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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS
OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Sweetser's report that public session of the
Council went as planned, leaving only the question of police
measures outstanding, the clause relating to it, however, to
be settled in some form by Briand and Yoshizawa previous to
tomorrow's program and adjournment.
To the Chargé in France (tel.)

Fo awes: Secretary's desire to issue a statement to give the
public the impression of support to the League Council reso-
lution, and suggestion that Dawes might make a similar state-
ment in Paris.
Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Explanation by Dawes
of his intention of making a statement after the Council meet-
ing relative to the misunderstanding over the Chinchow zone,
in the hope of soothing public opinion in Japan and China;
Secretary's preference that statement be made by Briand.
From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Information that he notified Briand that he
would not make the statement (text printed) relative to the
misunderstanding in regard to the Chinchow zone proposal.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that the domestic crisis in China, and the loss
of confidence in the League leave to the authorities in Peiping
only two alternatives, either to fight or to yield to the Japanese
demands regarding Chinchow.
From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Transmittal of unilateral declaration to be
made by the Japanese regarding bandits (text printed).
From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Suggestion that his proposed statement re-
garding Chinchow might be the basis of a statement for later
issuance by him or by the Secretary, as such an explanation
offers the only chance of avoiding Japanese occupation of
Chinchow.
From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Transmittal of reply (text printed) to the
Japanese unilateral declaration, as approved by the Twelve
satisfying the juridical situation and removing the necessity
for further discussion.
From the Chargé in France (tel.)

From Dawes: Information that in his acceptance of the
resolution Sze made certain observations and reservations (text
printed) relative to treaty rights, the commission, and police
measures.
From the Consul General at Nanking

Conversations with various Chinese leaders who feel that
the United States tempered what otherwise might have been a
severe condemnation of Japan by the League, and that the
United States could have held Japan to her international obli-
gations if it had desired.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931 Dec. 11 From the Chargé in France (tel.) (876) From Dawes: Information of the unanimous adoption of the

resolution. Dec. 11 From the Chargé in France (tel.) (879) From Dawes: Sweetser's report that Council has adjourned

after 25 days of continuous conferences.
Dec. 11 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(1066) From Harbin: Report of a visit by the Japanese military to

General Ma, who was informed that no anti-Japanese move-
ments were to be allowed and that the Japanese had plans for
the thorough reconstruction of the northeast; agreement of

General Ma to the desirability of peaceful settlement.
Dec. 11 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(1067) Information from Mukden that the movement for an inde-

pendent Manchuria-Mongolia republic is gaining ground but,
without Japanese support, would collapse; opinion of Consul
General at Mukden that only foreign opposition or an early
conference between Japan and China can prevent its estab-

lishment.
Dec. 11 To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
(648) Instructions to convey to Briand the gratification of Presi-

dent Hoover and the Secretary for the successful termination

of the negotiations.
Dec. 11 Prom the Minister in China (tel.)
(1069) From the Military Attaché at Chinchow: Information that

Japanese aircraft dropped bombs on Panshan-Yingkou rail-
way, and that Peiping-Mukden Railway is not on regular

schedule.
Dec. 11 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who said that the resignation of the Japanese Cabinet was undoubtedly due to the Manchurian situation; inquiry as to the Ambassador's impressions on the Secretary's attitude toward the use of a boycott, and the Ambassador's statement that although he felt that the Secretary did not favor a boycott, he had never

received any assurances to that effect. Dec. 11 To the Minister in China (tel.) (458) Instructions to inform the Military Attaché that his pres

ence is still considered necessary at Chinchow. Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) (259) Intentions to await the appointment of a new Foreign Min

ister before discussing Chinchow misunderstanding; opinion

that Inukai will be asked to form a new Cabinet. Dec. 12 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) (264) Instructions to discuss with Shidehara the misunderstanding

over Chinchow unless it is deemed advisable to take it up only with Shidehara's successor.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

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To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

For the Minister: Opinion that the complications over the
establishing of the Chinchow zone offer no objection which
may not be worked out by negotiation; instructions to sound
out Koo in this connection and to urge restraint from military
activities, suggesting the possibility of some agreement.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Interview with Nagai, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs,
who felt the Japanese had been treated curtly in the Chin-
chow proposal but did not indicate an early resumption of
hostilities; Ambassador's mention of interferences by the
Japanese military in civil concerns, and Nagai's request for a
list of the cases.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Conversation with Drummond concerning the arranging for
the membership of the commission, which, according to the
present program, will be comprised of one national each from
Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the United States, and
possibly from one smaller power; information that Walker D.
Hines has been suggested as the American member, and re-
quest for Department's views.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that foreign military observers at Chinchow
believe that Japan will find the means to compel Chinese
troops to withdraw inside the Great Wall and Chinese regime
at Chinchow to dissolve, and that only considerable pressure
can prevent such action.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Advice that public opinion and the position of the Govern-
ment make discussion of negotiation for an agreement con-
cerning Chinchow inadvisable.
From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Account of student opposition manifested at a meeting of the
Central Executive Committee of the Nationalist Party at
which Chiang Kai-shek had resigned all his posts and an Act-
ing President had been appointed.
From the Ambassador in France (tel.)

Conversation with Briand, who expressed appreciation of
the Secretary's cooperation throughout the negotiations and
was of the opinion that the Chinchow situation had improved.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Information that the Chairman of the
Province has been released and installed as Governor; opinion
that this event foreshadows an early attack on Chinchow.
To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Advice that there is no objection to Hines' appointment on
the League Committee and that Hines is interested, but other
work may prevent his acceptance.

[Footnote: Information that Hines subsequently declined the invitation.]

Dec. 15

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688 THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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1931
Dec. 17 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(270) Information that the Cabinet has approved the sending of

additional troops to Manchuria and Tientsin, that the mili-
tary feel much stronger since the Cabinet change, and that
the General Staff views this move as a gesture to induce

peaceable withdrawal of Chinese troops. Dec. 18 From the Ambassador in Japan

(423) Report on the autonomous power of the Japanese Army.
Dec. 19 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(1105) From Mukden: Information of Japanese bombing of

Tungliao.
Dec. 19 From the Minister in China (tel.)

Request for information for Koo concerning a Reuter report
that the United States has addressed a further note to Japan

expressing solicitude that Japan respect treaty obligations. Dec. 19 To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.) (140)

For the Minister: Information that Department has made no formal communications regarding Manchuria since December 10, and that Koo may be informed that the press report is in error and that this Government's attitude is ex

pressed in the Secretary's press statement of December 10. Dec. 21 | From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that press statement of December 10 has been read to Koo; also that Koo has sent word of Japanese activity at Chinchow, inquiring if the United States can do anything

to forestall an attack, Dec. 21 From the Minister in China (tel.) (1113)

From Mukden: Report that first railway battalion was sent to clear out bandits in the Changtu, Faku region, and that an official reception was held in celebration of the forma

tion of the Provincial Government.
Dec. 21 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(1114) From the Military Attaché at Chinchow: Report of inter-

view with General Honjo, who explained that he would at-
tack Chinchow because of the activities of irregular troops
and bandits; information that there is no evidence of unusual

activity of Chinese troops.
Dec. 21 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs

of a Conversation With the Chinese Chargé
Information from the Chargé that an attack on Chinchow
is expected and that it would be necessary for China to fight;
his inquiry as to whether the United States could and would

protest.
Dec. 22 | From the Military Attaché in Japan to the Adjutant General,
(205) United States Army

Announcement by Japanese headquarters of movements on Chinchow to drive out bandits; opinion that the action will result in Japanese occupation of the whole of Liaoning Province.

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699 THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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Subject

Page

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1931 Dec. 22 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Call by the French Ambassador, who conveyed the substance of a telegram from Briand relating to the possible attack on-Chinchow, and stating that directions had been sent to the French Ambassador in Tokyo to make representations to the Japanese without waiting for the representatives of the

other powers. Dec. 22 Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Dawes: Dawes' denial, in reply to Secretary's inquiry, of a press story that he had secured from Sze and given to the Japanese an assurance that the

Chinese garrison would withdraw from Chinchow area.
Dec. 22 From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
(131) Information that Sun Fo is to be President of the Executive

Yuan and substantially Prime Minister but that it seems
certain that Chiang and Soong can take effective military
control over the Nanking-Shanghai area when desirous;
general consensus that no Central Government could survive
the popular opposition if Chinchow were surrendered without

resistance.
Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(275) Information of French Ambassador's representations to

Tokyo in accordance with instructions, and of British Am

bassador's similar instructions.
Dec. 23 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.).
(275) Transmittal of an editorial in the New York Herald-Tribune

(excerpts printed) attributing certain action to Dawes, and
instructions that, if necessary, the statements should be

denied.
Dec. 23 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(1125) From Dairen and Mukden: Report of Japanese military

movements, with indications that the drive westward is

imminent. Dec. 23 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs

Call of the new Chinese Minister to present his credentials; his expression of great apprehension over the Chinchow

situation. Dec. 24 From the Minister in China (tel.) (1126) From Mukden: Unofficial Japanese announcement of the

capture of Faku and of other activities; advice that this is

apparently the largest operation yet. Dec. 24 Press Release Issued by the Department of State

Announcement of instructions to the American Ambassador in Tokyo to make representations in view of reports of the Japanese military's contemplated advance and to point out that the military observers find no evidence of a Chinese

offensive. Dec.[24?] From the Minister in China (tel.) (1127) Information from Tientsin of Japanese intentions to land

troops there for precautionary purposes although there is no evidence to justify this action.

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