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In this reconstruction no hypothesis is used; but the facts furnished by Dr. Heysbam are rigidly adhered to. In the adjustment of the eighth column the geometrical mean of five ratios is indeed used as the true ratio; but that makes very little difference in the final result. It is, moreover, the fairest mode of adjustment that suggests itself, and being in accordance with all the best tables, it can scarcely be called a bypothesis.

The final resulting table differs but little from Mr. Milne's. Beginning even with it at fifteen, it falls below slightly to nineteen, is even again at twenty and twenty-one, then below to twenty-nine, even at thirty, abore to thirty-eight, below to forty five, above to forty.eight, below to sixty, above to sixty-eight, below to seventy-five, above to eighty-one, below to eighty-seven, above to ninety seven, and then below to ihe end of the table—the differences being always inconsiderable. And yet the new table is free from all the anomalies in Mr. Milne's. There is no sudden increase in the mortality; there are no decrements in the rate, while Mr. Milne has several; the differences from year to year, though not uniform, are regular. All the value of the old table is preserved, while its defects and irregularities bave disappeared. And this, without any artifice or arbitrary adjustment, but only by the substitution of an arithmetical for a grapbical mode of interpolation. The necessity of adjusting the Carlislé table is universally acknowledged, and all the premiums of our life companies that profess to be derived from it are not taken from the table itself, but from some of its adjustments. Mr. Woolhouse has adopted an adjusted Carlisle table in his calculations for the International, and, knowing his mathematical skill, we do not doubt it is much superior to the original. To our adjusted table we shall not hesitate to give a larger weight in the combination we propose than to Mr. Milne's :Rate of Adjusted

Adjusted New Age. mortality.

Living Dying. 15...

.0002
.000 2

.C067 .0067 6300 16.. 67

85
68

67 6258 17...

1300

68

68 6216 18...

70
69 1332 92

69

68 6174 19...

70
70 1351

70

6132 71 70 1361

71

70 6090 70 1360 97

71

71 6047 70 1350 98

73

6004 23...

70
71 133!

98

74 73 6961 24... 5921

71
72 1304 98

5917 25... 5879

73
73 1271 97

76

5873 26... 5836

74
76 1232

78

18 5828 27. 6793 78 1189

80

80

6783 28.. 5748 87 1142

82

5737 98 1093

84 5690 101 1010 88

.87

87 5642 31. 102 100 912

90

90

6593 32 101 101 887 84

95

95

5343 101 102 843 84 100

5491 5417 102 103

106 104 5437 35.. 5362 102 104 786 87

111

110

5381 36... 5307 106 106 771 89 115 114 5322 37... 5251 109 110 764 92 120

119

5261 5194 112 115

763

125 124 5198 5136 119 121 767 100 130

129

5134 40... 5075 130 128

802 108 135

5068 41... 5009 138 135 827

115

139 137 6001 42... 4910 144 14J 842 120 143 140 4933

rate.

Ratio.

rate.

table

80

1194
1255

66

69

63

89

Carlisle

table. 6300 6261 6219 6176 6133 6090 6047 6005 5963

69

94 96

20.

21

69
70

22...

75

75

96

[blocks in formation]

4127 4057

3630 3526 3414 3296

63...

Carlisle
Age.

table.
43... 4569
44..

4798 45... 4727 46... 4657 47... 4588 48... 4521 49...

4458 50... 4397 51

4338 5?... 4276 53... 4211 54... 4143 55... 4073 56... 4000 67... 3924 58...

3842 59...

3749 60... 3643 61... 3521 62.

3395

3268 64...

3143 65... 3018 66... 2891 67... 2177 68... 2648 69... 2525 70...

2101 71..

2:77 72..

2143 73.

1997 74.

1841 75... 1675 76... 1515 77.

1359 78.

1213 79.

1081 80.

953 81... 837 82..

725 83...

623 84...

629 85...

445 86...

367 87...

296 88... 232 89...

181 90...

142 91...

105 92...

75 93...

54 94..

40 95..

30 96

23

18 98..

14 99...

11 100...

9 101...

7 102...

5 103...

3 104...

1

Rate of mortality.

146 148 148 148 146 139 137 134 143 152 161 169 179 190 209 242 283 335 358 374 383 398 411 425 444 464 491 516 589 682 781 902 955 1030 1074 1089 1184 122 134 141 151 159 175 193 216 226 215 261 286 280 259 250 233 217 222 214 182 222 287 400

667 1000

Adjusted
rate. Living.

145 849
147 847
147 838
146 824
143 804
141 779
140 751
141

700
145

655 151 617 161 584 170 555 181 631 196 511 218

494 247 480 280 468 314 466 345 464 369 460 385

452 398 438 412 421 423 401 446 878 467 354 498 328 543 293 603 262 681 233 770 207 860 183 941 162 1000 143 1062

126 1115 111 1177 98 124

87 133 78 141 70 151 63 163 56 177 50 191

45 203 40 220 35 238 30 251 26 259 21 267 17 261 13 247 10 236

7 227

6 214

4 212

3 223

2 251

2
314

1
442
643
1000

Dying. 123 123 123 121 119 116 112 105 99 95 93 94 97 102 107 114 124 140 153 164 172 179 183 185 186 185 183 177 171 165 169 154 149 144 139 134 128 123 117 112 107 101 96 90 84 78 72 65 54 45 35 28 21 18 13 11 10 10 10

Ratio.

145 145 147 147 148 149 149 149 150 152 159 169 183 200 219 240 267 300 330 357 881 409 435 461 493 523 558 600 653 708 768 841 920 1007 1103 1207 1306 141 150 160 170 180 192 200 210 223 240 250 257 265 269 280 300 300 825 365 500 500 1000

Adjnstsd Now rate.

tablo. 142

4864 144

4795 145 4726 146 4658 147 4590 147 4523 148 4457 149

4391 151 4326 155

4261
162

4195
170
183
198 3982
216 8903
238 3819
263

3728
290
318
347
374
398

3173
423
451
479
512
547
587
632
685
743
807
878 1662
960 1516
1042
1131
1219
130
139
148
156
165
173
182
190
199
208
218
225
233
211
217
256

39
274

29
304

21
330
402
480

6
666

3 1000

1

3047 2918 2787 2653 2517 2379 2239 2097 1953 1808

1371 1228 1089 956 832 716 610 515 430 356 291 235 188 149 116 90 69 52

97...

15 10

Art. II.--GEOGRAPIIICAL DISCOVERY IN EASTERN AFRICA;

WITH REFERENCE TO ITS COMMERCE AND THE INFLUENCE WHICH THE PRO

POSED SUEZ CANAL IS LIKELY TO EXERCISE UPON ITS DEVELOPMENT; AND A SEKTCH OF RECENT POLITICAL EVENTS IN ABESSIXIA AND MADAGASCAR.

At no time has discovery taken such rapid strides towards unfolding the geography of Inner Africa as within the last few years. Livingstone, Barth, Galton, Andersson, and many others, have not only traversed large tracts of country previously left blank on our maps, or at the most filled up by rivers, lakes, and mountain-chains, laid down from imperfect native reports, but have embodied their results in maps, based upon astronomical observations, or a careful estimate of distances.

Eastern Africa has taken its due share in the general progress, and from the peculiar interest attaching to its geographical features, and the comparative safety with which travelers may proceed inland, we may confidently expect it soon to be one of those portions of the continent most accurately known to us. Its coast-line had been surveyed between the years 1822–6, by Capt. W. F. Owen and bis officers, a survey to which but immaterial additions were made by the French expedition under M. Guillain, (1847–8.) Lieutenant Cristopher, in 1844, visited Giredi and some other places on the lower Haines River, but M. Maizan, a French officer, who in the same year attempted to penetrate into the interior, was slain by the natives at three days' journey from the coast.*

The inland exploration of that part of Eastern Africa may be dated from the time when Dr. Krapf, of the Church Missionary Society, established himself at Rabbai Mpia, near Mombaz, 1844, a place wbich subsequently became the starting point for several journeys into the interior, undertaken by himself and fellow-laborers. Dr. Krapf visited thus Ukambani twice, in 1849 and 1851, and Fuga, the capital of Usambara, in 1848 and 1852. The Rev.J. Rebmann undertook three journeys to Jaga in 1818 and 1852, and the Rev. J. Erhardt, in 1853, proceeded to Fuga. In addition to this, Dr. Krapf explored the whole of the coast from Cape Guardafui to Cape Delgado, for objects connected with the mission. The most remarkable result obtained by these journeys is the discovery of several mountains covered by perennial snow, a discovery which can only be denied if we assume the missionaries capable of deliberately advancing false statements.t True, no astronomical observations were taken, and the routes explored have not been laid down with desirable accuracy ; nevertheless, the accounts of the missionaries, from their long residence in the country and close intercourse with the natives, with whom they were able to converse in their own language, give to their accounts quite

* Henry 9. Arc Angelo, in 1917, and Captain Short, in 131), claim to have nzcende i tho river Jub for a considerable distance. M. Guillain, who in 1847 lolged in the very room at Morka pre viously occupied by Angelo, heard from his host that that traveler ascen led the river for a few miles merely, In fact, the lower Jab is not considered navigible at all by tho Irab merchants, who carry their merchandise Overland to Gan na, above which the river is navigable for a considerable distance. (see Guillain, "Documents sur l'Afrique Orientalo," II., 181.)

+ In an Itinerary to Kikuyu, by way of Ukambani, given by M. Guillain, (II., 239,) we find a very high invuntain in Kikuyu described as " being of a wbito color, would at the foot, but entirely barren near its suminit." This is undoubteilly Krapf's Kenia, Kega'a, or Kirenia . Mr. Cooley, in his " Inner Africa Laid Open." ridicules the idea of the Kenia and the Kilimanjaro being covered with perennial snow, whether on sufficient grounds or no is at best but doubtfal.

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an independent value. Dr. Krapf places Yata in Ukambani at a distance
of 270 miles from the coast. He spent fifteen days on the average in
traveling to or from that place, and on his return journey, in 1851, only
ten days. In the latter he would consequently have traveled at the rate
of twenty-seven miles a day, or at least thirty-five miles of actual travel-
ing, the above distance being given in a direct line. Assuming Dr. Krapf
to have traveled at the rate of ten miles a day, (on his last journey fil-
teen iniles,) Yata would be 150 miles from the coast. At Kitui, a vil-
lage four days in a northerly direction from Yata, the snow mountain
Kenia could be seen from an eminence during clear weather, and its dis-
tance would appear to be at least 100 miles; the Kilimanjaro could be
seen from the same locality, towards the S. W. The approximate posi-
tion of these two mountains we believe to be as follows:-
Kenia,

1° 45' S. lat. 36° E. long.
Kilimanjaro.....

3° 30' In addition to the valuable information afforded by the missionaries with regard to the countries which came under their personal observation, we are indebted to them for a mass of information about the interior, collected from native sources, which the Rev. J. Rebmann and Rev. J. Erhardt incorporated in a map, first published in the proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1856, and the most striking feature of which is a vast lake of a curious shape, extending through twelve degrees of latitude. Dr. Krapf has now published some further information with respect to the countries east of Ukambani, in his work on Eastern Africa.

The maps of the missionaries, though open to criticism, as are more or less all compilations of this kind, at once attracted the attention of geographers, and the Royal Geographical Society, aided by government, resolved to send out an expedition to test the accuracy of the data furnished. Major R. Burton, a man well experienced in Eastern travel, and favorably known by his “ Pilgrimage to Medina and Mekka,” and a visit to Harar, was intrusted with its direction, and having been joined by Captain Speke, his former companion, set out for Zanzibar, where he arrived on the 20th of December, 1857. After a visit to the Rev. J. Rebmann, at his missionary station at Kisuludini, and a preparatory journey to Fuga, the capital of l'sambara, they set out for the interior on the 26th June, 1858. Traversing a mountainous tract, which begins about a bundred miles from the coast, and nowhere exceeds 6,000 feet in beight, they reached the great inner plateau of Uniamesi, which at Kazeb, an Arab trading post, has an elevation of 3,400 feet. Thence westward the country forms a declined plane, and the elevation of the lake of Takanyika, or Unamesi, which our travelers reached the 30 of March, is 1,843 feet. The lake extends for about 300 miles to the north of Cjiji, as ascertained by actual examination, and is enclosed there by a crescentshaped chain of mountains, whicb Captain Speke looks upon as identical with the Lune Montes, Ptolemy's Mountains of the Moon. This arstiinption we believe, however, to be premature; Ptolemy bad no personal knowledge of the countries of the Cpper Nile, and can scarcely be rupposed to bave been aequainted with the crescent-like shape of the mountains in question. We would therefore rather, with Dr. Beke, claim this appellation for the snow-capped Kenia and Kiimanjaro, as far as we know the highest mountains in that part of Africa. According to native

!

information, the lake extends towards the south 8° of latitude, where it terminates, communicating perhaps, during the rainy season, with the Rukwe Lake.* The information obtained by Dr. Livingstone from an Arab merchant, whom he met on the Liambye, tallies satisfactorily with that obtained by Captains Burton and Speke. That merchant skirted the southern shore of the lake on coming from the coast, and places Cazembe's Townt at ten days' journey to the S. W. of it. A Suahili whom Dr. Beke had interrogated at Mauritius (vide " Athenæum," 12th July, 1856,) gave similar information, and describes the Taganyika as being distinct from the more southerly Niassa. To our knowledge, however, not a single instance of either Arab or native having navigated such a lake lengthways has been adduced in support of this assumption.

On their return from the Taganyika, Capt. Burton remained at Kazeh, to recruit his failing health, whilst Captain Speke proceeded northward to explore the Victoria Nyanza, Lake Victoria, or Lake of Ukerewe, which he reached on the 3d of August, and ascertained to be 3,738 feet above the sea. A river is said to debouch from its northern extremity, and to flow into the Nile. Assuming the lake to extend to 1° north latitude, and the development of the river to be equal to twice the direct distance to Gondokoro, the altitude of which is 1,606 feet. I such a river would bave a fall of five-and-a-half feet per mile, a current which would render it quite impracticable for navigation.

The first information regarding the Upper Nile, or Bahr el Abiad, is due to the three expeditions sent out by the Egyptian government, between 1839 and 1812. Private travelers, such as MM. Brun, Rollet, Malzac, and Vaysieres, but especially the Roman Catholic missionaries at Gondokoro since 1849, have considerably added to our knowledge. The visit of a traveler capable of making reliable astronomical observations is, however, urgently required to clear up the doubts regarding the true position of the Upper Nile. The position of Janker Island is variously stated by different observers :

Selim Bimbashi, commander of second Egyptian

Expedition
M. d'Arnaud, member of two Egyptian Expedit'ns
M. Knoblecher, Roman Catholic missionary......

4° 35' N. lat. 32° 25' E, loog. 4° 42' N. lat. 31° 38' E. long. 4° 37. N. lat. 28° 40' E, long.

Unfortunately, the final results alone of M. Knoblecher's observations have been given, and we are not, therefore, in a position to judge of the degree of confidence to be attached to them. The information obtained by Captain Speke regarding the Kibiri River, (the Bahr el Abiad, above Janker Island, is called Tibiri, spelt Tubiri by the French,) which is said

* Perhaps identical with the Kalagwe, mentioned by Livingstone as communicating with the Taganyika.

+ The approximate position of Cazembe's Town (Lunda or Lucenda) is known from the espedi. tions of Lacerda (1792) and Monteiro, and Jamitto (1832, see page 463.) The former made astronomnical observations at Chama, (Moiro Achinto,) a village 150 miles to the S. E of it. The Roapura River, which passes close to it, according to Dr. Livingstone, enters the Liambye, and the eleration of Cazembe's Town could not therefore be assumed at less than 5,000 feet, or more than 3,000 feet above the Taganyika.

The altitude of Gondokoro has been deduced from barometrical observations by Dovyak, continued during thirteen months. The same observer makes Khartum +82 feet above the sea; aecording to Russeger, it is 1,525 feet, and according to Captain Peel, 1,286 feet

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