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THE IRON TRADE. The London T'imes says that the number of furnaces in full work in 1859, in the northeastern iron district, comprising Northumberland, Durham, Cleveland, was sixty eight, or ten more than the average for 1858. The total production of last year was 620,000 tons, of which 46,934 tops were exported and 524,066 tons were used in the district, shipped coastwise, and sent away by rail. The total quantity thus absorbed was 571,000 tons, leaving a surplus of 49,000 tons over the deliveries. The stock, December 31, 1858. was 25,000 tops, and the estimated stock at the close of 1859 was, therefore, 74,000 tons. Against these stocks of pig iron, large sales have, however, been made for future delivery. Four furnaces were completed and put in blast in the district in 1859 ; five more are now nearly ready, and six more have been begun.
The Philadelphia North American remarks, that it is to be regretted that there are pot equally prompt and trustworthy returns of the American iron production at the termination of every year. It will be seen that the average prodnetion of the English furnaces was about 9.000 tops, which, although large, is less than that of the Lehigh anthracite furnaces. These produced, in four or five instances, about 10,000 tons to the furnace during 1859. The total production of anthracite iron in the Lehigh region, in 1859, was about 135,000 tons, and in the Schuylkill about 80,000 tons, in both cases a considerable advance upon last year. In the circle of Philadelphia business, it is estimated that the production for the past year was probably 250,000 tons of pig iron, but for more distant places it is feared that the return will present a far less encouraging statement.
TAE MOTION OF A CANNON BALL. The Scientific American says the latitude of New York city is 40° 42' 40"; and as the degrees of longitude diminish in length from the equator to the poles, the length of a degree of longitude here is about 524 miles, or more nearly, say 277,250 feet. As the earth turns on its axis once in 24 hours it carries everything on its surface, from west to east, to the distance of one degree in four minutes ; so that the city of New York, with everything else in this latitude, is constantly running round towards the east at the rate of about 13 miles a minute, or, more accurately, 1,155 feet in a second. Now, this is just about the velocity of an ordinary cannon ball. Hence, if a cannon in this latitnde is fired when pointing exactly west at a fort, the ball is simply stopped in its eastern motion--the cannon runs away from it, and the fort comes up against the ball with a crash! This refers merely to the motion of the ball in relation to the diurnal rotation of the earth ; if we attempted to ascertain the absolute motion of the ball, considering the motion of the earth in its revolution around the sun, and the motion of the sun among the stars, we should find the problem pot only very complicated, but absolutely insoluble in the present state of astronomical science; indeed, it is impossible to conceive that we ever can have such knowledge of the universe as to enable us to determine the absolute motion of the sun in space.
VAPOR In a vacuum water boils at 88°. At the boiling point the vapor of water has the same density as the atmosphere ; it is the same with all other vapors produced by boiling liquids.
SPINDLES IN ENGLAND AND COTTON SUPPLY. The following interesting paper by Mr. HENRY ASHWORTH, of Bolton, England, is taken from the Manchester Examiner and Times of the 29th February :
The alarm which bas recently been raised on the subject of an adequate supply of cotton, appears to have roused much attention. The discussion in the House of Lords, as well as in the Commons, and the numerous articles which bare followed in the public journals, indicate a degree of interest which would appear to call for the disclosure of the following important facts :
Last year the consumption of raw cotton by the manufacturers of Great Britain was 2,296,700 bales, or 973,800,800 pounds.
In 1819, now ten years ago, it was 1,590,400 bales, or 629,798,400 pounds. The increase in the ten years having been 55 per cent, or 706,300 bales, or 344.002,400 pounds.
The above progress, when explained in the language of practical life, represents an increase of consumption, in the above period, at the rate of 70,000 bales a year, or 1,350 bales per week.
In the next place, let us have our attention directed to the amount of increase which has going on our spindles.
In the year 1850, according to a Parliamentary return, there were in Great Britain (inclusive of Ireland) 20,858,062 spindles employed upon cotton, and, having reference to the annual consumption at that period of 629,798,400 pounds, it amounts to 300 pounds per spindle.
Therefore, if we apply these data to the cotton consumption of last year, viz., 973,800,800 pounds, we shall find that the manufacturing power we now possess is that of 32,460,026 spindles, showing an increase in ten years of 11,601.964, or an average rate of progress of 20,718 spindles per week, and requiring a wekily supply of 1,350 bales of cotton. Meanwhile, that is to say during the ten years in question, the principal increase of growth has been in the United States
, and, large as it may appear, it has barely kept pace with the increase of demand, and the supplies held in the market have been gradually diminishing, and often reduced to a very scanty amount.
FORECAST OF THE FUTURE OF SPINDLES AND COTTON.
The machinists of this country have, perhaps, never before found themselves 80 fully employed, and, according to information derived from them, there is now going on a greatly accelerated increase in the erection of mills, and in the extept of spinning machinery in course of preparation, not alone in Great Britain, but also in all parts of Europe as well as in the United States.
The new machinery now constructing for British account has been put down at 45,000 spindles per week, which is more than a two-fold rate of increase, as compared with the period above referred to. These will require to be supplied with their 30 pounds of cotton per annum for each spindle ; and at no distant day the increase of consumption for the new spindles alone will amount to do less than 160.000 bales per year, against a rate of 70,000 bales in the last ten Sears, or a future supply of 3.000 bales per week, as against the former rate of 1.330 bales. Let it also be borne in mind that the cotton manufacturers of Great Britain constitute only one-half the consumption under our immediate notice, while the other half is carried on in the various manufacturing districts of Europe and in the United States. Now, should the like rapidity of progress in manufacture be going on in these other countries, it must be obvious that an extension of growth will very soon be required of more than 300,000 bales a year.
It may be well for us to consider the practicability of raising, with the requisite speed, so large an addition of our supplies, in order to meet the growing demand, let us, therefore, as in the former case, have reference to what has already been done in the increase of cotton culture during the past ten years, and select for reference as to capability the United States, a country from which our manufacturers are deriving nearly four-fifths of their present supplies, and in which
the capabilities of extension are known to be so ample, and the energetic character of the planters so reliable.
The average product of the crop of the United States for the years 1849-50 to 1853-54 was 2,731,830 bales. The average product of the five years, from 1854-55 to 1858–59, was 3,256,029 bales.
Taking the extremes between the first and last of the above years, the difference will be 1,754.775 bales, or a rate of progress of 175,000 bales per annum.
The fluctuations occurring from year to year aie deserving of notice; they indicate the uncertainty which must ever impend over the future, thougb they do not materially obstruct the onward progress of success.
It will be marked that there is not anything decisive to be gathered from the grouping of these figures, representing crops; the averages do not indicate certainty of production, and yet, amidst all the variations, there are marks of elasticity and encouragement in the prospects they hold out.
STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c.
AGRICULTURE OF OHIO. The annual report of the Ohio Commissioner of Statistics remarks :-We have now complete returns of all agricultural crops, for the State of Ohio, in three years of the last twenty; and the crops of wheat and corn in eleven years. These are enough to determine with sufficient accuracy the general aggregate of arable lands and the products for twenty years, the averages produced, and the value of agricultural labor. These facts are of the highest interest, and will stand in favorable contrast, as I have before remarked, with similar exbibits for any other country, even the most highly cultivated.
The following table presents a view of all the grain crops, with those of hay and potatoes, for the years 1839, 1849, and 1858 :
..bushels 33,668,144 59 078,695 50,863,502 Wheat.
16,671,661 14,487,351 16,655,483 Oats..
14,393,103 13,472.742 8,026,251 Barley...
5,805,021 5,245,760 5,000,000 Hay.
1,022,037 1,443,142 1,806,441 Buckwheat. .bushels 633,139 638,060
Aggregate of above exclusive of hay 72,097,713 93,902,884 84,314,941 It will be seen that the crop of 1858 was below that of 1849, and only about 17 per cent advance on that of 1839. The value of the crop of 1858 was much greater than either, and probably full double that of 1839. In this entire period of twenty years, the prices of products had been gradually but regularly rising, especially so of corn, the great staple of the State.
The above three years, however, are very far from being correct tests of an average crop, for it happened that each of these years was relatively a bad year for crops. Let us then take the years 1855 and 1857, which we have for wheat and corn, and make a proportional (as between 1849 and 1858) for the minor crops. We have then this result :-
134,756,754 141,452,800 We see here a wide difference. The crops of 1855 were, up to that time, the largest ever grown in the State; but those of 1857 exceeded those of 1855 by at least 7,000,000 bushels.
Taking the crop 1849 as a unit of measure, we find that the crop of 1855 was an advance of 40 per cent on that, and the one of 1857 an advance of 50 per cent.
As the crop of 1857 was very good, and the crop of 1858 a very bad one, and they are the most recent we have, we shall obtain a very fair view of the average production of grain in this State by taking the average of these two. Thus:
Aggregate grain crop of 1857.
Sum of the two years...
226,767,741 Average production of the State, 112,883,870 bushels. Taking each separate article, this average would be made up as follows, viz. :Corn...... bush. 70,000,000 | Other grains.... .bush, 3,000,000 Wheat... 20,000,000 Potatoes.
16,000,000 This is slightly over the amount, and occurs from the absence of fractions. It is certain this State has in several years produced a greater aggregate. Nature, however, never produces averages. If one crop is an average, another is much greater or less. The actual results present great departures from the abstract average. This mathematical ratio, however, is valuable, for, like a straight line, it presents a fair standard of comparison. As a general principle, the aggregale results of crops alternate with alternate years. It is very rare that two consecutive years, all crops are either excessive or deficient. It may be regarded as a law of experience, that if the general crops are deficient in one year, it will be made up in the next, and the converse. A more certain mode probably of determining the real advance of a State in agricultural products will be to ascertain the increase of arable land, and the degree of cultivation. In a series of Fears, the results must correspond very nearly to the number of arable acres. As there is a mathematical average for a given number of acres in a given series of
years, so if this pumber of acres be increased, the general averages must be increased
AGRICULTURE IN HAYTI.
President GEFFRARD, with the advice of the Council of State, has published a decree establishing farm schools in all the arrondissements of the republic. Each school is to bave fifty pupils, who are to be supported by the State.
PRODUCTS OF WISCONSIN. ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL, FARM, MANUFACTURING, AND MINERAL STATISTICS OF THE ETAT
OF WISCONSIN, ETC.
182,640 Beans and peas.
340,864 522,653 tons 1,842,917 Pig iron.
4,718 Clover seed.
1,785 Grass seed...
853 453 Cheese.
86,459 Lead, smelted.
6,401,434 Cattle and caives on hand.
392,114 No. 4,746,901 slaughtered..
602,652 Hogs on hand.
1,458,928 Horses and mules....
4,671,212 Sheep and lambs on hand...
55,400 Boots and shoes...
148,444 pairs 397,563 Cotton goods..
9,587 reams 11.676 Whisky..
276,549 galls. 80,010 Wine..
The indigo ipsurrection in Bengal, says the Boston Courier, is an affair of some commercial consequence. Whatever may be the result of it, the production and manufacture of that staple article of trade will at least receive a temporary and serious check. We, as well as England, now derive our principal supply of Indigo from Bengal, from whence the annual export reaches, probably, the value of fifteen millions of dollars. Half a century ago, or more, this continent supplied the world with iodigo, it having been extensively cultivated in the Central American States and Venezuela, and the Antilles, where its produce was for a long time greatly superior to that of India. The Spanish process of manufacture, which was employed on this continent, was introduced into Bengal somewhere about the beginning of the present century, and the produce of America was soon superceded by that of the more genial soil of India.
The present disturbance in Bengal, which is called an insurrection, is in fact a“ strike" of the peasantry, or the ryots, as the native farmers are called.