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for immediate relief. Their report adds to the evidences of the general and great solicitude which is felt in England, to make India a great cotton-exporting country. But it is only recently that the feeling has prevailed that she could become
And even now the committee say, “ po greater want exists in England that a knowledge of the wondrous resources of India.” The association have been indefatigable in supplying that want. The fruits of the exertion made there are bighly encouraging. It is supposed that the export this year will reach a million of bales.
It is probable that the results of such exertions, co-operating with the growing demand, will continue to increase the supply. But it is not probable that the supply will be for many years much more evenly balanced with the demand thap it is now. A relatively deficient production would so raise prices as to check consumption. After all, if we consider a statement in this report that the present consumption of Europe and the United States is at the rate of sixand-a-half pounds a head, it will be seen that the demand is not at this moment 80 far in advance of the supply, bowever much present production may be behind the present or prospective capacities of the British cotton mills. With such a consumption per head, the population of Europe and America could be supplied by the field of our own cotton fields alone. But the tendency undoubt. edly is to an increase of that amount per bead, so that the average shall be brought nearer the United States standard, which is fifteen pounds per head per annum. Supposing the average consumption per head throughout the civilized world to be the consumption of the United States, its inhabitants would require two countries with the present capacities of the United States to supply it.
In the view we take of it, attempts to reduce the present price of cotton will be unavailing. At present prices, the tendency of consumption is to outrud production. Increased production will only lead to increased consumption; but not to any reduction of price. In consequence, our cotton planters have nothing to fear from all the efforts made to augment the production.
To what further extent the cotton cultivation may be pushed in the United States is a question which cannot be answered without a knowledge of the quantity of labor available for that production. The cotton area in this country would probably produce one hundred millions of bales a year. But such a production would pre-suppose an addition of some seventy or eighty millions to the number of our slaves, an addition which it would take the country 150 years to realize without importations from Africa. Confining our attention, therefore, to the more immediately interesting question of how much additional labor cap be applied yearly, we may assume that the natural increase of the blacks will add 1,500,000 at the end of ten years to the existing number, or an average of 150,000 a year. As cotton will continue to pay better than any other branch of agricultural industry, it will be prosecuted somewhat at the expense of those other branches by withdrawing hands from the latter. There are no statistics to show the actual numerical amount of this withdrawal. We have heard it stated at 60,000 annually from all the non-cotton slaveholding States. This emigration would consist in a large measure of hands purchased expressly for use on the cotton plantations. If we suppose that from both sources, natural increase and emigration, an addition be made to the working force of an average of 70,000 hands yearly, we shall have as the result of their labor an increase in
ten years of 3,500,000 bales. This would be an average of 350,000 bales a year, and an increase of 80 per cent on the estimated crop (say 4,400,000 bales) of this year. The increase in the last ten years was from 2,600,000 to 4,400,000 bales, or 70 per cent; so that the result we have indicated varies only so far from the experience of the last ten years as may be supposed to be warranted by the increased stimulants to the cultivation of our great staple.
But, as we have remarked, this enormous crop of near eight millions of bales will probably all be sold at present prices, paying our planters and merchants some sixty dollars a bale, and enriching the country by an annual flow of wealth into it of near four hundred millions of dollars.
A CALIFORNIA FRUIT-ORCHARD, We call attention, says a California paper, to the famous Briggs' Fruit-Orcbard, advertised in our columns. This is undoubtedly one of the most prolific fruit-orchards in the United States, if not in the world. We give the following items from a letter which was addressed to us by the owner :
Briggs' Ranch, July 19th, 1860. Editor FARMER :-Yours of the 16th inst. is before me. Our orchard has taken the first premium for the two past years.
In 1858 we sold 450,000 pounds of fruit, mostly peaches and nectarines. Our net profits were about $50,000. In 1859 we sold as follows :Peaches.....lbs. 841,300 Apples
15,000 Cherries. ..... lbs. Nectarines.. 121,000 Pears.....
475 Apricots.. 35,000 Quinces
2,500 Grapes 25,000 | Plums....
1,000 Total ........ 1,046,475 The fruit neted about 7 cents per pound, $70,000; gross, $100,000.
This year, 1860, we have sold about Cherries....Ibs. 2,000 at 60. cts per lb. Apricots..... lbs. 40,000 at 20 cts. per Ib. Plums.... 2,000 at 60
3,000 at 25 We have yet to pick : Apricots ....lbs. 10,000, Grapes.. ...lbs. 30,000 To pick..... lbs. 1,057,000 Apples. 100,000 Figs....
8,000 Picked........ 47,000 Plums 10,000 Quinces....
3,000 Peaches 800,000 Pears
6,000 Total...... 1,104,000 Nectarines. 100,000
G. G. BRIGGS. Here is a fruit orchard of 40,000 bearing trees, and an annual crop of one million pounds of fruit, and a probable net income of $80,000 or $100,000. This immense orchard is now for sale.
THE CROPS IN CALIFORNIA, A merchant in San Francisco estimates that California will produce this year 7,500,000 bushels of wheat, which, after deducting for consumption and seed, will leave a surplus of 3,525,000 bushels for export. The barley crop of the State is said to be greater than the aggregate of the entire crop throughout the United States, and is estimated for the present year at 7,500,000 bushels, which will leave a surplus of 4,533,000 bushels.
STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.
2 3 4 5 6
POPULATION AND GROWTH OF BOSTON. The Boston Journal gives full returns of the population of Boston by the census which has just been taken by the United States Marshal. They are as follows, by wards :
Increase. Dec. 1 17,189 19,264
12,729 12,690 19,356 15,963 3,393
10,428 9,451 977 14,901 13,175 1,726
13,430 12,553 877 7,047 7,912
20,519 13,264 7,255 10,425 10,428
24,921 17,931 6,990 11,602 11,697 7 15,355 18,430
3,075 Total. 177,902 162,748 37,114 The population of the city, according to the United States census of 1850, was 138,788. The gain in ten years has therefore been 39,114, which, consid. ering the limited area of Boston, and the encroachments of business ered upon those restricted limits, is a gratifying increase. The returus from the adjoining cities and towns, which should really form a component part of Boston in esti. mating its population and commercial importance, will show even a greater rate of increase. Roxbury, for instance, has gained from about 15,000, in 1850, (excluding West Roxbury, which has since been set off.) to 25,138, in 1860-an increase of over 66 per cent, the increase in Boston being a fraction over 28 per cent.
It is interesting, in this connection, to note the movement of population resulting from the steady growth of business in certain sections of the city. Thus wards one, four, and seven show a large decrease, and in wards five and six the population has been nearly stationary. These are the business wards of the city; ward seven, which shows the greatest decrease, being the center of the business portion of the city: The tendency of population has been to the southerd wards, which show a very large increase.
There is no precise account of the population of Boston for nearly the whole of the first century of its existence. In 1638, eight years after its settlement, it was said to be a rather a village than a town, consisting of no more than twenty or thirty houses.” In 1675, the inhabitants were estimated at 4,000 ; in 1698, at 7,000, (both estimates being probably too large :) in 1704, at 6,750 ; and in 1720, at 11,000.
The first enumeration now known was made in 1722, during the prevalence of the small pox, when EnEAS SALTER was employed by the selectmen to ascertain the number of the inhabitants, or, as Douglas the historian says, to make a perlustration of the town." He reported 10,567, “ besides those who had died or moved out of town," the decrease from 1720 being attributable to these causes, the deaths from small pox alone having been 771. In 1735, the population was estimated at 16,000. In 1742, a census showed a population of 16,382, and ten years later another census gave 15,731, the small pox having again reduced the population. In 1765, a census taken by order of the General Court showed a population of 15,520.
The population of Boston during the Revolution was considerably reduced. In 1776 it was said to contain 2,719 white inhabitants only, many being dispersed in the country. In 1777, the whole number of males of 16 years and upwards was 2,863. In 1781, the population was 15,520. It will thus be seen that the population of Boston remained nearly stationary for many years. It has been said that the new dwelling houses erected during this time scarcely averaged one a year.
After the peace of 1783, the population of Bostou began gradually to increase.
The following table, showing the results of the census by decennial periods, will
85,000 23,608 1810...
33,787 8,850 35 1850..... 138,788 53,788 63 1820.. 43,298 9,511 28 1860..
177,902 39,114 28 1830..
61,392 18,094 41 The period from 1840 to 1850 shows the greatest increase in this century. It was then that the population of Boston showed the impetus which had been given to its business and prosperity by the construction of the network of rail. roads which linked her to the other principal cities and towns in New England, and to the Great West. If the growth of Boston bas, since that time, been more gradual, it is owing to causes which we have already indicated. When we obtain returns from the neighboring cities and towns within a radius of ten miles of State-street, embracing, outside of the city limits, a very large proportion of the business men of Boston, it will be found that the march of population has kept pace with the progress in other eastern cities whose limits are less circumscribed. The actual area of Boston proper, it should be remembered, is less than two miles square, and, except in East and South Boston, and at the extreme south part of the city proper, this area was densely populated in 1850.
POPULATION OF SPAIN. The first census of Spain that has any pretensions to accuracy was taken in 1857. During the following year additional statistics were collected, :ll of which have been combined in one volume, and lately published by order of her Catholic majesty's government. From these statistics it appears that “ lovely Spain--renowned, romantic land” of the poet, is not far behind neighboring nations in the great march of industrial improvement. Indeed, her progress within the last decade has been, perhaps, as great as any other European nation. The population of Spain, in 1857, was 15,464,340, the superficial extent in English square miles 195,782, making the average number of inhabitants to each square mile nearly 79. Of the whole population, 7,670,933 were males and 7,793,407 females ; married males, 2,784,057; married females, 2,790,485 ; unmarried males, 4,521,453; unmarried females, 4,307,166. It may be said that, io round numbers, the number of males to females in the whole populationyoung and old, married, single, and widowed—was 100 males to 102 females. The proportion in England and Wales in 1851, the date of the last British census, was 100 males to 104 females ; in Scotland, 100 males to 110 females ; while in our own State of New York, in 1855, it was 100 white males to 100.5 white females. From these statistics we may draw the consoling conclusion to the fair sex of our State that, for every four old maids in Spain, eight in England und Wales, and twenty in Scotland, we have only one in New York.
There are only four cities in the whole kingdom whose population exceeds 100,000. These are, Madrid, 281,170; Barcelona, 183,787; Seville, 112,529 ; Valeucia, 106,435. There are five other cities having a population ranging from 40,000 to 70,000.
POPULATION OF MILWAUKEE. The population of Milwaukee has advanced steadily and rapidly during the last twenty years, as will be seen by the following table, showing the progress every five years :
1835. 1810. 1815. 1850. 1855. 1860.
500 1,700 8,000 20,061 30,448 45,325 Like other Western cities, it has had its trials, but it is now enjoying an unusual degree of prosperity, consequent, to a great extent, on its railroad advantages.
POPULATION OF SOME OHIO TOWNS.
1850. 1860. Cinciopati.. 115,435 160,060 Marietta......
3,175 4,300 Cleveland.. 17,034 43,550 Mt. Vernon
3,711 4,281 Toledo.... 3,829 13,784 Ironton..
574 3,696 Chillicothe.. 7,100 7,800 Bucyrus
3,552 Springfield, 5,108 7,000 Fremont.
1,464 3,527 Portsmouth 4,000 6,300 Gallipolis..
1,685 2,811 Urbana...... 2,020 5,400 Painesville.
2,624 Newark 3,654 5,050 Hillsborough
1,392 2,200 Maosfield....
3,567 4,500 The population of the principal cities (excluding Cincinnati) of the three great valleys in the southern district of Ohio is as follows :
1860. 1850. Zanesville, Muskingum Valley
9,212 7,929 Columbus, Scioto Valley..
18,638 17,882 Dayton, Miami Valley.....
20,132 10,977 The increase of the population of Dayton, it will be seen from the above, bas been nearly 100 per cent, and this has placed it ahead of Columbus.
CENSUS OF CINCINNATI. We present below, as interesting at this time, the vote of the city for governor in 1859, and the population of the city, according to the showing of the census. The ratio is 7.78 persons to the voter. It will be seen that the cor. rections which the Marshal has had made increase the figures to a little over 160,000. Other corrections may increase this a few hundred :Vote in
Vote in Wards, 1850. 1869.
1850. 1859. 1860. 1...... 6,849 1,039 7,871 | 11,
19,334 1,549 12,731 2. 8,213 831 4,158 12.
2,148 18,590 3. 7,668 1,097 8,316 13.
862 7,537 4. 10,957 1,003 10,339 14.
1,249 9,030 5. 5,283 851 5,941 15.
1,619 11.954 6 9,628 1,056 7,796 16
1,263 10,680 7 9 344 962 7,707 17
481 4,040 8
14,422 1,685 13,292 9..
10,705 1,244 9,058 Total. 115,435 20,588 160,060 10..
19,032 1,599 11,520
CENSUS OF RHODE ISLAND, The State census returns for the entire State of Rhode Island are as follows: In 1850, the population of the State was 147,549 ; in 1860, 173,869 ; an increase of 26,320, or a little short of eighteen per cent. There are but five counties in the State, the following being the recapitulation :
35,786 47,014 58,073 87,528 107,078 Newport
15,771 16,534 16,874 20.009 21,906 Washington.
15,687 15,414 14,324 16,430 18,683 Kent..
10,228 12,784 13,083 15,068 17,296 Bristol
5,687 5,466 6,476 8,514 8,907
83,059 97,212 108.880 147,549 173,869 The city of Providence has increased from 41,513 to 49 914, being 8,401 in