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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

Date and

number

1931 Nov. 19

Νον. 19 (235)

Νον. 19

Nov. 19

Subject

Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation
Between the Secretary and Dawes: Discussion of Dawes'
sitting on the Council and a possible statement concerning
U. S. position in regard to League action; Secretary's desire
that Dawes not be present for discussion of sanctions although
United States probably would not interfere with an embargo,
and his opinion that the most the United States can do is
denounce Japan's action and refuse to recognize treaties
created under military force.

To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Instructions to report on the stability of the existing authorities and the report of plots against Shidehara and others. Memorandum of_Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Information for Dawes that record instructions have been cabled, that if the League goes ahead, the U. S. position will be made clear immediately after; Dawes' information that Japanese Government have consented to a commission.

From the Minister in China (tel.)

Page

488

498

499

502

Opinion that no further investigation at Tientsin is necessary.

Nov. 19 (426)

Νον. 19 (574)

Nov. 19 (575)

Nov. 19 (576)

To the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that the Department has made no commitments such as might be inferred from the New York HeraldTribune article.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Observations on the Simon memorandum (as requested in telegram No. 750, November 16) pointing out that even if the parties agreed on the first three points, effective protection is not covered, and it is doubtful that Japan would agree to and carry out point 4.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Brief statement of U. S. position regarding Dawes' mission to Paris, for his use if he deems it advisable in explaining his position to Briand.

502

503

504

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

505

For Dawes: Transmittal of a statement outlining U. S. position (text printed) to be given to the press if considered advisable.

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Nov. 20 From the Minister in China (tel.)

Identic telegram (text printed) being sent by U.S., British,
French, and German Ministers advising of resolution by the
Party Congress authorizing Chiang Kai-shek to proceed to
the North as commander in chief to watch events.

506

From Mukden: Release by Japanese headquarters of news that Japanese have entered Tsitsihar.

507

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

Date and number

1931 Nov. 20

Nov. 20 (972)

Nov. 20 (771)

Nov. 20 (229)

Nov. 20 (584)

Subject

Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic_Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Secretary's reiteration that United States will offer no obstacles to sanctions; his opinion that if League orders an investigation, it would be better for United States not to participate; and his assertion that so long as the League is meeting, the United States will not invoke the Nine-Power Pact, but in case of League failure, the United States would consider it.

Page

507

From the Minister in China (tel.)

512

From Harbin: Information from Ohashi of efforts to protect
Chinese Eastern Railway property.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

512

From Dawes: Conversation with Briand, the latter being informed of the U. S. position, in accordance with Department's telegram No. 575, November 19, and the value of the conference method over attendance at League Council meetings. From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Information on the reported plot against Shidehara and others, and rumors concerning a possible change in the Government.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Advice that, in event of materialization of an agreement by China and Japan on a commission of neutral investigators, United States would withdraw its objection to having a representative on the commission.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

513

514

Nov. 21 (774)

514

From Dawes: Information that Sze will propose a neutral and nonpartisan commission.

Nov. 21

Nov. 21 (586)

Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Explanation by the Secretary of his information to the Japanese that, in view of their apparent treaty violations, he must now reserve the right to make public U. S.-Japanese correspondence on the subject, and of Japanese verbal assurances of a proposal soon to cover withdrawal; Dawes' desire that Sze know of Japanese assurances in order to obviate too strong a statement from the Chinese.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Reminder, in connection with certain statements by Yoshizawa, that Secretary Hughes in 1922 appeared neither to have recognized nor denied the 1915 treaties between Japan and China, but reaffirmed U. S. reservations made in 1915.

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From Dawes: Transmittal of Sweetser's report (text printed) of discussions at private Council meeting concerning a commission.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Yoshizawa's proposal, at public meeting of the Council, of a commission of inquiry; Chinese concurrence in the commission provided that it not furnish an excuse for delay in withdrawal of Japanese_troops.

515

523

523

526

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

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Nov. 22 (777)

Nov. 22 (980)

Nov. 22 (983)

Conversation with Koo, who outlined a resolution before the Council for dealing with the Manchurian controversy and stated why it was unacceptable to China; his submittal of a counterproposal, with the desire to be informed of Washington's attitude and suggestions concerning it.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Report giving the form of the proposal for an inquiry commission and Sweetser's explanation (texts printed). From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Report of northward movement of Chinese troops, of possible Japanese attack on Chinchow, and of return of Pu-yi to Dairen.

From the Minister in China (tel.)

Page

527

529

530

[22?] (985)

Nov. 22 (778)

Nov. 22

Nov. 22

Nov. 22 (779)

Nov. 22 (780)

Nov. 23 (781)

531

Report of dispatch of British and French observers to Manchuria; Minister's desire that American Military Attaché proceed to Chinchow in view of expected action there.

531

From Shanghai: Tense situation in the International Settlement.

532

From the Minister in China (tel.)

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Information through Sze that public sentiment in China may necessitate a further statement of Chinese attitude which will break up current negotiations; that China is beginning to feel that present League action may force it to act.

From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information from Koo that Foreign Affairs Commission has agreed upon Chinese draft of resolution and that it will be accompanied by an introductory statement (text printed) explaining China's offer of this counterproposal.

Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who was informed of Secretary's opinion that the neutral commission proposed by Japan would be futile without provision for a cessation of hostilities, that Japan's offensive defense was unnecessary, and that an attack on Chinchow would be regarded as an aggressive act.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Information that Simon and Drummond have prepared a new draft of the resolution (text printed), and as they realize that attitude of United States is what influences Japan and China most, have inquired if United States might consider suggesting this tentative declaration to both parties. From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Changes in Council's tentative draft.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Memorandum circulated by Sze (text printed) stating that inquiry without provisions for cessation of hostilities and Japanese withdrawal would prolong Japanese occupation and cannot be considered.

533

534

535

537

538

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

Date and

number

Subject

Page

1931 Nov. 23 (782)

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

539

From Dawes: Sweetser's comments upon draft approved by Simon, Drummond, and Briand for submission to the Council members exclusive of China and Japan.

Nov. 23 (783)

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

540

From Dawes: Chinese Government's request, through Sze, for Department's comments on the Chinese suggested counterproposal (reported to Department by the Minister in China, November 22).

From the Minister in China (tel.)

541

Return of Captain Tenney from Harbin and departure of
Colonel Margetts for Chinchow.

To the Minister in China (tel.)

541

Approval of suggestion to send the Military Attaché to
Chinchow in regular course.

From the Minister in China (tel.)

541

Nov. 23 (986)

Nov. 23 (430)

Nov. 23 (990)

Nov. 23

Nov. 23

Nov. 23 (784)

Nov. 23 (589)

Nov. 23 (119)

Report from Mukden of Japanese issuance of a statement that seizure of foreign property by the Japanese military is to prevent unlawful seizure by Chang Hsueh-liang, former Chinese officials, or bandits.

Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Call by the French Ambassador, who translated a telegram from the French Foreign Office indicating Briand's desire that U. S. observers might be sent to Chinchow, along with the British and French; Ambassador's explanation that the French idea was to observe the respective merits of the two sides. Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Secretary's advice that he is transmitting a message for communication to Sze and that Briand and others may be informed later; his approval of the resolution in its present form, but desire that the resolution be made public before U. S. attitude is given out.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Sweetser's account of private Council meeting in which draft resolution was discussed and changes were recommended; Briand's explanation that the draft would be presented to the Chinese and Japanese as a plan not yet approved and open to amendment.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Views to be communicated to Sze: (1) approval of the resolution before the Council; (2) opinion that Chinese counterproposal does not appear to be as effective and, furthermore, contains some impracticable provisions.

To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

For the Minister: Transmittal of text of the telegram supra, with instructions to communicate its substance to the Chinese Government.

542

543

545

547

549

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

Date and number

1931

Nov. 23 (593)

Nov. 23 (790)

Νον. 24 (791)

Nov. 24 (994)

Nov. 24 (792)

Nov. 24 (794)

Nov. 24 (795)

Nov. 24

Nov. 24 (592)

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

Subject

For Dawes: Suggestion that if Chinese are not inclined to approve the draft resolution in its present form, Briand might insist on Japanese evacuation of Tsitsihar; advice that Department is cabling Embassy in Tokyo to urge immediate withdrawal and to warn that an expedition against Chinchow would render useless further conciliation efforts.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Changes in draft resolution made at a private Council meeting; information that Sze has agreed to communicate the revised form to his Government but has no hope of its acceptance.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Sweetser's comments on the League meeting in which draft resolution was amended in the light of earlier suggestions but was not formally presented to the Japanese in view of uncertainty of Chinese acceptance.

Page

549

550

551

From the Minister in China (tel.)

552

From Tientsin: Report that local American officials are confining their activities to protection of American interests. From the Chargé in France (tel.)

552

From Dawes: Transmittal of Sze's telegram to his Government (excerpt printed) giving Department's attitude toward the draft resolution; Dawes' suggestions to Briand that U. S. attitude will not be revealed prior to publication of the resolution.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Sze's receipt from his Government of its minimum conditions: (1) immediate cessation of hostilities, (2) Japanese withdrawal of troops within a definite and short period, and (3) supervision by inquiry commission or by neutral observers of the evacuation.

From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Sweetser's report on League activities: Japanese denial of intentions to attack Chinchow; discussion of the draft resolution; suggestion from Briand that it would be helpful to have an expression of American views.

From the Minister in China (tel.)

Inquiry by Koo as to attitude of British, French, and American Governments toward a possible formal proposal that China will withdraw troops from the Chinchow area provided Japanese give certain guarantees satisfactory to Great Britain, France, and United States.

To the Chargé in France (tel.)

For Dawes: Information that Tokyo has issued orders against an attack on Chinchow and appears likely to agree to the Council's resolution; advice that French Ambassador has been informed of Department's attitude.

556

556

558

559

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