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PREPARING THE LAND WITH THE HARROW.

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PLANTING OUT THE YOUNG RICE.

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to remark, that during all the early stages of its growth, and in fact until the seed is well set, the roots of the plants must be constantly under water; to effect this, different contrivances are resorted to, two of these, the chain-pump, and the bucket placed at the end of a lever, are represented in the third engraving.

As soon as the young plants have reached the height of six or seven inches, they are pulled up, the tops are cut off, the roots carefully washed, and the whole planted out in rows, about a foot asunder. In the course of its growth, it is at times sprinkled with lime and water, which is said to destroy the insects and assist in enriching the soil; the greatest care is also taken to remove the weeds by hand, as fast as they spring up. In these tedious operations, the English agriculturist can form no idea of the perseverance and attention of the industrious Chinese. The first crop, for they obtain two in the course of the year, is harvested about May or June, and the second in October or November. The sickle employed for the purpose of reaping the rice, is like the European instrument, bent into the form of a hook, but the edge instead of being smooth, is notched like that of a saw, the straw and stubble left after the harvest, are burnt on the spot and left

to enrich the land. The threshing of the rice is performed in the usual manner with a flail, and the husks removed by bruising the grain in a kind of mortar, as represented in the small engraving. The next process, sifting or separating the husks from the seed, is shown in the back-ground of the fourth engraving. In the fore-ground of the same, is seen the mode of grinding it into flour, by means of a hand-mill worked by several men.

The chief food of the Chinese consists of this useful grain, prepared in various ways. They use no spoons at their meals, and it is curious to notice the dexterity with which two small skewers, called chopsticks,

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are employed to jerk the rice into their mouths: a many nights and days, from food and sleep, perform. kind of wine is also prepared from the grain by fer- ing trifling ceremonies, and remaining the whole time mentation.

in the open air. If he sees a cloud gathering, he One mode of cultivating the Rice, resorted to in Su- begins to smoke tobacco with great vehemence, matra, differs so materially from that we have just walking about quickly and throwing the puffs noticed, that it ought not to be passed over without towards the cloud, with all the power of his lungs. notice. This immense island is thickly covered with As soon as the rainy season has fairly set in, the almost inexhaustable forests, and the natives, in the seed is sown by making holes in the ground at equal dry season, select a spot which they call a Laddang. distances, and dropping several grains into each; The trees are then cut down, at the height of about and this is all the trouble the careless native takes ten feet from the ground, and after they have become with his crop, until the time of harvest, the result of tolerably dry, the whole are set fire to. If the laddang this want of care is, that it not unfrequently happens, is of any extent, the conflagration continues for the that the whole of the seed is devoured by the birds. space of a month. The husbandman has now to The whole of the Sumatrians, however, are not quite wait patiently till the rainy season sets in. If wet so regardless of their interests after it is committed weather should occur unseasonably, after the trees to the ground, for, in some parts of the island, they are felled, and before they are sufficiently dry to be construct a number of little wooden machines, which consumed, the crops would be much retarded, on are placed round the fields connected by strings, and account of the ground not being cleared in time. so formed, that a child by pulling a line can set them

At this season there are a set of impostors, Malay all in motion, and produce a terrible clatter. adventurers, who profit by the credulity of the hus- Formerly, Rice used to be brought into England bandmen, by pretending to have the power of causing with the husk or rind removed, but of late years, a or retarding rain. The fee which the juggler re- manufactory for the purpose of cleaning the grain ceives for the practice of his deception, is at the rate has been established in London, and it is found that of one dollar or more from each family. His mode by being imported in the husk, it retains its flavour of proceeding is to abstain, or pretend to do so, for much better. In this state, it is sometimes called by

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its Sumatran name paddee. The value of Rice as

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION. an article of food, can hardly be too highly esti- It may, indeed, be thought strange to introduce mated. In the east, it is the chief dish of all orders Christian doctrines into philosophical studies ; and of people, from the sultan to the beggar.

yet why should it be so ? Christianity is the great in England, its consumption is rapidly increasing; | business of life. Not satisfied with having it as the the amount imported being at present 100,000 bags white margin, merely to adorn the page of our a year, while, only a few years back, it seldom history, we must have it the entire fabric on which exceeded 20,000. Experiments, on a small scale, the text is imprinted; and if we are thus to interhave been made for the purpose of ascertaining the

weave it with every thing connected with ourselves, possibility of growing it in this country, but, as yet, and with St. Paul to “ count all things but loss for without any chance of success.

the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord,” we ought One pound of rice-flour added to wheat, in the

to be equally earnest to incorporate it with every making of bread, much improves the quality of the branch of knowledge we communicate to our children. loaves; and if the proportion of the rice is some

We must apply to ourselves the commandment which what increased, the bad flavour of damaged flour is God gave to the Jews ;—“ Thou must teach my amended.

words diligently unto your children ; thou shalt talk The Bunched Oxen of the Hottentots not only submit to of them when thou sittest in the house, when thou all kinds of domestie labour, but they become favourite walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and

There is, therefore, no object domestics, and companions in amusements ; and they when thou risest up.' participate in the habitation and table of their masters. of study which ought not to be studied in relation to As their nature is improved by the gentleness of their Christianity. education, and the kind treatment they receive, they ac- Must we not stand rebuked before the heathen, quire sensibility and intelligence, and perform actions when we remember the almost universal infusion of which we would not expect from them. The Hottentots their idolatry into all the various occupations of life? train their oxen to war. In all their armies there are considerable troops of these oxen, which are easily governed, Referring to the religion of ancient Rome, Mr. and are let loose by the chief when a proper opportunity Gibbon tells us, " it was, moreover, interwoven with occurs. They instantly dart with impetuosity upon the every circumstance of business or pleasure, of enemy. They strike with their horns, kick, overturn, and public or private life, with all the offices and amusetrample under their feet everything that opposes their fury: ments of society.” And how interesting the reply They run ferociously into the ranks, which they soon put of the Chickasaw Indian to Mr. Wesley, when he into disorder ; and thus pave the way for an easy victory to their masters. They are also instructed to guard the asked him if his tribe often thought and talked of flocks, which they conduct with dexterity, and defend their gods; “We think of them always,” said the them from the attacks of strangers and of rapacious ani- | Indian; “ wherever we are, we talk of them and to mals. They are taught to understand signals; and when them, at home and abroad, in peace and in war, pasturing, at the smallest signal from the keeper, they before and after we fight, and, indeed, whenever, bring back and collect the wandering animals. They aitack all strangers with fury; so that they prove a great the Antichristian Tendency of Modern Education.

and wherever, we meet together."- -Observations on security against robbers. They know every inhabitant of the kraal or village, and these they suffer to approach the cattle with the greatest safety:- HANCOCK-on Instinct.

It is a common weakness with men in power, who have used dissimulation successfully, to form a passion for the

use of it. Dupes to their love of duping, their pride is The cases of disease with which the hospitals are filled flattered by it. He who fancies he must be perpetually tend to confirm, in a strong manner, the evils of Dram- stooping to the prejudices of his fellow-creatures, is perdrinking. There is little doubt that a large, if not the petually reminding and reassuring himself of his vast supegreatest, proportion of maladies which furnish the hospitals riority over them: but no greatness can long co-exist with with patients, must be referred to this source. From official deceit; the whole faculties of men must be exerted in connexion with the City hospitals, and from rather an ex

order to noble energies, and he who is not earnestly sintensive acquaintance with the habits and afflictions of the

cere lives but in half his being-self mutilated, self-propoor, I have seen enough to convince me that drinking of

scribed. COLERIDGE.
spirits is a considerable source of disease and death, in the
lower classes of society. It is not a moral pestilence alone,

WATCHMAN, WHAT OF THE NIGHT ?"
but a physical scourge; and innumerable indeed have been
the victims who have fallen beneath its power: many local
diseases (even in surgery) are referrible to the habitual use Say, Watchman, what of the night?
of spirits, and their destructive influence is constantly

Do the dews of the morning fall ?
manifested in cases of sore legs,-a complaint which afflicts

Have the orient skies a border of light, a very great proportion of the inferior orders in this town: Like the fringe of a funeral pall ? the worst specimens of this disease are to be traced to the • The night is fast waning on high, inordinate use of spirituous liquors, and they are commonly And soon shall the darkness flee, cases which never completely get well; and the subjects of And the morn shall spread o'er the blushing sky, them drag out their existence in going from one hospital And bright shall its glories be.' to another, while they are rendered incapable of laborious exertions when thrown upon the country.

-POYNDER.

But, Watchman, what of the night,

When sorrow and pain are mine,

And the pleasures of life, so sweet and bright,
The famous oriental philosopher, Lokman, while a slave, No longer around me shine ?
being presented by his master with a bitter melon, imme-
diately ate it all. How was it possible," said his master,

• That night of sorrow, thy soul
“ for you to eat so nauseous a fruit ?" Lokman replied,

May surely prepare to meet, "I have received so many favours from you, it is no wonder

But away shall the clouds of thy heaviness roll, I should, for once in my life, eat a bitter melon from your

And the morning of joy be sweet.' hand." This generous answer of the slave struck' the But, Watchman, what of the night, master so forcibly, that he immediately gave him his When the arrow of death is sped. liberty. With such sentiments should man receive his por- And the grave, which no glimmering star can light, tion of sufferings at the hand of God.--Bp. HORNE.

Shall be my sleeping bed ?

• That night is near, and the cheerless tomb
LET not the raillery or contempt of bad men laugh or fright Shall keep thy body in store,
you out of your duty; for why should the censures of fools Till the morn of Eternity rise on the gloom,
hinder you from being wise ?

And Night-shall be no more!'

BY' THE REV. THOMAS PAGE, M. A.

66

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THE PRAYER OF KING CHARLES THE Comandments, by sinful motions, evel words, and FIRST.

wicked workes, omitting many dewties I ought to Having been informed by Mr. Lemon, that he had doe, and comitting manie vyces, which thou hast recently discovered, in the State-Paper Office, a forbidden vnder paine of heavie displeasure : as for prayer by King Charles the First, I became desirous sinnes, O Lord, they are innumerable ; in the multo take a copy of it, for the purpose of forwarding it to titude, therefore, of thy mercies, and by the merites the Committee of General Literature and Education, of Jesus Christ, I intreate thy Devyne Majestie, that for publication in the Saturday Magazine. With the thou wouldest not enter into judgment with thy serpermission of the Secretary of State for the Home yant, nor be extreame to marke what is done amisse, Department, I faithfully transcribed it. I was in- but bee thou mercifull to mee, and washe away all formed that it had never been published, but have my sinnes with the merits of that pretius blood that ascertained that the prayer, numbered four' in the Jesus Christ shed for mee; and not only washe away Reliquiæ Sacre Carolina, may be considered a muti- all my sinnes, but also to purge my hart, by [thy) lated edition of it. Having compared the two, it holly spirit, from the drosse of my naturall corrupseems to me that the one now sent had been used by tion; and as thou doest add dayes to my lyfe, so the King as his morning and evening private prayer, (good Lord) add repentance to my dayes, that when and that either the early copy had been very incor- I have past this mortal lyfe, I may bee a partaker of rectly made, or that, in the time of the King's thy everlasting kingdom, throught Jesus Christ our sufferings, he had omitted the whole of the first Lord.—Amen.” paragraph, and then, having made some other altera

tions, had, by these means, converted it into a gene- Sinners are like idle swimmers, that go carelessly floatboral confession and prayer for the pardon of sin. ing down the stream, rather than exert themselves to

The composition manifests a frame of mind, ani- swim against the current and gain the bank. They must mated with the sublime truths of our holy religion ; reach the sea at last, and when they hear the breakers, as such, it will be held in great estimation by every alarmed; but it is too late; the stream is now too strong for

and see the foaming crests of the waves, they become Christian. This private prayer of the king shows them, their limbs are benumbed and enervated from want

that his devotional feelings were not the result of of exertion : and unfitted and unprepared, they are hurried e adversity. This confession of sin, and prayer for into the ocean of eternity: F. ir pardon, it is evident, had been composed and made use of before the Rebellion.

Virtue is not a mushroom that springeth up of itself in Charles the First was born A. D. 1600, and was

one night, when we are asleep or regard it not; but a married in 1625, and in 1642 his political horizon much pains to cultivate it, much care to guard it, much time

delicate plant, that groweth slowly and tenderly, needing was overcast. This original prayer is endorsed, in

to mature it. Neither is vice a spirit that will be conjured i the same hand-writing, 1631; it was, therefore, away with a charm, slain by a single blow, or despatched by cha written when he was thirty-one years of age, about one stab. Who, then, will be so foolish as to leave the

six years after his marriage, and eleven before the eradicating of vice, and the planting in of virtue into its commencement of the Civil War. The appearance place to a few years or weeks? Yet he who procrastinates

of the MS. would seem to show its daily use, and his repentance and amendment grossly does so: with his be yet it is in a good state of preservation, considering most important work he has to perform : he is a fool.

eyes open, he abridges the time allotted for the longest and that it is two hundred years old. Mr. Lemon assures BARROW, me that he is well-acquainted with the hand-writing of the King, and he feels certain that this prayer, In Mr. Amyot's very interesting Account of the Life of throughout, was penned by King Charles himself; and, the late Mr. WINDHAM, prefaced to the edition of that as most of the manuscripts relating to those eventful gentleman's speeches in Parliament, is the following anectimes, especially the King's correspondence, have dote, which deserves to be more known than it is :been frequently examined by him, a much better

Nothing," says Mr. Amyot, “ so highly offended him,

as any careless or irreverend use of the name of the Creator. authority upon this point, I suppose, could not be I remember, that on reading a letter addressed to him, in adduced. It is a prayer suitable to all sincere peni- which the words, My God!' had been made use of on a tents, and would form a good daily prayer for pardon light occasion, he hastily snatched a pen, and before he for the poor cottager as well as for the greatest would finish the letter blotted out the misplaced exclaprince.

Rev. H. C.

mation."

THERE is a difference, and a wide one, between practising A DAILY PRAYER, ENTIRELY IN

moral duties, and being a christian. Christianity is a reliWRITING OF KING CHARLES THE FIRST,

gion of motives. It substitutes an eternal motive for an Copied from a MS. discovered in His Majesty's State-Paper Office. earthly one: it substitutes the love of God for the love of

the world or the love of self. “ A PRAYER-1631.

There may be, and are,

many persons, who practise temperance and other virtues Good Lord, I thanke thee for keeping mee this which christianity inculcates, but who never think of doing

night so because they are so inculcated. It would be as absurd to night; I humblie beseeche thee to keepe mee this

day

ascribe a knowledge of mechanics to savages, because they from all dangers or mischances that may happen to employ the lever; or of the principles of astronomy to

brutes, because, in walking, they preserve the centre of my boddie, and all eyell thoughts which may assalt gravity; as it is to call such persons christians. A christian or hurt my sowel, for Jesus Christ his sake : and

is one, whose motives are christian faith and christian hope, looke upon me, thy unworthie servant, who here and who is, moreover, able to give a reason of the hope prostrates himselfe at thy throne of grace, but looke that is in him.- -ARCHBISHOP WHATELY. upon mee, O Father, through the merites and mediation of Jesus Christ, thy beloved Sone, in whom The pious GEORGE HERBERT built a new church at Laythou art onlie well pleased; for, of my-selfe, I am ton Ecclesia, near Spalding, and by his order the reading not worthie to stand in thy presence, or to speake pew and pulpit were a little distant from each other, and with

both of an equal height ; for he would often say, “ They my uncleane lips, to thee most holly and æter

should neither have a precedency or priority of the other; nal God; for thou knowest that in sirn I was con

but that prayer and preaching, being equally useful, ceaued and borne, and that ever since I haue lived might agree like brethren, and have an equal honour and in Iniquetie, so that I haue broken all thy Holly estimation."Life of Herbert.

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THE CHAMELEON, (Chamelcon;)

ANNIVERSARIES IN AUGUST.

MONDAY, 26th. A GENUS of reptiles belonging to the saurian or 55 B. C. Julius Cæsar first landed in Britain on the beach be

tween Deal and Dover. lizard-like order, a native of parts of Asia and

1541 A. D. Orellana, a Spanish adventurer, sailed up the Maranon, Africa. The very remarkable power which these and so discovered it to be a river, though of such immense

extent as to have been mistaken for an ocean. animals possess of changing their colour, and of

1793 Toulon given up to the English, with the arsenal, and the producing a succession of varied tints over the whole

shipping in the harbour. body, at an early period called the attention of 1795 Trincomalee, a Dutch settlement in the Island of Ceylon,

taken by the English. observers to their habits. Poets and fabulists have,

TUESDAY, 27th. at different periods, contributed to its celebrity, and,

1555 The Grand Council of Geneva issued a decree, proscribing hy inaccurate or fanciful representations, have ren. the Roman Catholic religion in that town. dered it far more of a prodigy than nature ever

1802 The Docks at Blackwall were opened in presence of the

Officers of the Crown, when an East Indiaman entered, designed it to be.

decorated with the colours of the different nations of Europe.

WEDNESDAY, 28th. ST. AUGUSTINE.—The anniversary of the death of this eminent Father of the Church still retains a place in our Calendar, though the religious observance of it was abolished at the Reformation. He was a native of Africa, and brought up in the Christian faith by his mother Monica, though his conduct, while young, did little credit to her instructions. The preaching of St. Ambrose made a great im. pression on his mind, and induced him to study the writings of St. Paul, to which may be attributed the exemplary piety of his afterlife, as well as the vigour and powerful reasoning found in his works. He retired, with eleven companions, to Hippo, of which place he was afterward Bishop, where he exercised himself in prayer and meditation day and night. 1645 Died, at Rostock, Hugo Grotius, a native of Delft, and one

of the most learned writers of the seventeenth century. He was confined in the Castle of Louvestein for his adherence to the doctrines of the Reformation, and was only liberated by the dexterity and affection of his wife, who caused him to be

carried out in a chest, concealed by books.

1722 A dreadful hurricane in the West Indies, by which the Island The skin of the chameleon is composed of a sort of Barbadoes was greatly injured, and the Town of Port of small, scaly grains, and, under ordinary circum- Royal, in Jamaica, totally destroyed. stances, is of a greenish-gray colour. The general

THURSDAY, 29th.

Decollation of John the Baptist (sec June 24.) form of the body reminds one of the lizard, but the

1680 Died the infamous Colonel Blood, rendered notorious by a trunk is compressed, and the back highly ridged or daring attempt to stcal the King's crown. cutting. The occiput, or hinder part of the head,

FRIDAY, 30th.

70 Jerusalem utterly destroyed by Titus. is elevated pyramidically; the eyes are large, project- 1801 Alexandria evacuated by the French ; this was the last place ing far outwards, yet almost entirely covered over they retained in Egypt. by the skin, except immediately opposite the pupil.

1808 Convention of Cintra, by which the French were allowed to

evacuate Portugal, without molestation from the British forces. What is still more singular, the eyes are capable of

SATURDAY, 31st. moving independently of each other, taking different 1688 Expired, in London, John Bunyan, author of the Pilgrim's directions at the same moment. There is no visible Progress. He was the son of a travelling tinker, and a soldier

in the Parliamentary army. He became a preacher in a external ear; the tongue is fleshy, round, and capable

Baptist congregation at Bedford, and was a man of talent of being greatly lengthened; the teeth are three- and piety. pronged. Each of the feet has five toes, but these

THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER. are separated into two portions (one containing two SEPTEMBER retains the name originally bestowed on it to mark its and the other three toes) by the skin, which covers

position of seventh month in the Alban Calendar. It bore, for a them entirely to the nails. The tail is long and

short period, the various appellations of Germanicus, Antoninus,

Herculus, and Tacitus, given to it by these several Emperors, who round, and capable of grasping twigs or branches, to wished to arrogate to themselves, or were complimented by the sustain the animal. The lungs of the chameleon

Senate, with the honours bestowed on Julius and Augustus Cæsar.

Their popularity, however, did not continue long enough to confirm are so large, that when inflated to the utmost, the

by custom the new appellative, and the month returned to its old whole body becomes almost transparent. With the

designation, though, from the time of Numa, it had been the ninth, different degrees of inflation, the surface undergoes and as its termination (which is a combination of the Latin imber, a

and not the seventh month of the year. It was dedicated to Vulcan, changes of colour, owing to the variations produced shower, implies, was the commencement of the wet season in Rome. in the distribution of the blood, and not, as has been

The Saxons called it Gerst-monat; Gerst, or Barley, being then

in perfection, and an object of no small importance to them, their fabled, by the animal assuming the colour of the chief, or habitual drink, consisting of a fermented liquor made from body upon which it happens to be placed.

Barley, and called Beere, or more anciently Ael, names still apIt is scarcely possible to witness any thing more

plied to our national beverage.

After the establishment of Christianity, this month was called by curious or beautiful than the transitions from hue them Halig-monat, the Holy Month, from the numerous religious to hue, exhibited by the chameleon, when aroused

ceremonies observed in the course of it.

September being the period of the Vintage, as well as of the to motion. The chameleons are all exceedingly slow, Barley Harvest, in old pictures it is represented by a man clothed dull, and almost torpid. The only part which they in purple, and crowned with clusters of black and white grapes

, move with celerity is their long tongue. This organ is

holding in his hand a few ears of corn and a balance, the latter in

allusion to the sign Libra, which the sun enters on the 23rd of clothed, at its extremity, with a viscid, gluey mucus, this month. and is darted out for the purpose of capturing

ANNIVERSARIES.

SUNDAY, Ist. insects, upon which the animal subsists. As they

THIRTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. feed but seldom, and are frequently seen inhaling the 1159 Died Nicholas Brekespeare, the only Englishman that ever air, to inflate their bodies as above-mentioned,

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obtained the Pontifical Chair. On his exaltation, he assumed

the title of Adrian IV.: he was a native of Abbots' Langley, ancient observers concluded that they fed altogether Herts. on air; but closer attention to their habits has shown 1804 A new Planet discovered by Mr. Harding, to which, in our that they require a diet rather more substantial.

Almanacs, we give the name of Juno; foreign astronomers,

nowever, call it the Harding. Three or four species are well known, and are natives of Africa and the Molucca islands. They pass

LONDON; their lives altogether upon trees, feeding upon small JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRANI). insects, for which their construction shows them to PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, be perfectly adapted.

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.

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