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SOCIETY.

the community with them, would be led to tame such I. ON THE PROVISIONS MADE FOR THE species as were adapted for it, in order to secure a PROGRESS OF SOCIETY.

supply of provisions when the chase might prove in

sufficient. A CAPACITY of improvement seems to be a character

Those who had especially studied the of the human species, both as individuals, and as

places of growth, and times of ripening, of such existing in a community. By this capacity man is wild fruits, or other vegetable productions, as were distinguished, not only from all the forms of lifeless

in request, would be induced to obtain a readier supmatter, but from all the various tribes of the brute ply, by cultivating them in suitable spots. And thus, creation.

the society being divided into husbandmen, shepherds, The mechanical and chemical laws of matter are

and artificers of various kinds, exchanging the pronot only unvarying, but seem fitted to preserve all duce of their various labours, would advance with things, either in an unvarying state, or in a regular

or less steadiness and rapidity, towards the rotation of changes, except where human means in

higher stages of civilization. terfere. The instincts of brutes, as has been often cordance with the views apparently laid down by some

-- I have spoken of this description, as being in acremarked, lead them to no improvement: but in man, writers; and I have said not only the faculties are open to much cultivation,

apparently,” because I (in which point he does, indeed, stand far above the doubt whether it is fair to conclude that all, or any brutes, but which yet is not peculiar to our species),- something similar, is a correct account of a matter

of them have designed to maintain that this, or but besides this, what may be called the instincts of of fact; namely, that mankind universally, or some man, lead to the advancement of society. I mean that he is led to further this object when he has portions of them, have actually raised themselves by another in view. And this procedure, as far as

such a process, from a state of complete barbarism.

Some have believed this; but others may have meant regards the object which the agent did not contemplate, exactly corresponds to that of instinct

merely that it is possible, without contending that it The workman, for instance, who is employed in have not even gone so far as this, but may have

has ever in fact occurred; and others, again, may casting printing-types, is usually thinking only of intended merely to describe the steps, by which such producing a commodity by the sale of which he may support himself. With reference to this object, he is

a change must take place, supposing it ever could acting, not from any impulse that is at all of the character of instinct , but from a rational and deli- | all previous conjectures, and look around us for

Be this as it may, when we dismiss for a moment berate choice. But he is also, in the very same act: instances, we find—I think, I may safely affirm,—no contributing most powerfully to the diffusion of

one instance recorded of a tribe of savages, properly knowledge, about which, perhaps, he has no anxiety or thought. With reference to this latter object, therefore, tion and assistance from people already civilized. And

so called, rising into a civilized state, without instruchis procedure corresponds to those operations of various animals which we attribute to instinct, since

we have, on the other hand, accounts of various they doubtless derive some immediate gratification savage tribes, in different parts of the globe, who

have been visited from time to time at considerable from what they are doing. So man is, in the same act, doing one thing by choice, for his own benefit: civilized people, and who appear to continue, as far

intervals, but have had no settled intercourse with and another undesignedly, under the guidance of

can be ascertained, in the same uncultivated Providence, for the service of the community,

state. II. ON THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION.

It will, perhaps, have occurred to the reader, that The progress of any community in civilization, by the oldest historical records represent mankind as its own internal means, must always have begun originally existing in a state far superior to that of from a state above that of complete barbarism; out our supposed savages. The Book of Genesis describes of which condition it does not appear that men ever man, as not having been, like the brutes, created, did or can raise themselves.

and then left to provide for himself by his own This statement is at variance with the views ap- innate bodily and mental faculties, but as having parently laid down by several writers on political received, in the first instance, immediate Divine ineconomy, who have described the case of a supposed structions and communications. And so early, acrace of savages, subsisting on those productions of cording to this account, was the division of labour, the earth 'which grew of themselves, and on the un- that of the first two men who were born of woman, certain supplies of hunting and fishing; and have the one was a keeper of cattle, and the other a tiller then traced the steps by which the various arts of life of the ground.

D. would by degrees have arisen, and advanced more and more towards perfection. One man, it is supposed, having acquired more

OBSERVE this organ: mark how it goes . skill than his neighbours in the making of bows and 'Tis not the hand of him alone that blows arrows, or darts, would find it useful, both for them

The unseen bellows; nor the hand that plays and for himself, to work chiefly at this manufacture, Upon the apparent note-dividing keys, and to exchange these implements for the food pro

That makes the well-composed airs appear cured by others, instead of employing himself in the

Before the high tribunal of thine ear;

They both concur: each acts his several part, pursuit of game. Another, from a like cause, would

Th one gives it breath; the other lends it art. occupy himself wholly in the building of huts, or of

Man is this organ: to whose every action canoes; another, in preparing of skins for clothing, Heaven gives a breath (a breath without coaction) &c. And the division of labour having thus begun, Without which blast we cannot act at all; the benefits of it would be so evident, that it would Without which breath the universe must fall rapidly be extended, and would lead each person to

To the first nothing it was made of : seeing introduce inrprovements into the art to which he

In Him we live, we move, and have our being.

Thus fill'd with the diviner breath, and back id would have chiefly directed his attention. Those who

With his first power, we touch the keys and act; had studied the haunts and the habits of certain kinds He blows the bellows: as we thrive in skill, of wild animals, and had made a trade of supplying Our actions prove like music, good or ill. -QUARLES.

as

ON THE MUSIC OF ORGANS.

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small size of its fins, in proportion to its body, render it incapable of securing the creatures on which it feeds by active exertion; it is furnished, therefore, with a curious series of worm-like threads, which are placed on a species of horn on the summit of its head. These are employed by the animal in a still more curious manner: towards their extremities they become somewhat thicker, and when the creature is buried in the mud, and these appendages alone are visible, they appear like so many worms, and easily attract the attention of smaller fish; but as soon as the unwary victims have approached sufficiently near, the hidden monster suddenly raises its head, and seizes them in its capacious jaws. From this habit, it has obtained the common name of the ANGLER; it is also, from its form, called, in some places, the FROG-FISH.

A species nearly allied to this, the Lophius piscatorius, or FISHING FROG, is not uncommon on the English coasts.

ONE Mr. Hughes had a wig, which always hung on a certain peg in the hall. One day, Mr. Hughes lent the wig to a friend, and, some time after, called upon him. It so chanced, that this gentleman had on Mr. Hughes's wig, and Mr. Hughes had his dog with him. When Mr. H. went away, his dog stayed behind, and after looking full in the gentleman's face for some time, made a sudden spring, seized the wig, and running home with it, endeavoured to jump up and hang it on its accustomed peg.- -E. J.

WHEN the Carcase frigate was locked in the Northern ice, a she-bear and her two cubs, nearly as large as herself, came toward them. The crew threw to them great lumps of sea-horse blubber. The old bear fetched these away singly, and divided them between her young ones, reserving but a small piece for herself. The sailors shot the cubs, as she was conveying the last portion, and wounded her. She could just crawl with it to them, tore in pieces and laid it before them. When she saw they did not eat, she laid her paws, first on one, then on the other, and tried to raise them up, moaning pitifully all the while. She then moved from them, looked back, and moaned, as if for them to follow her. Finding they did not, she returned, smelt

them, and licked their wounds; again left them; again returned; and, with signs of inexpressible fondness, went round them, pawing and moaning. At last, she raised her head toward the ship, and uttered a growl of despair, when a volley of musket-balls killed her.-PHIPPS's Voyage.

ANNIVERSARIES IN AUGUST.
MONDAY, 19th.

1274 Coronation of Edward I. at Westminster, which did not take place till nearly two years after his accession, he being in the Holy Land at the time of his father's death.

1782 The Royal George, of 100 guns, sunk in calm water off Spithead; by this unfortunate accident 400 men and 200 women perished, as well as Admiral Kempenfeldt, who was on board at the time.

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1752 A dreadful earthquake took place at Adrianople, by which great part of the town was destroyed: two hundred mosques were thrown down, and an immense number of people killed. 1792 The famous embassy to China, under Lord Macartney, sailed from Portsmonth.

1798 The French landed in Ireland, took possession of Killala, and made the Bishop prisoner.

1818 Died Warren Hastings, late Governor-General of India. He was impeached before the House of Lords in 1787; the investigation lasted seven years, but he was at length fully and honourably acquitted.

FRIDAY, 23rd.

79 The first eruption on record of Mount Vesuvius, in which Pliny the elder perished. 1822 Died, at Slough, near Windsor, in his eighty-fifth year, Sir William Herschel. He was a native of Germany, and originally designed for the musical profession; but astronomy was his favourite study, and in it he became very eminent. His observations added a new planet to our system, to which he gave the name of the Georgium Sidus; but foreign astronomers usually term it the Herschel, to commemorate the name of its discoverer.

SATURDAY, 24th. ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY.-Bartholomew, supposed to be the same who is called, in St. John's Gospel, Nathaniel, was, like the rest of the Apostles, a native of Galilee, and is said to have been of a good family, and in opulent circumstances. In the enumerations of the Apostles, he is constantly mentioned in conjunction with Philip, by whom he was presented to Jesus, on which occasion he received this honourable testimony to his character, "Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." When the Apostles took different routes, in order more extensively to promulgate the glad tidings of salvation, Bartholomew travelled through Arabia, Phrygia, and Armenia, in which last country he suffered martyrdom, being flayed alive according to the barbarous custom of the East. The Festival of St. Bartholomew was instituted in the year 1130.

1572 The massacre of St. Bartholomew, by which upwards of

40,000 persons perished, had for its object the exurpation of the Protestants in France. So well was this horrible scheme planned, and so extensively executed, that, at a given hour, the inhabitants of many towns and villages in France rose on their Protestant neighbours, and put them to death without regard to rank, age, or sex.

1814

The Town of Washington taken by the British forces, under

General Ross.

SUNDAY, 25th.
TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY.

1270 Louis IX., usually called St. Louis, on account of his exemplary piety, died off the Coast of Africa, where he had gone with a view of inducing the King of Tunis to join him in a crusade.

1346 Battle of Cressy, in which Edward the Black Prince, then only sixteen, began his career of military glory. Edward III. was present, but took no share in the combat after he had put his army in order of battle. The French were commanded by the King Philip de Valois.

LONDON

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, PRICE SIXPENCE, AND

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom

THE

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EDUCATION

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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Kendal, or Kirby Kendal (the Church in the Vale,side of the river, of this structure, four broken towers, of Ken), is the largest town in Westmoreland. It is and part of the outer walls, only are now remaining; pleasantly situated on the banks of the Ken, or the most perfect portion is the tower, represented in Kent, which flows rapidly through the fertile valleys | the engraving. of a tract of country, that after the Conquest was Opposite the castle, and overlooking the town, is designated the Barony of Kendal, and was the Castle-law Hill, an artificial circular mount, about reward of Ivo, or John, brother to the Earl of thirty feet high, surrounded at its base by a deep Anjou. His lineal descendant, William Steward, of fosse and a high rampart strengthened by two the household of Henry the Second, assumed the bastions on the east; the summit, which is flat, is name of Lancaster, perhaps, from the circumstance crossed by a ditch, and defended by a breast-work of of being governor of Lancaster Castle. From this earth. This mount is of greater antiquity than the family the barony descended, through the noble castle, and, as its name imports, was one of the spots houses of Bruce and Ross, to the Parrs, Sir William on which, in ancient times, justice was dispensed to Parr, of Kendal, having faithfully served King the people. On this eminence, an obelisk, commemoEdward the Fourth, in his wars with France and rative of the Revolution of 1688, was erected by the Scotland, was created a Knight of the Garter. inhabitants of Kendal, in 1788. Catherine Parr, his grand-daughter was born here, To the tourist, Kendal Castle is well worth visiting, and became the last Queen of Henry the Eighth; both from situation and from the interest attached her brother, Sir William Parr, was by that monarch to this venerable relic of former days. created first Lord Parrof Kendal, and afterwards The Church is a spacious Gothic structure, with a Earl of Essex and K. B. By Edward the Fourth he square tower, containing ten bells; it has three was raised to the dignity of Marquis of Northampton. chapels, memorials of the ancient dignity of three

The Castle, the baronial seat of the above distin- neighbouring families, the Bellinghams, Stricklands, guished families, occupies a grassy hill, on the east and Parrs, and contains many ancient monuments. VOL. III.

73

CONDITION OF THE POOR IN DIFFERENT nor would they be freed from the necessity of daily COUNTRIES.

labour.

We have observed that the sum of money anIJ. ENGLAND; ScotlanD; THE Poor Laws, MARRIAGES, EMIGRATION.-SWITZERLAND.

nually distributed in parish-relief is nearly ten times

greater than it was eighty years ago ; and yet the HAVING, in the first division of this paper (see p.53), condition of the labourer is not in any degree better. considered the condition of the poor in China, New We may add, that the sum so distributed in EngSouth Wales, and Canada, I will now continue the land and Wales is a hundred times greater than in inquiry into that of the labouring population of our Scotland; yet the English labourer is not better fed own country.

or clothed than the Scotch labourer—perhaps hardly It is of great importance that our young unmarried so well. This affords another proof how little money people should understand, that without due prudence can do in improving the circumstances of the people. and forethought on their part, no assistance that the If the six millions expended yearly in this country, rich can possibly bestow on them will effectually in the relief of the poor, by parish-officers, were improve their circumstances. It is a great mistake increased to twelve millions, can any one believe to suppose that the distribution of money is capable that the comforts of the poor would be thereby inof removing the pressure of poverty. No doubt, a creased? If the amount so expended has increased, sum of money given to single poor family may in the last eighty years, from six hundred thousand effectually relieve them. But suppose that, by a pounds, to six millions—(that is, in the proportion general contribution of the rich, five shillings per of ten to one)—without in any sensible degree betweek were given to every labourer in the kingdom, tering the circumstances of our labourers, why over and above his usual earnings. Is it not very should we suppose that a further increase from six clear, that as soon as they all went to market for to twelve millions would be attended with any better more meat, more bread, more beer, than they had effect ? been accustomed to buy, the price of meat, bread, Turn the subject in what way we please, we come and beer, would immediately rise ? Is it not well at last to this point,—the greater the number of mouths, known to every one who has ever attended a market, the less food is there for each of them. So that, in order that an increase of demand immediately raises prices? | to give each mouth as much food as it requires, we

The history of our Poor Laws also serves to prove must endeavour to prevent the number of mouths how little can be done, by the distribution of money, from increasing so fast. Now this may be accomtowards relieving the wants of the poor. About plished in part by Emigration : but then there is eighty years ago, the total amount of poor rates reason to fear that Emigration alone will never be raised in all the parishes of England and Wales was able to provide for the annual increase of our populittle more than a tenth part of what it now is, yet lation, unless aided by the prudence of the people the poor seemed quite as well off then as now. Six themselves, in respect to marriage. The annual inmillions of pounds yearly are expended by the parish- crease of inhabitants in Great Britain is not less than officers in this country, in allowances to the sick, the two hundred thousand persons ; the increase in Ireaged, the maintenance of widows and orphans, and land is at least half as much : the whole increase in the support of those who are unable to find employ- the United Kingdom is, therefore, equal to at least ment for themselves. Six millions of pounds a-year! three hundred thousand. Now the greatest number A sum greater, perhaps, than is expended for the that have ever yet emigrated in a year is about sixty same purpose

and in all the rest of the world together. thousand-one-fifth only of the annual increase. A sum so great, that a stranger might be ready to In order to show how important an influence the think the existence of poverty in this country impos- habit of prudence, with respect to marriage, exersible. How can any man be in want, he would say, cises on the condition of the people, we shall again when six millions of pounds are laid out every year advert to facts. We shall show, that even in oldin relieving the distressed ?

settled countries, where land is not to be obtained, No doubt, if money could avail for this purpose, except at a high price, the poor may enjoy a good poverty would long ago have been driven from our deal of comfort, provided their numbers do not inland. But shillings and half-crowns cannot be crease too fast. This is the case in Switzerland; eaten : before they can satisfy our hunger, they naturally one of the poorest countries in Europe ; must be turned into bread. Therefore, the question consisting, for the most part, of mountains and rocks is, How much bread have we, and how many mouths incapable of cultivation. to be filled with it? If a hundred loaves are divided And it is worthy of notice, that the comfort of the between a hundred persons, each may get a whole people of Switzerland is most remarkable in those loaf, but if a hundred loaves are to be divided among districts where little or no trade exists. In the valley a hundred and ten persons, it is impossible that of the Eugadine, in the canton of the Grisons, there every one of them should get a whole loaf. If we are said to be fewer poor than in any other part of give money to fifty of them, so as to set them above Europe. The inhabitants of this and the neighbourthe rest, then fifty may still be able to procure a ing valleys are so sensible of the advantages they en. whole loaf each ; but the remaining sixty will have joy, that they are deeply attached to their country: so much less.

and the young men who enter into foreign service, Suppose even the whole property of the rich were as soldiers, or emigrate for other purposes, scarcely taken from them, and divided among the poor ; the ever fail to return, as soon as they can lay by a sufpoor would not have any more to eat or drink than ficiency to enable them to live comfortably at home. at present: for a rich man does not eat more than a In very many cases, the desire of seeing their native labourer. There would still be the same quantity of country has been so strong, that when prevented food in the country as at present, and the same num- from doing so, they have fallen sick, and even died ber of mouths ; therefore, the share falling to each of grief. This is a fact so well known, that it was person would be the same as at present. The poor strictly forbidden in the French armies, into which would, indeed, for a time, be able, in this case, to Swiss regiments were incorporated, to play certain have more silver spoons and silk stockings than at Swiss music, in consequence of the fatal effect which present; but they would not have more beef or beer, this music was found to produce upon the soldiers

a

a

ness.

of that nation. The air which had this extraordinary THE RICE PLANT. (Oryza sativa.) effect on the Swiss soldiers was called the Ranz des How beautifully visible is the provident hand of the Vaches ; or Cow-Call. It was nothing more than a Creator in the manner in which the fruits of the simple song, which the cow-herds in Switzerland are

earth are distributed over its surface; and how weli accustomed to sing as they drive their cows to pas- adapted to the climate in which we live is the food ture; and its fatal effect depended entirely on the

provided for our use. In the sultry regions between strong recollections which it excited in the minds of the tropics, where the scorching rays of the sun the Swiss, of the happiness of their childhood. Als descend in an almost perpendicular direction, we find though there is reason to fear that, in the more

the animals calculated for the subsistence of manpopulous parts of Switzerland, the happiness of the kind but few, and those widely spread, while, at the people is not so great now as it was half-a-century

same time, the quality of their flesh is much inferior or a century ago, yet the accounts of recent travel to that of the saine description of animals which inlers show that in the more remote valleys, where the habit temperate climates. The celebrated traveller, habits of ancient simplicity still exist, this happi- Belzoni, when crossing the desert between Egypt ness has been little impaired.

and the Red Sea, found that the average weight of Now we have the clearest and most unquestionable the sheep of that country did not exceed 15 pounds. evidence, that in those parts of Switzerland where

It is well known to medical men, and all who have the people are so happy and contented, fewer mar

paid any attention to the subject, that an abundance riages and fewer births take place, in proportion to of animal food, is, in hot climates, injurious to health the number of inhabitants, than in any other country even to the natives themselves, but much more so to of Europe. Instead of marrying at eighteen or strangers; and for this reason, no doubt, the provision twenty, without a penny to help themselves, as our

made by Providence has been sparingly distributed. labourers too often do, the Swiss are content to wait

We all unfortunately carry with us wherever we till five-and-twenty, or thirty. And it is remarkable, go the habits and customs of our native climate, and that, notwithstanding the later period of marriage, instead of taking a lesson, when in India, from the the proportion of illegitimate births is exceedingly simple Hindoo, whose chief subsistence is rice and small; so that prudence, with regard to marriage, fruits, the table of the European is loaded with all does not always lead, as some persons have appre- the same luxuries, in the shape of food, as those on hended it might, to immorality.

B.

which, when in Europe, he was, owing to the dif

ference of climate, in the habit of partaking with Our Saxon ANCESTORS.—The infant state of this people impunity. The flesh of the pig, which, among us is when the Romans first observed them, exhibited nothing

a staple and wholesome kind of food, is unwholefrom which human sagacity would have predicted greatA territory on the neck of the Cimbric Chersonesus,

some and indigestible in all the warmer latitudes of and three small islands, contained those whose descendants the earth. occupy the circle of Westphalia, the Electorate of Saxony, The distribution of the different kinds of grain the British Islands, the United States of North America, with which the earth is blessed, follows the same and the British Colonies in the Two Indies. Such is the general rule: of this, Rice, the subject of the course of Providence, that empires, the most extended and present article, is an instance. It is of a drier the most formidable, are found to vanish as the morning nature, and less subject to fermentation than Wheat mist; while tribes, scarce visible, or contemptuously overlooked, like the springs of a mighty river, often glide on

or Barley, and therefore more fitted for the food gradually to greatness and veneration.-TURNER. of the inhabitants of hot countries. We may also

instance Maize or Indian corn, the qualities of A LARGE crowd of people were hooting and laughing at which, in some measure resemble those of Rice. a man who had done some act with which they were dis- The cultivation of this grain, occupies a large portion pleased ; “Nay,” said an aged woman, "he is somebody's of the population of the east, particularly in China, bairn." Such are the different views which different spectators take of the same subject; such is the feeling of India, and Sumatra, large quantities are also grown maternal love, of which there is to me always an affecting in Italy, Spain, and Piedmont, and in some parts of image in Hogarth's fifth plate of Industry and Idleness, America, particularly South Carolina. where an aged woman clings with the fondness of hope, The mode of culture varies considerably, according not quite extinguished, to her vice-hardened child, whom to the climate and local circumstances. The following she is accompanying to the ship destined to bear him away is the method employed among the Chinese, who from his native soil, in whose shocking face every trace of cultivate it to a very great extent, in the midland and the human countenance seems obliterated, and a brutebeast's to be left in its stead,-shocking and repulsive to all southern parts of their dominions, the low grounds but her who watched over it in its cradle before it was so of which are annually flooded by the Kiang and the sadly altered.—Thoughts on Laughter,

Yellow rivers. These extensive inundations are occa

sioned by the heavy rains that fall near the sources The complaints of the aged should meet with tenderness, of these rivers, which have their origin in the Himarather than censure. The burden under which they labour ought to be viewed with sympathy by those who must bear layan chain of mountains. it in their turn, and who, perhaps, hereafter, may complain

When the waters have receded, the earth is of it as bitterly. At the same time, the old should con- covered with a thick coating of slime and mud, sider that all the seasons of life have their several trials which fertilizes the ground as perfectly as the allotted to them; and that to bear the infirmities of age richest manure. As soon as this takes place, the with becoming patience is as much their duty, as it is patient Chinese surrounds portions of this rich soil that of the young to resist the temptations of youthful with clay embankments, always selecting the neighpleasure. By calmly enduring, for the short time that remains, what Providence is pleased to inflict, they both bourhood of some running stream. The ground is express a resignation most acceptable to God, and recom- then carefully barrowed, in the manner represented mend themselves to the esteem and assistance of all who in the first engraving; this operation is several times are round them.-BLAIR.

repeated until it is well worked. In the mean time,

the Rice intended for seed has been soaked in water, A living hope, living in death itself. The world dares in which a quantity of manure has been stirred; this say no more for its device than, Dum spiro spero (Whilst has forwarded its growth so much, that the young I breathe I hope); but the children of God can add by virtue of this living hope, Dum exspiro spero, (Whilst í plants appear above the ground in two days after expire I hope)-LEIGHTON.

they have been deposited in the earth. It is necessary

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