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bearing a good price. But the last two or three years have proved excellent wine years, and the prices of tobacco have been considerably reduced. So the tobacco fields are being turned back into vinyards.
German tobacco has been bought by American speculators and exported to the United States, where it is manufactured into cigars and re-exported Europe as American tobacco. The American traders found after a while that they were not buying even German tobacco, but beet and turnip leaves, with which it is extensively adulterated. German cigars, made partly of beet and turnip leaves, are also exported into the United States and to other countries. Belgium and Holland and the Zollverein are the chief consumers of the beet and turnip leaf tobacco, and the article stands in the way of the consumption of the pure American tobacco. The quantity of German tobacco pow op hand, including the beet and turnip leaf crops, is represented as immense. It is held back for higher prices. One single house bas five hundred quintals of leaves on hand, waiting for a rise in the leaf market.
The American tobacco which is manufactured into spuff is mixed with fire per cent of German tobacco, in consequence of which all snuff manufactured at Bingen, etc., is subject to a transit duty when exported to Northern Germany. Thus the American tobacco, which has already paid duty, pays duty a secoud time. “ This," writes one of our consuls, " is a splendid specimen of dis-united Germany.” The United States will be a perfect paradise for custom-house officials under a like system.
In this report there are fisty consular dispatches respecting the tobacco trade of the United States in various parts of the world. The tariffs upon tobacco, and the monopoly regulations concerning it, and laws affecting its price to the consumer, are given in this report with much detail.
BRITISH EXCHANGE OF COTTON GOODS FOR COTTON. The Cotton Supply journal gives the following statement of the exchanges of cotton goods by England in 1859, for raw cotton, with its two great sources of cotton supply, India and the United States :
EXCHANGE WITH INDIA IN 1859. Export of cotton goods to India.....
.. lbs. 193,603,270 Import of raw cotton from India..
192,930,880 Excess of export.......
1,272,390 EXCHANGE WITLI TIE UNITED STATES IN 1859. Export of cotton goods, 1859.
45,029,411 Import of raw cotton, 1859...
Excess of imports.....
916.677.853 It appears that India and China together took last year over two-fifths of all the British exports of cotton manufactures. The statements are thus given :
BRITISH EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS IN 1859. To India.....
.yards 968,016,350 China, etc.,...
Total to India and China..
ANNUAL COFFEE CIRCULAR. Messrs. LONSDALE, of New Orleans, give the following figures in their annual circalar : EXPORTS OF COFFEE TO THR UNITED STATES FROM RIO DE JANEIRO, FROM MAY 1, 1859, TO
MAY 1, 1860. New Orleans.. ,bags 272,979 Other United States ports... 155,212 New York.
171,935 Total to U. S. in 1859-60. 945,413 Philadelphia.
1858-59. 1,262,948 1857-58. 966,029
TOTAL EXPORTS FROM RIO TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD,
1,959,927 1,875,284 1,907,562
From 1st of May, 1859, to 1st of May, 1860...... 1858
1858. Estimated stock of coffee on hand at Rio on 1st of May, 1860... Stock of Rio coffee on hand at all the importing ports of the United
States is estimated at, this day.. Same period last year.
Decrease of stock this year in United States... Stock on hand in United States July 1, 1859.. Received in United States in 1859 and 1860..
60,800 103,800 945,000
1857-58... Decrease of sales for consumption this year, compared with 1857–58
1,005,800 1,209,000 1,116,000
EXPORTS FROM NEW ORLEANS, The Crescent of Wednesday says :— The value of exports of produce from this port for the quarter ending on the 31st of March last, are larger than any on record. The increase for the three-quarters of the fiscal year of 1859-60 is nearly $10,000,000 over the three-quarters of 1858-59 :
EXPORTS FOR THB QUARTERS ENDING Sept. 30, 1858. $11,826,595 | Sept. 30, 1859.
$9,064,209 Dec. 31, 1858 28,822,809 Dec. 31, 1859.
32,351,775 Mch. 31, 1859. 31,057,053 | Mch. 31, 1860.
EXPORTS OF CHARLESTON, S. C., QUARTER TO JUNE 30, 1860.
$25,430 Rosin and turpentine.
41,513 Cotton, Sea Island.
4,638,788 85,208,489S .bush. 9,464
THE COTTON TRADE. The Cotton Supply Reporter, an English periodical, gives in its last issue the following statement of the exchanges of cotton goods by England, in 1855, for raw cotton, with its two great sources of cotton supply, India and the United States. To India the export was greater than the import in actual weight :Export of cotton goods to India, 1859..
lbs. 193,603,270 Import of raw cotton, 1859...
Excess of imports......
916,677,863 The journal from which this statement is taken very justly argues that it is better for England to cultivate the Asiatic market for its cotton goods, instead of the American, in which argument we heartily concur. Some further statements of the vastness of the Asiatic market for manufactures are given in the same connection, as follows :Export of cotton goods to India and China, 1869.... .yards 1,162,351,982 Export of cotton goods to all the rest of the world, 1859.
1,401,093,410 India and China together thus take almost as much as all the rest of the world of English manufactures of cotton. Of this vast stock to Asia, India takes 968,016,350 yards, leaving for China but 194,340,000 yards. It is likely that our own export to China is quite equal to this, if not in excess. American drills are far superior, in Chinese estimation, to any British cloths of the same description, and the market for them is now very rapidly increasing.
STOCK OF WHEAT. The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser gives the following estimate of the stock of wheat July 12. There are other estimates which make the quantity nearer 3,000,000 bushels. We put this on record, however, as a matter of interest at this time :Stock of wheat afloat on New York canals, destined for tidewater, not including shipments from interior, July 11. bush.
472,644 Stock of wheat afloat on lakes, destined for Buffalo and Oswego, July 11..
271,982 Stock in store in Buffalo, June 23.
243,289 Add receipts June 23 to July 14.
Estimated stock in store in New York, July 14...
Albany and Troy, July 12...
Kenosha, Racine, St. Joseph, Waukegan, Toledo, and Detroit....
Total stock of wheat as above..
AFRICAN LABORERS. The correspondence of the Secretary of State with the foreign consuls contains the following in relation to the French arrangements for African laborers, from CHARLES KIMBALL, Esq., consul at Point a Pitre, Gaspe :
Having received your correspondence of 17th June last, enclosing copy of a letter from Wm. Morgan, Esq., United States Consul at Marseilles, concerning the emigration of negroes to the French colonies from the coast of Africa, I have the honor to inform you that I find, according to the rules of the government, it is impossible for the authorities here to answer any communications of importance on the subject until my letter should be sent to the minister in France. Therefore the information I shall give is, in my opinion, as near the position of affairs as can be ascertained.
The house of Regis, of Marseilles, has a contract with the imperial government of France simply to procure and transport to the islands of Guadaloupe and Martinique a certain number of negroes. The procuring of the negroes is done under the surveillance of an officer of the French marine service, with the aid of an interpreter. The negroes are made to understand the articles of agreement with the French government; it they wish to accept those conditions, then M. Regis, if said negroes are held as prisoners of war by the African chiefs. pay for each from 30 to 50 francs; or, if the negroes are at liberty, he pays them the said sum. From there the negro is taken to the house of Regis and fed at his expense, and according to the rations allowed by the French government, until the ship may be ready to sail
The vessel destined for the transportation of the emigrants must first be surveyed in France by the competent authorities, and a certificate given to the house of Regis as to the capacity of said vessel ; also the amount of wood to be put on board for the voyage. The vessel once on the coast of Africa, the emigrants are placed on board under the certificate received from France, and under the direction of an officer of the French marine. On the voyage to the Island the vessel is under the surveillance of an officer and doctor, and an interpreter appointed by the government. Arriving here the negroes are transferred to the commissioners of emigration likewise appointed from France. These officers are obliged to report directly to France, on the arrival of the ship bere, the state of health, etc., of the emigrants. All being in good health, the commissioners commence to distribute the negroes to the planters, with reference to as equal a distribution as possible.
When on the plantation, they are under the same laws as the coolies, except the negroes are engaged for ten years and the coolies for five years. At the end of their engagement they have the right to demand of the French government to be sent to Africa. On the plantations the negroes are to be paid regularly every Sunday morning for their week's work, at from 12 to 20 francs per day, according to age and sex. Food is provided by the planter according to the code of Napoleon ; also two suites of clothes a year. Planters have no right to work the emigrants at night or Sundays without the emigrants themselves agree to the same, and all such extra work must be paid for as soon as done. To prevent all the abuses on the plantations one of the above-mentioned commissioners visits, at least twice a month, each plantation. Before the courts of justice the emigrant has his rights as well as any other citizen. As we have had but two convoys, about 650 each, which, I believe, are all satisfied, as also the planters. The crops of the island are fast increasing with the emigration.
CANADIAN RECIPROCITY. The Board of Trade of Chicago, at a special meeting held on the 18th, report favorably in regard to the effects of the reciprocity treaty. They give the following facts as reasons for the maintenance of the treaty :
Imports. Exports. Free goods from Canada in 1857....
$222,229 $1,788,968 1868.
THE HARBOR OF NEW YORK. Some time ago, Mr. Charles H. HASWELL, marine engineer, proceeded to make observations on the deposits in the harbor ; he did not propose to consider the encroachment upon the boundaries thereof, by the extension of bulkheads and piers, and the injurious effects therefrom, for the two-fold fact that the necessity of restraining these encroachments had become so manifest to the public at that particular time that not only had the attention of our Legislature been called to the subject, but it was then receiving the consideration of a committe appointed for the purpose of investigating and reporting thereon ; and secondly, that the operation of such encroachment was to investigate the reduction of the tidal volume of the harbor. Accordingly, in a communication to the Board of Underwriters of New York, he thus lucidly and elaborately reports :-“ As a prelude to my task, I assumed it to be indisputable that the bar at Sandy Hook was, in its general features, like the bars of all tidal rivers, and that it presented a series of irregular obstructions stretching across the entrance into the lower bay, with a varying and less depth of water upon it than in the channels within it. The causes admitted to produce this general result are numerous, but the following apply, in my opinion, peculiarly to the locality under consideration :
“1st. The arrest of the current of the last of the ebb tide from the bay, where it meets the first of the sea flood when it surrenders the detritus it holds in sus. pension.
“ 2d. The difference of the flood and ebb currents in their directions.
“3d. The action of ground swells from the sea, which, if heavy and flowing from the southward and eastward, deposit sand and gravel upon the bar, and at all times, when aided by the current of the flood, within the entrance thereof.
“4th. The occasional diminution of the back water of the bays and rivers leading thereto from drouth, and the reduction of the tidal volume by the presence of ice upon fats and the shores.
5th. A reduction of the tidal area by the constant accretion of detritus upon the shores.
" The first three positions are similar, in a great degree, to those entertained by E. K. Calver, R. N.; the fifth one, by Sir HENRY DE LA BECHE.
" In the prosecution of my observations, I selected sixteen locations which I thought best suited to furnish me with the elements desired, and providing my. self with an equal number of bottles of like capacity, (30 cubic inches, I repeatedly filled one of them with water from each of these localities at half-tide, (both ebb and flow,) both in dry and wet weather and at different seasons of the year; such water was then filtered, and the residuum weighed and poted in grains, the average results of which, deduced from the operations of five years, furnish the following WEIGHT, IN GEAINS, OF DEPOSITS IN 30 CUBIO INCHES OF WATER TAKEN FROM THE
UNDER MENTIONED LOCALITIES. Sandy Hook.. 109 | Manhattanville..
.578 Narrows..... .265 Harlem Bridge
1.031 Robbins' Reef .367 | Hell Gate...
1.099 Ellis' Island, .811 | Thirtieth street, east..
1.265 Battery... 1.687 | Twenty-third-street, east
2.968 Liberty-street... 6.927 Grand-street....
4.000 Canal street 8.631 Wall-street..
6.187 Thirtietb-street, west .937 Broad-street.