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this arch seems to have been 'divided into ranges ETHELBERT, the Saxon King of Kent, soon after of niches with small arches over them, adorned with nis conversion to Christianity, founded the church of zig-zag mouldings. Many of these niches end abCanterbury; and, determining to form similar esta- ruptly, having evidently been cut through, to make blishments in other parts of his kingdom, he next way for the grand west window. This window is of fixed upon Rochester. This was called by the Saxons, a later age than the parts just described ; and, having Hroffe-ceaster, that is, Roffe's city, so named, it is said, shared in the late alterations, has a look of freshness from one Roffe, a chief, who first began to build there. which does not harmonize with the other parts. The
The see of Rochester was founded about the year extensive repairs made in Rochester cathedral were, 600 ; but although one of the most ancient, it is one however, in a great degree, required, on the score of of the smallest in the kingdom. The manor of safety, some of the pillars on the south-east side Bromley was given to it in the eighth century; and having evidently got out of the perpendicular, the bishops of Rochester have ever since had a On entering by the west door, there is a descent of palace there. The benefactions to this see have been several steps into the nave, the greater portion of few, and, indeed, at present its revenues are extremely which retaius its original character: the first five small; one great cause of which may be found in columns on each side, and half of the sixth, being in the frequent and ruinous inroads made by the Danes. the massive Norman style, with plain capitals supAt the time of the Conquest, the church of Rochester porting semicircular ornamented arches. No two of was in such a state of poverty, that divine service the columns on the same side are alike, though each could not be kept up in it; but it was soon after- exactly agrees with the one immediately facing it in wards re-established, chiefly by the zeal and influence the opposite row. Above the arches is another tier, of of Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury.
the same size, between which are smaller arches, with The Cathedral is in the form of a double cross, short, thick columns. Here is also a gallery commuand consists of a body and two aisles. It extends, nicating with the circular staircases in the angles of from the west door to the choir steps, 150 feet, and the west front. The more eastern arches of the nave thence to the east window, 156 feet, being in all, 306 are in a less ancient style, having rich grooved mouldfeet. At the entrance into the choir is a great cross- ings, and rising from clusters of slender pillars. The aisle (or west transept), over the centre of which roof is of timber, on the parts supporting which are stands the tower, now presenting a modern appear- carved figures of angels with shields of arms. ance, in consequence of a restoration made ten years A flight of ten steps leads into the choir through since, when the spire which surmounted it was taken a plain arch, under a simple stone screen, on which away. The length of the west transept, from north are the organ-gallery and organ. The architecture to south, is 122 feet. At the upper end of the choir, of this part of the building is of the pointed style between the bishop's throne and the high altar, is throughout. The choir was newly paved and pewed, another cross-aisle (or cast transept), about 90 feet about 1743, when an altar-piece, the bishop's throne, across. Between these two transepts on the north and stalls for the dean and chapter, were added. side, adjoining the church, stands an old ruined The west transept is nearly in the same style. tower, not higher than the roof of the church. It | The east transept is divided into two aisles, over the was called the five-bell tower, and was built in the easternmost of which, in both divisions, are apartreign of William Rufus, by the famous Gundulph, the ments, ascended by winding staircases in the wall. thirtieth Bishop, for the purpose of containing bells, In these were nightly deposited the vestments, jewels, or perhaps as a repository for records. It is also sacred vessels, and other treasures belonging to the sometimes called the Mint. This tower is of amazing altars and shrines of St. William, St. Paulinus, and strength, the walls being ten feet in thickness, though others, which stood in different parts of the choir. the whole forms a square of only forty feet on the The northern part of this transept is called the outside. The same Gundulph is celebrated for building chapel of St. William, from the reputed saint whose the keep or great tower of Rochester Castle, which remains were there enshrined. The crypt, extending is still nearly perfect as to its outward figure, and is beneath a great part of the structure, has bee: one of the most curious specimens of Norman castle- thought by some to be of the Norman age; but it is architecture now existing in England. He was also probably not so ancient as the west front, or employed in constructing the White Tower, in the Gundulph's tower. Tower of London.
Many ancient and curious monuments are found The nave of the cathedral, and the noble west in this cathedral. Among them may be mentioned a front, with the exception of some of its parts, were plain stone chest, standing in the south-east corner the work of the same skilful architect. The north of the choir, said to have contained the remains of side of the west transept was erected after a confia- Bishop Gundulph; under the next window to this, gration, which had destroyed a great portion of the westward, is another stone chest, over which is the structure, in 1179, and the south side was added figure of a bishop carved in Petworth marble. There early in the following century. The choir and east are other similar receptacles of the dead, well worthy transept were built in the reigns of John and of notice, particularly a fine monument, partly of Henry the Third, from the produce of oblations alabaster, of Walter de Merton, founder of Merton made at the shrine of St. William. This saint was College, Oxford, but of modern date, compared with a pious and wealthy baker, a native of Scotland, who that of the time in which he lived. The east aisle of had undertaken a pilgrimage to Jerusalem ; but, when St. William's chapel contains the monument of Bishop on the road to Canterbury, he was robbed and mur- Warner, who, besides other important charities, dered by his servant, near Rochester; and, having founded Bromley College, a comfortable asylum for been buried in the Cathedral, was canonized on ac- widows of clergymen. A richly-coloured tomb and count of some miracles which were alleged to have figure of one of the early bishops was discovered, been performed at his tomb.
during the repairs made by Mr. Cottingham. The west front is very beautiful, but exhibits dif- In the south part of the west transept, is the ferent periods of architecture. The principal door-monument, with a bust, of R. Watts Esq., who was way opens in a recess, under a bold semicircular recorder of Rochester, and meinber of Parliament in arch, which is richly ornamented. The wall above the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He died in 1579, and
by his will founded an alms-house in Rochester, under modern science. The great doctrine which he strange terms and conditions, as will be seen by the taught, and which was soon to be followed so sucfollowing inscription in front of the house, which cessfully by Newton, was, that the foundation of all is in the midst of the city.
reasoning on scientific subjects must be laid in facts, Richard Watts, Esq., by his will, dated 22nd August, collected by patient observation. The laws of na1579, founded this caarity for six poor travellers, who, not ture can only be discovered by observing the operabeing ROGUES or PROCTORS, may receive gratis, for one tions of nature: and it is not till they are certainly night, lodging, entertainment, and four-pence each ; &c.
established by observation and experiment, that This old house is neatly kept, and the object of the they can be made the subjects of reasoning, and founder fulfilled. There is a good-sized room, in pushed to their consequences. It was a favourite which the poor travellers take tea, and they have saying of this great man's, " that the kingdom of
, small but clean beds in separate rooms.
science, like the kingdom of God, could only be The reason sometimes given for Mr. Watts's ex- entered in the character of a child;" another was, cluding proctors from a share in his hospitable design, that “ a blind man in the right road, would outstrip is, that when suffering under an alarming illness, he a swift runner in a wrong one.” He employed all had employed a proctor to make his will; and that, his powers in establishing this new method, the on his unexpected recovery, he found that the lawyer importance of which was foreseen by him, and is had made over the estates to himself! But the most constantly receiving additional proof. He pointed probable explanation is, that he disliked those Proc-out the principal errors by which the human mind is tors, otherwise Procurators, who, in the reign of apt to be misled; and laid down numerous rules, Elizabeth, had dispensations from the Pope to absolve for contriving and conducting profitable experiments; the queen's subjects from their allegiance. The man- but he did not himself leave any successful example sion which he left to be sold for this endowment, was
of his own method, and was even behind some of called Satis; and it is said to have received its name
his contemporaries, especially Galileo, in scientific from the following circumstance. Mr. Watts had the knowledge. His language is so stately, so rich in honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth at this house figures and comparisons of extraordinary force and on one of her progresses. On this occasion, he apolo- aptness, so nervous, and yet full, that the admirer of gized to his Sovereign on her departure, for the small
Bacon is justly attached to the very words of his masness and inconvenience of his residence; to which she ter: and the Christian is gratified by the powerful and ieplied shortly, but to the point, by the word "Satis" splendid passages, in which the truth as it is in Jesus (Sufficient)
is professed by this great philosopher. I cannot refrain
from here inserting one short composition of his,
THE STUDENT'S PRAYER. FRANCIS BACON, the son of Sir Nicholas and Lady" To God the Father, God the Word, God the Spirit, Anne Bacon, was born at York-House in the Strand, we pour forth most humble and hearty supplicaon the 22nd of January, 1560-1. Queen Elizabeth | tions; that he, remembering the calamities of manwas so struck by the steadiness and ability which he kind, and the pilgrimage of this our life, in which displayed, at a very early age, that she called him we wear out days few and evil, would please to open “ her young lord keeper. He was entered of to us new refreshments, out of the fountains of his Trinity College, Cambridge, June 10, 1573, and is goodness, for the alleviating our miseries. This also said, not only to have mastered all the branches of we humbly and earnestly beg, that human things may science, as they were then taught, before he was not prejudice such as are divine; neither, that from the sixteen, but to have arrived at the opinions he after- unlocking of the gates of sense, and the kindling of wards entertained, of the impossibility of acquiring a greater natural light, any thing of incredulity, or a true knowledge of the laws of nature, without a intellectual night, may arise in our minds towards divine complete change in the manner of studying them. mysteries. But rather, that by our mind thoroughly On leaving Cambridge, he went to reside under the cleansed and purged, from fancy and vanities, and roof of Sir Amias Powlet, the English ambassador yet subject and perfectly given up to the divine at Paris, whose opinion of his ability and discretion oracles, there may be given unto faith, the things was such, that he intrusted him with an important that are faith's.—Amen.” commission to the queen, which he executed to his Painful, most painful it is to hear, that this great, complete satisfaction. At the age of nineteen, he and in mind and knowledge, Christian philosopher, fell published, A Succinct View of the State of Europe, the into a great sin ; and that not from any strong tempfruit of his observation on the continent. After his tation, not in any doubtful matter, but in the obvious return, which took place upon his father's death, he and easy duty of judicial integrity. He was accused entered himself of Gray's Inn, for the purpose of and convicted of having received bribes, and that studying the law, though he was so far from con- frequently, and to a great amount, “to blind his eyes fining himself to his intended profession, that he took therewith.” This conviction was followed by a heavy a comprehensive survey of the whole state of science, fine and by disgrace, from which he never entirely and planned, and probably sketched, the philosophi-recovered himself. We are told by Rushworth, that cal work, which is the great monument of his “he treasured up nothing for himself or his family, fame. His progress in his professional and public but was over-indulgent to his servants, and connived life, was less rapid than might have been expected, at their takings, and their ways betrayed him into that from his extraordinary powers and family influence: error:” and that “though gifts rendered him susbut at last, in 1616-17, he was raised to the highest pected for injustice, yet never any decree made by him dignity of his profession, that of Lord Chancellor, was reversed as unjust." This is some palliation of the having passed through the offices of Solicitor and crime, but cannot be admitted as a sufficient excuse. Attorney General, and that of Chief Justice of the
Let us hope that his fall was followed by a godly Common Pleas, and acquired a great reputation, by sorrow, working repentance; and, with respect to many learned works. He was created Baron Veru- ourselves, let it remind us of the vast superiority of lam in 1618, and afterwards, Viscount St. Alban's. religious practice over religious knowledge. Lord Bacon is justly considered as the father of know these things, happy are ye if ye do them, * 2-2
T. K, A,
In the parish of Kirkoswald, upon the north-west deceive you, and I hastened hither to warn you from point of a rocky angle of the coast turning towards the coast." Girvan, are the ruins of the ancient and once cele- Amidst the dangers which encompassed him, brated Turnberry Castle. It originally belonged to Bruce hesitated what to avoid, or what to encounter. Alexander Earl of Carrick, who died in the Holy At length, yielding to the 'dictates of courage and Land, and left three daughters. The eldest, named despair, he resolved to persevere in his enterprise, Margaret, married to Allen Lord of Galloway; He attacked the English, who were carelessly canIsabella; and Adama, the youngest, who espoused toned in the neighbourhood of Turnberry, put them to Henry Lord Hastings. Isabella the second daugh- the sword, and pillaged their quarters. Percy, from ter, married Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, in the castle, heard the uproar, yet durst not issue 1274; and from this marriage sprung the kings of against an unknown enemy. Bruce, with his followScotland, of the race of Stuart. The successors of ers, not exceeding three hundred in number, remained Bruce, till the period when they ascended the throne for some time near Turnberry; but, succours having of Scotland, were styled Earls of Carrick.
arrived from the neighbouring garrisons, he sought Turnberry Castle was in the hands of the English shelter in the mountainous parts of Carrick. in the expedition of King Edward the First. In Some years after this, Bruce stormed Turnberry -306, Bruce, having taken shelter in the Isle of Castle, and pursuing his policy of disabling all the Arran, sent from thence a trusty confidant into fortifications of this kind which fell into his possesCarrick, to learn how his vassals in that territory sion, nearly destroyed it; the ruins which remain are stood affected to the cause of their ancient lord. those of the original castle, for it does not appear If he saw that the dispositions of the people were ever to have been rebuilt. He saw that the English, favourable, the messenger was directed to make a by means of forts judiciously placed, had maintained signal on a day appointed, by lighting a fire on an themselves in Scotland with little aid from their eminence, above the Castle of Turnberry. The sovereign, and wished to prevent such a misfortune messenger found the English in possession of Car- from occurring for the future; perhaps also he apprerick; Percy with a numerous garrison at Turnberry; hended, that when the country should become setthe country dispirited, and in thraldom; no one tled in peace, the possession of fortified castles ready to espouse the party of Bruce; and many might render his own barons no less formidable than whose inclinations were hostile.
the English garrisons had been. From the first dawn of the day appointed for the The situation of the Castle of Turnberry is exsignal, Bruce anxiously looked towards the coast of tremely delightful, having a full view of the Frith of Carrick, and, soon after noon, perceiving a fire on Clyde, and its shores. Upon the land-side, it overthe eminence above Turnberry, he flew to his boats; looks a rich plain of about 600 acres, bounded by but night surprised him and his associates while they hills which rise beautifully around. There are still were yet on the sea. Guided by the fire, they to be seen the vestige of a ditch, and part of the reached the shore, where the messenger met them, buttresses of the drawbridge.- -Beauties of Scotland. and reported that there was no hope of aid : “ Traitor!" exclaimed Bruce,“ why did you make the Those who understand the value of time, treat it as prusignal.” “ I made no signal,” was the reply; "but dent people do their money; they make a little go a great observing a fire on the eminence, I feared it might way. --HanwAY.
The most simple plan of dividing these Tinctures, is to consider them as three;-Metals, Colours, and Furs. To begin with the
Two only are used in Heraldry, namely, Gold, and Silver, which are called by their French names, Or, and Argent; indeed, we may remark, once for all, that the language of Heraldry is generally Of these metals, Or, both drawn from the French. from its splendour, and from the superior value of the metal itself, ranks first: in painting these Tinctures, yellow, of which chrome is the best, is substituted for Or, and white for Argent, when the metals themselves cannot be laid on; in engravings, Or is represented by an indefinite number of minute spots spread over the shield, while argent is left by the engraver plain, as in the annexed examples.
probably conclude that this was one
AZURE, the second colour used in Heraldry, is probably taken from the clear blue of the heavens. The shields of the Saxon Kings of England and the Kings of France will appear to fortify this opinion; but the description of these shields must also be deferred, because, at present, the reader is not informed sufficiently in the terms of Heraldry. In painting, Azure is well produced by ultra-marine, with a slight admixture of white; in engraving, the colour is designated by fine horizontal lines.
PURPURE. The language of heraldry is generally derived from the French; this word, however, retains its original Greek aspect, and the colour purple, and the name, have evidently been handed down to us from the throne of the Cæsars. There is, we believe, some uncertainty as to what was the exact shade of the imperial purple, and it is very possible that Heraldry may throw some light on this question. The colour purple, as appearing in coat-armour, is the compound tint of blue and red, in which the red
Though Heraldry uses only two metals she has is just sufficiently predominant to give it warmth, and
been more liberal in the
we may, with every probability, connect this colour with antiquity, when we consider, that the Popes, cn their obtaining the supremacy at Rome, adopted the imperial colour, and from their example it was used by noble ecclesiastics in their armorial bearings; this ancient heraldry, originated with the clergy: nevercolour, indeed, has generally, both in modern and theless, in the arms of the kings of Leon, and of the noble family of Lacey, earls of Lincoln, there appears the coat of the ancient family of Burton of Longnor, a "Lion purpure." This colour is also introduced in near Shrewsbury. The learned Dr. Burton, Regius professor of Divinity at Oxford, is descended immediately from this house. Purpure is delineated in engravings by lines falling diagonally from the left-hand
side of the shield to the base. The arms of Leon are
We may well conceive that VERT, the third colour in Heraldry, is taken from hunting scenes, and the green shades of the forest. Vert is grass-green, and produced by the combination of yellow and blue. It is represented by the engraver by lines falling, diagonally, from the dexter* (or right hand) and upper part of the shield to the base.
of which she permits seven-which are thus named; Gules (red), Azure (blue), Vert (green), Purpure (purple), Sable (black), Tenné (orange), and Sanguine (blood colour.)
GULES, which is a brilliant shade of red, has by many been supposed to be derived from the colour of blood. Indeed, we may easily imagine a warrior, proud of his shield sprinkled with the blood of a formidable antagonist; or that some follower, perhaps a son, who had with great hazard rescued the bloody corpse to which his affections were united, might determine, either in warlike pride, or in the warmth of piety, that the blood-stained shield should never again depart out of his house. This might be accepted as a reason why Gules was admitted among the colours of Heraldry; indeed, in the coat-armour of the noble houses of Hay and Keith, and in the imperial coat of Austria, Gules was introduced as representing blood; but the legends which prove this The etymology are better referred to another paper. of the word, however, would point to another origin, and one which, with our ancestors, was second only to their habit of war, a fondness for the chase. Gules, is evidently derived from the French gueule, a word signifying the jaws and throat of an animal, particularly the dog-whence our vulgar word gullet: and when we remember the beauty of the colour of that part of the animal, the constant display of it by the dog, both in the cry of the chase, and in his fawning on his master, and the affection which exists between the sportsman and his hound, we may
annexed in order to give the reader a first view of the
ARMS OF LEON,
a shield, or; lion rampant,
In speaking of the dexter and sinister (or left hand) parts of a shield, it is always supposed that the shield is carried on the
SABLE.--The ancient warrior armed himself in amptonshire, Langham of Cottesbroke; in Staffordblack, probably under the idea that his appearance shire, Wrottesley of Wrottesley; Pigot, of Pats would be more terrific to his enemy. It is possible Hull; Littleton of Teddesley; Lawley, Lord Wenthat, in some cases, Sable was chosen as a mourning lock, of Canwell: in Shropshire, Hill of Hawkstone; tint for the loss of some favourite leader.
Lyster of Rowton; Cludde of Orleton and Clud. A modern instance of this feeling oc
leigh; Smythe Owen of Condover: in Worcestershire, curs in the conduct of the Brunswick
Sebright of Besford; in Warwickshire, Boughton of Hussars, who, after the death in battle
Lawford, and Shuckburgh of Shuckburgh; in Glouof the late Duke of Brunswick, always
cestershire, Hale of Alderley, Kingscote of Kingsappeared in the field in black. The
cote; in Devonshire, Wrey of Tawstock, Prideaux of engraver delineates Sable by perpen
Netherton, the family of Buller; in Cornwall, the dicular and horizontal lines crossing
SABLE, (black) house of Trelawney; in Hampshire, the Astons of each other,
Farnham; in Essex, Wiseman of Canfield Hall; in TENNÉ and SANGUINE, which are orange and blood Sussex, Mill of Camois Court; in Cambridgeshire, colour, are terms mentioned in old books on Heraldry. Cotton of Landwade; in Rutlandshire, Harrington Their use, however, in blazonry, is so rare as to give of Redlington; in Lincolnshire, Thorold of Syston, rise to the suspicion, that, whenever they were borne and the House of Ingilby; in Yorkshire, Kaye of it was merely the fanciful deviation of some in- Woodesham, Lawson of Brough Hall, Tempest of dividual, and not the, habit of any house. They are Tong, Stapylton of Myton; and in Durham, Smythe now, we believe, never introduced. Tenné probably of Esh, are some of the instances which abound, of has given rise to the word Tawney. In foreign gentlo families who blazoned merely in the humble Heraldry, Tenné is borne by the royal family of tinctures of black and white. Holland, in allusion, it is supposed, to the principality In later days, commercial wealth has very much of Orange.
interfered with family distinctions; and, in Heraldry, In Blazonry, colour is never blazoned on colour, the more novel coats have generally displayed, pernor metal on metal; the interchange is universally haps, even a gaudiness in tincture, with crowded and required.
discordant bearings. As this paper on colour is necessarily extended to a In our next Heraldic notice we will treat on the length too great to admit, at present, the description Furs. of the Furs, we will close it by stating what colours and metals have been more generally borne by the | We read in our books of a delicate Athenian being enterdifferent grades of society among our ancestors. tained by one much given to hospitality. Finding anon Royal houses and the great noblesse, generally, in that another was received with like courtesy, and then a
third, he grew very angry: their arms adopted the more brilliant contrasts, and
“ I thought,” said he, “I had used Or very constantly interchanged with Gules or
found a friend's house, but I am fallen into an inn, to
entertain all comers, rather than a lodging for some private Azure. The coats of England and France are
and especial friends.” On this story, the admirable Hales familiar examples of this. A vast majority of the thus expresses himself: " Let it not offend any, that I noble followers of William the Conqueror used also have made Christianity rather an inn, to receive all, than the same metal and colours, and so generally, that a
a private house, to receive some few; for so both precept very few only lowered the brilliant effect of these and example teach us to extend our good offices, not to this combinations, by admitting the colder tincture Argent. not on this or that nation, but on all the world. Julian
or that man, but to mankind ; like the sun, which ariseth Vert, though a beautiful colour in itself, has been observes of the fig-tree, that above all trees, it is most very little used in Heraldry. We are not aware that capable of grafts and scions of other kinds, so far as that any royal house has adopted this colour. However, all variety will be brought to take nourishment from one though its appearance is not frequent in coat-armour, stock. Beloved, a christian must be like unto Julian's figit has still, in a few instances, been selected by some
tree, so universally compassionate, that so all sorts of of the most ancient houses in the kingdom, and grafts, by a kind of Christian inoculation, may be brought
to draw life and nourishment from his root."- -HALES. also by some who were very noble. Among these we will mention the baronial families of Berners and Poynings, and the knightly house of Drury, of A mouse, that had lived all his life in a chest, says the Saxham, in Suffolk. The family of Drury is still fable, chanced one day to creep up to the edge, and, peepremaining in the male line, though its origin is
ing out, exclaimed with wonder, I did not think the
world was so large." ancient as the Conquest. To these we may add the
The first step to knowledge is, to know that we are very ancient house of Whitmore, of Apley Park, ignorant. It is a great point to know our place: for want in Shropshire. All these families, distinguished by of this, a man in private life, instead of attending to the antiquity, admitted Vert in their armorial ensigns. affairs of his “chest,” is ever peeping out, and then he The generality of the English gentle-houses who becomes a philosopher! He must then know every thing,
and bore arms, do not appear to have assumed splendid of God: not considering that man is finite, he has no
presumptuously pry into the deep and secret councils tinctures in their heraldry. Azure they frequently faculties to comprehend and judge of the great scheme of combined with argent; gules they'mostly interchanged things. We can form no other knowledge of spiritual with the same metal; but the contrast they com- things, except what God has taught us in His word, and monly used was the most modest of all, argent where He stops we must stop: -- CECIL. and sable. We will mention a few instances of this blazonry among the English gentry, premising that The note of the cuckoo, though uniform, always gives many of the families noticed are of extreme anti- pleasure, because we feel that summer is coming ; but quity,—uone of later date than from three to four this pleasure is mixed with melancholy, because we reflect
that it will so soon be going again. This is the considerIn Lancashire, Hoghton of Hoghton; in Cheshire, delight of my heart, then, be in thee, O Lord and Creator
ation which imbitters all sublunary enjoyments. Let the Warburton, of both branches; in Nottinghamshire, of all things, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow Clifton of Clifton; in Derbyshire, Harpur of Calke; of changing-Bishop Horne. in Leicestershire, Burton of Stockeston; in Northperson of the warrior, and, consequently, the dexter part is oppo- REAL worth flots not with people's fancies, no more than a site the left hand of the spectator,
rock in the sea rises and falls with the tide, -FULLER.