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those of Dr. KRAPF, may almost be said to have formed a junction at Cape Del-
gado. Indeed, the travelers approached each other within five degrees, the small
sections of the coast not visited by either, being confined within 10° and 15°
southern latitude. The collection towards a history of the literature of Abes-
sinia and the natives of Eastern Africa, has been compiled from the memoranda
of Dr. KRAPF and other sources, and suffices in bring together such information
on the subject as cannot fail to interest the student of ethnology and linguistic
science.
3.--Autobiographical Recollections. By the late Charles Robert LESLIE, R.

A. Edited with a prefatory Essay on LESLIE as an artist, and selections from
his correspondence. By Tom Taylor, Esq. 12mo., pp.363. Boston : Tick-
nor & Fields.

Mr. LESLIE's admirers, of whom he possesses many, both in England and United States, will have good reason to thank the publishers for the fit manner in which they have brought forth these recollections of the artist whose happy combination of endowments as an artist, added to the pure morality of his private life, have endeared his memory to so many. In sketching these recollections and correspondence, we have been struck, though a stranger, with the genuine qualities indicated, especially in this correspondence of Mr. LESLIE's--habitually sincere, affectionate, equable, thoughtful of others, tolerant, loving to dwell on the good rather than the bad about him, bis life was indeed a victory, and it would be well if there were more lives that should show so exact a parallel of good attributes in the workman and his works. 4.- Movement. Cure: an Exposition of the Swedish Method of Treating Disease

by Movement Cure, Embracing the History and Philosophy of this System, with Examples and Directions for their use in various forms of Chronic Disease

- being a complete manual of exercises ; together with a Summary of the Principles of General Hygiene. By George H. Taylor, M.D. 12mo., cloth, pp. 396. New York : Fowler & Wells.

The Movement Cure as now practiced, was first introduced by Peter Henry Ling, of Sweden. In 1814 the Swedish Government gave it sanction and support, since which time it has been steadily growing in public favor. Dr. Taylor, the author, has given the subject much attention, having visited Sweden for the express purpose of learning the system from its native teachers. The Movement-Cure, as a specialty of medical practice, depends entirely on physiological means for the accomplishment of its purposes. It points out the means of directing the corporeal energies into just those channels in which they are most needed, in order to perfect the balance of the physiological processes. It enables the system to develop and maintain its forces in greater amount. because it employs them naturally and without undue waste. And because it thus limits itself to a realm of facts concerning which there is no question, it has a right to expect the approval of physicians of all the different schools, even of those advocating opposing theories. It requires assent only to the plainest and most obvious facts and inferences of physiology. In the Movement-Cure, all physicians meet on common ground and blend their differences. Those who are tired of drugs, will rejoice at the publication of this work ; and although they may not subscribe to all its teachings, will find in it much good sepse, practical advice, and a plan which all may adopt, and practice at home. 5.- The Sand Hills of Jutland. By Hans CHRISTIAN ANDERSON. author of

the “ Improvisation,” &c. 12mo., pp. 267. Boston : Ticknor & Fields.

Among the many story books we are receiving, it is long since we have persued one so charmingly interesting as are these fanciful sketches of Mr. Anderson's, whether viewed in their moral light, or in the peculiar winning style in which they are written, which, though purely imaginative, a much higher object seems to have been kept in view than is usual in works of this class. Thus while exciting the fancy to the utmost, each tale is characterized by a well de. fined and useful moral purpose, which cannot but prove beneficial to those for whom they are intended—ibe youthful reader.

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CONTENTS OF NO. III., VOL. XLIII.

ARTICLES

PAOE

ART.
I. REVIEW, HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL, OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF

SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY; OR, INTRODUCTION TO A MORE COMPREHENSIVE
SYSTEM. PART VII. The Intellectual Night or Dark Age of Europe briefly remark-
ed upon, and its Five Distinguishing Features, The Dawn of Modern Science Glanced
at-The Commonly Supposed Intluence of Lord Bacon on the Cause of Science Crit-
ically considered - His System of Philosophy Critically Examined—Descartes and Leib-
nitz Briefly Noticed, as the Great Representative Men of France and Germany, and
to some extent, of the Age, though less so than Bacon-Distinguishing Characteristics
of the Present Age–The necessity of henceforth rendering our Review more strictly
Critical, as it has been hitherto more peculiarly Historical, and of adopting the Syn-
thetic instead of the Analytic Method of considering the Sociological Ideas passing un.
der our Review.....

275

..... 301

II. VALUATION OF LIFE INSURANCE POLICIES. No. v. By Prof. C. F. MoCay, of

Georgia .......
III, FORGERY. By the author of "Commercial Commodities Characterized ".

306 IV. OPIUM TRADE OF INDIA. Origin of Trade--Present Amount-Poppy-Process of

Manufacture-Dealers-Chinese Purchases - American Captain-Steam Citidels-Gamubling Nature-Large Capital - Use of Opium.....

313 V. FINANCIAL HERESIES. By CHARLES H. Carroll, Mercbant, of Boston........ 317

JOURNAL OF MERCANTILE LAW. Delivery of Cotton

322 Marino Insurance-Breach of Warranty in Marine Policy-When only “ Deviation " Allowable 324

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.

Business of the Month-Imports-Exports-Wheat-Crops- Large Wheat Deliveries-Corn

Elements of Demand-Export and Prices for July-Cotton and Harvests --Supply too Large -No Speculation - West Sells all its Surplus--No llome Demand-Railroad securities -Rates of Money - Fall in Value-Specio-Foreign Bills - Specie Shipments - California Bills -United States Mint-Assay-Office-Current of specie-Bank Reserve-Bank DiscountsRepresentative Value-The Inflation of Prices-Legislative Enaetinents..

826-333 VOL. XLIII.-NO. III.

18

... 359

PAOE JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE. British Specie Imports and Exports, six months, to June 30..

334 English customs Duties..

335 Banks of the United States, January, 1860

336 City Weekly Eank Reuns-banks of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Pittsburg. St. Louis, Providence..

337 New York City Banks, quarterly statement, June 25, 1060. ---New York City Banks.

340 Valuation and Taxation in Cincinnati.-Taxable Valuation of Mississippi....

312 Failures in London in 1856-59.-Statistics of Poverty..

343 Debt of Russia.- Bank Profits.-July Dividends....

344 STATISTICS OF TRADE AND COMMERCE. Wool Trade...

345 Sugar and Coffee in layti...

846 Distribution of the Navy.

347 Canada Trade...

348 Cuba and Porto Rico..

349 Silk...

350 Mouths of the Mississippi - Tobacco-Its Growth and Consumption.... .....

351 British Exchange of Colton Goods for Cotton..

852 Annual Coffee Circular.-Exports from New Orleans...

353 Exports of Charleston, S. C., quarter to June 30, 1800.

853 The Cotton Trade.- Stock of Wheat

354 African Laborers.--Cabudian Reciprocity..

355 NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. The Harbor of New York..

356 Ships Building on the Lakes..

357 Lake Tides.-Tonnage on the Lakes

3.58 Disasters on the Lakes - The New Route between the West and England

858 New Lights at Civita Vecchia and Ancona.-Montauk Point Lighthouse, Long Island, N. Y... 359 Lighthouse on Merrill Shell Bank, Coast of Mississippi....

359 Single Revolving Light in the Gull Stream, England......

POSTAL DE PARTMENT. Local Dispatch Posts Suppressed. The Newspaper Window at the London Post-office..... 860

JOURNAL OF INSURANCE. Insurance Dividends.

361 New Hampshire Fire Insurance Companies.

362 COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. Rates of Pilotage in and out of the Mississippi Passes. -Certificate of Origin..

863 Siam Duties

364 Plaqnes. - (austic Soda,

365 Cupy Books with Printed Headings.- IIuman Hair.-Cuban Manifests of Cargoes..

866 RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS. German Railways......

367 Railroads of the State of New York..

368 Railway Statistics...

370 Railroad Receipts for July.-- A Method of Testing the Strength of Steam Boilers.

371 Performance of Locomotives.- Louisville Canal.. New York City Railıoads - Railways of Connecticut.

373 JOURNAL OF MINING, MANUFACTURES, AND ART. TinIt Uses and Commerce......

374 Engraving on Glass

375 Manufacture of Room or Wall Paper.

376 Rays

377 Coiton Spindles..

378 Silvering Lead Tubing.–Gas-light Companies of the United States..

379 Thiinble Manufacturing

350 Cooling of Metal Causing it to llent Itself.– The American Pump.

881 STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c. Vinvards of France

882 American Agriculture...

3-3 Sugar Estates of Cuba -Forests-Their Decrease.

8-4 Parceling of Land in France..

385 The Japanese Silk Worin.--Silk of Zurich.-Flax and silk in Great Britain

806 STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c. Emigration from the British Isles.-- Pennsylvania Cities

337 Russian Emancipation. - Immigration into the West Indies.

388 Population of Maryland in 1962...

389 MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES. Governors of Cuba.-Trading Too Much..

390-391 The cost of Recorering a Debt-No Excellence Without Labor. Benefits of Advertising Illustrated.--Trade and Population am ng the Chief European States 394-395

.392-393 Tobacco ---One Price....

..896-397 The Restless and Dissatisfied.--Freak of Trade..

398 TIE BOOK TRADE. Notices of new Books or new Editions.....

899-400

872

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Art. 1.--REVIEW, HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL, OF TIE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY :*

OR, INTRODUCTION TO A MORE COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM.

PART VIII.

THE INTELLECTUAL NIGHT OR DARK AGE OF EUROPE BRIEFLY REJARKED UPON, AND ITS FIVE DINTINGUISHING FEATURES-THE DAWN OF MODERN SCIENCE GLANCED AT-TIE COMMONLY SUPPOSED INFLUENCE OF LORD BACON ON THE CAUSE OF SCIENCE CRITICALLY CONSIDERED --HIS SYSTEM OF PIILOSOPHY CRITICALLY EXAMINED-DESCARTES AND LEIBNITZ BRIEFLY NOTICED, AS TIE GREAT REPRESENTATIVE MEN OF FRANCE AND GERMANY, AND, TO SOME EXTENT, OF THE AGE, THOUGI LESS SO THAN BAOON-DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF TISE PRESENT AGE-THE NECESSITY HENCEFORTI OF RENDERING OUR REVIEW MORE STRICTLY CRITICAL, AS IT ITAS BEEN HITUERTO MORE PECULIARLY HISTORICAL, AND OF ADOPTING THE SYNTHETIO INSTEAD OF TIE ANALYTIO XETHIOD OF CONSIDERING THE SOCIOLOGICAL IDEAS PASSING UNDER OUR REVIEW.

ness.

The intellectual night which overspread Europe from the latter part of the fifth to that of the fifteenth century was not one of utter dark

The reflecteil sunshine of former science threw a dim and solemn light, resembling twilight, and which may be assimilated to the protracted twilight of the northern latitudes, (if indeed it may not properly be compared to moonlight,) over the darkened landscape of European society, by which considerable attainments were made in architectural science, though chiefly in the departments of church building and castle building, and in other sciences which appertain to a state of society considerably elevated above that of rude or simple barbarism.

For in the intellectual night, to which mankind are liable, and in which they seern often to remain for a considerable period, without the fact being malz appirent to common objervation -as a native of the torrid zone miglit pass through a summer night in the arctic regions, without

* Entered according to an act of Congress, in the year 1859, by Geo. W. & JNO. A. Wood, in the Clork's O.lice of the District Court of the United States, for the southern district of New York,

realizing that it was night—the functions of the intellect are not by any means suspended, not any more so than are those of the natural world, by the terrestrial night to which it is subject; although the functions of nature in both cases—the physical in the one, and the psychological in the other—are performed with much less vigor and healthful manifestations during the period of night.

Nor was this intellectual night of Europe unrelieved by such transient and partial illuminations as often relieve the darkness of the terrestrial night. Intellectual lights of uncommon magnitude, like splendid meteors, (if indeed they may not more properly be compared to blazing comets,) among the brightest of which may be named Charlemagne, Alfred the Great, Abelard, Aquinas, and Roger Bacon, gleamed occasionally across the benighted sky, causing partial and transient illuminations, though diffusing po steady light amidst the general darkness. During the same period, the light shed from the far North, by the poets and historians of Iceland, then considerably in advance of other European countries, has been beautifully compared to the Aurora Borealis of their native skies, * diversifying the gloom of the European night. During the same period, also, the lingering civilization of Greece, then concentrated around Constantinople, and which may be assimilated to a huge lamp, fed by the oil of a former science, cast a pale and sickly light, in the region of the southwest, though penetrating but a little way into the surrounding and general gloom.

During this period of European history, which has been sometimes designated as the “ Middle Age,” and sometimes as the “Dark Age, there were five prominent influences, or causes, powerfully operating upon the condition of European society, and which have chietly engaged the attention of those who have treated this portion of general history, either as mere historians, or as critical inquirers into the anatomy of human society-the Feudal System, the Spirit of Chivalry, the Crusades, the Ecelesiastical Authority of the Romish Church, and the Scholastic Pbilosophy. Neither of these influences, however, need detain us long, in this place, and simply because the ideas which they prominently suggest in relation to the philosophy of society are not of sufficient importance to demand particular consideration, in our Review, which, in the more peculiarly historical portion of it, on which we are now engaged, does not aim to notice any other ideas in Sociology than those which have been either theoretically announced, or else practically and prominently illustrated by actual occurrences or institutions, in former times, and before the present age, in which sociological ideas have assumed so much definiteness and form, in a theoretical point of view, as to admit of a more systematical and strictly critical examination.

It is true, that from a critical and searching examination of these inAuences, or indeed any one of them, in relation to their remote, as well as their immediate bearings on the condition of society, we might deduce many highly important principles in Sociology. For as Burke has justly remarked, “every theine branches off into infinity;" and, as Carlyle, a more profound thinker even than Burke, though a far less accurate and precise one, has said much to the same point, “all objects are as windows,

* See Sir George Mackenzie's Travels in Iceland, in 1809; also, American Review, vol is., p. 986, October No. of 1812.

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