his partner in guilt were confined for several months, and, when set at liberty, forbidden the court. He married her, however, and lived with her afterwards in the strictest conjugal affection. The next year he was entirely restored to favour, and enriched by his royal mistress with the Manor of Sherborne, that had been alienated from the church.
was said, that he might have had a formal pardon for £700; but that Sir F. Bacon assured him, that a commission from the king, with power of martial law over his officers and men, was virtually a pardon for the past, and that he had better keep his money for the purpose of the expedition. The expedition was unsuccessful; the Spanish monarch enraged, by the burning of a town; and, in spite of the just reasoning of Bacon, James had the meanness to have Sir Walter executed in consequence of his former attainder. He was executed in Old Palace Yard, October 29th, 1618. He entreated the spectators, that if any disability of voice or dejection of countenance should appear in him, they would impute it to the disorder of his body (he was suffering from the ague), rather than to any dismayedness of mind. He confessed his grievous offences, and begged the prayers of all who heard him. Having fingered the axe, he said, smiling, to the sheriff, "This is a sharp medicine, but it is a sound cure for all diseases." The executioner knelt down and asked him forgiveness, which Raleigh, laying his hand upon his shoulder, granted. Then being asked, which way he would lay himself on the block, he answered, "So the heart be right, it is no matter which way the head lies." After a little pause, he lifted up his hand, and his head was struck off at two blows, his body never shrinking nor moving.
MERE transient enjoyment is not to be taken into the account of happiness for an intellectual and immortal being. That man alone can be called happy, who is at peace with his own heart and with his Maker.-SOUTHEY.
HE that hath light within his own clear breast,
WE are surrounded oy motives to piety and devotion, if we would but mind them. The poor are designed to excite our liberality; the miserable our pity; the sick our assistthe ignorant our instruction; those that are fallen our helping hand. In those who are vain, we see the frailty. When we see good men rewarded, it confirms our vanity of the world; in those who are wicked, our own hope; and when evil men are punished, it excites our fear.
UPON THE SIGHT OF TWO SNAILS.-There is much variety even in creatures of the same kind. See there, two snails; one hath an house, the other wants it: yet both are snails, and it is a question whether case is the better; that which hath an house hath more shelter, but that which wants it, hath more freedom; the privilege of that cover is but a burden; you see, if it has but a stone to climb over, with what stress it draws up that beneficial load: and, if the passage proves strait, finds no entrance; whereas, the empty snail makes no difference of way. Surely, it is always an ease, and sometimes an happiness, to have nothing; no man is so worthy of envy, as he that can be
FILIAL LOVE AND DUTY.-Pomponius Atticus, the friend and correspondent of Cicero, making the funeral oration at the death of his mother, did protest, that living with her threescore and seven years, he was never reconciled
unto her; because, (take the comment with the text,) there never happened betwixt them the least jar which needed reconciliation.FULLER.
I LOVE such mirth as does not make friends ashamed to look upon one another next morning; nor men, that cannot well bear it, to repent the money they spend when they be warmed with drink and take this for a rule, you may pick out such times and such companies, that you may make yourself merrier for a little than a great deal of money; for "Tis the company and not the charge that makes the feast."—IZAAK WALTON.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL is, we should never have conversed. All language, PHENOMENA..
all communication of thought by speech, could never No. V. THE ATMOSPHERE.
have existed. And without speech, what would have
been the condition of mankind? WHENEVER we look about us with attention, we
The air has also a very material influence upon find objects which must raise our admiration, at the
our sense of sight. It is by the action of the wisdom and goodness of God who made them all. But some of these require a great deal of study to atmosphere only, that the change from day to night
comes on so gradually, indeed so imperceptibly, that understand them; and others are so constantly before
the eyes easily accommodate themselves to it. Had our eyes, that we scarcely think about them. This is particularly the case with the air. Millions of would cause a sudden change, from utter darkness to
we little or no atmosphere, the rising of the sun people are enjoying all the benefits of this element, the light of the brightest noon; and at his setting, every hour of their lives, without knowing, or rather,
we should again be instantly left in darkness. It is without reflecting upon, the wonderful manner in
almost needless to observe, with how much beauty which such a number of useful purposes are brought
this beneficial change is now accompanied. All the about, by what appears so simple a thing as the air.
glowing colours which decorate the heavens, at the We will point out a few of these, and endeavour to
rising and the setting sun, the thousand brilliant hues show how much our comfort, and even our existence,
in which the clouds are bathed, are all owing to the depend upon them.
atmosphere. The air which surrounds the whole earth, as a light
The air has also an effect upon our vision, all day thin coating, extending to a considerable height above its surface, is composed of several gases, quite that of twilight.
long: and it is an effect which is far less known than
that of twilight. It is by means of the atmosphere, different in their properties. One of these, which forms the greatest part of the air, is absolutely that we are able to see objects in the day-time, in what
ever part of the sky the sun may be. No object can necessary for the support of animal life. If the air is deprived of it, any animal instantly dies. Another
be seen except by the light which it reflects or suffers
to pass through it, unless, indeed, it be seen as a dark part of it is, alone, destructive of animal life, but is necessary for the life of vegetables. Thus, without spot, intercepting the light which comes from some
other object. Now the air reflects light in all direc the atmosphere, neither animal nor vegetable could
tions, so that some light always falls upon what continue to exist. Even any considerable change in
would otherwise be the dark side of an object, and the lightness or heaviness of the air, would be fatal
renders it visible. We can scarcely bring ourselves to animals. Those who climb very high mountains,
to imagine, what would be the appearance of the and thus reach the higher and thinner parts of the
most familiar objects, if those parts of them only air, find a great difficulty in breathing, are unable to exert themselves, to lift weights, or even to stoop:
were visible, upon which either the direct light of and sometimes are compelled to come down, from
the sun, or the light reflected from other large objects, fell.
But they would certainly appear very the danger of breaking some blood-vessel, in con
distorted; and their shapes would probably be so sequence of the outward pressure of the air being
strange, that we should scarcely recognise them. taken off. On the other hand, those who go down in diving-bells, and have the air which they breathe, which the sun happened to be, would, without the
Besides this, all the part of the sky, except that in pressed into a narrow space by the water above them, atmosphere appear totally dark, even at noon-day. iind inconvenience from that cause. We have here, therefore, reason to be thankful for that provision of To use the beautiful language of Mr. Whewell, “ It is
the atmosphere which converts sun-beams into dayProvidence, which has regulated both the nature and the weight of the atmosphere, to the use of the light, and fills the space in which we are, with illu
C. creatures which he has formed to live in it. A second most useful property of the air, is to
ANNIVERSARIES IN DECEMBER: convey sounds, not only in a rude way, by making us
MONDAY, 16th. hear loud noises or low murmurs, but by exactly 1653 Cromwell inaugurated Lord Protector of England.
TUESDAY, 17th. representing those most delicate inflections of voice,
O SAPIENTIA.—This day still retains its place in the reformed which constitute speech. It can be proved, by direct calendar, but why it should, is no where satisfactorily accounted for; experiment made by the air-pump, a machine by
and much ingenuity, to as little purpose, has been exerted to explain
its true meaning, some asserting it to have been dedicated to one of which the air can be drawn out of a large glass the eleven thousand virgins of that name, who suffered martyrdom receiver, that if a bell be hung in such a glass, and with St. Ursula ; but the more rational supposition seems to be, the air be pumped out, there is no sound whatever day in honour of the Advent of our Lord, O Sapientia quæ ex ore.
that its name came from the beginning of the Anthem used on tris produced, although the clapper be struck against the
FRIDAY, 20th. bell. Sound is, in fact, a vibration, something like
1810 Sir Francis Bourgeois bequeathed his fine collection of paint.
ings to Dulwich College for the use of the public. The College waves, carried along from one part of the air to
has erected a noble gallery, in which they are exhibited. another. It does not move so fast as light, as any 1812 Sabrina, one of the Azore Islands, sunk in the ocean.
SATURDAY, 21st. one may perceive, who observes a gun fired from a
St. ThomAS Tue Apostle.-After the brief enumeration of the considerable distance.
He will see the flash some Apostles, in the first chapter of the Acts, no further mention is made time before he hears the report.
in the Scriptures, of St. Thomas; and it is, therefore, presumed, that The air, then, which we breathe, is exactly fit for India, and the immense regions of Scythia, where he preached with
immediately after the descent of the Holy Ghost, he travelled into conveying such sounds as our voices are able to such eminent success, that a Christian church may be traced to the produce, and our ears are fitted to hear. And it is earliest times. He suffered martyrdom from the Brahimins A. D. 73.
His festival was instituted in 1130, and has been ever since observed not every kind of air which will do this. If a man's in all Christian countries. lungs are filled by breathing some gases, which can be
1813 The Allied Armies, consisting of 100,000 Russians, Prussians,
Austrians, and British troops, passed the Rhine. produced by chemical means, the sounds which his
SUNDAY, 22n«l. voice is able to make can scarcely be heard. And Fourth Suxday IX Apvent. no doubt, this difference would be much more per
1680 The Great Comet, as it is called, first became visible. ceptible, if the ears were also surrounded by such an
LONDON: elastic fluid, instead of common air.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Without the air, we should be in a state of utter PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE Oxe PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Parts
FRICE SIXPEXCK, AND silence; if the air were much different from what it
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsveuders in the Kingdom.