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BRAZIL TRADE.
IMPORT AND STOCK OF FLOUR, ETC., FROM 1848 ro 1860.
Flour im- Flour im-

Prices of No. ported from ported Total Consump Stock

1st quality Amer. the United from else flour tion of

on hand

Flour re flour ist vessels Year,

States. where. imported. flour. 1st Jan'y. exported. January, arriv'd. 1848.... 226,613 18,293 244,911 139,885 32,000 57,860 20 a 21 319 1849.... 188,078 8,777 196,855 146,594 79,809 64,713 17 a 18 437 1850.... 180,689 26,399 206,918 159,621 67,000 48,181 15 a 16 314 1851.... 252,419 20,618 278,036 165,850 68,000 129,601 151 a 16 300 1852.... 228,412 18,836 247,248 145,996 60,000 49,608 14 a 15 250 1853.... 272,001 25,450 297,460 161,593 40,000 150,850 201 a 21 267 1854.... 176,723 34,703 211,426 166,821 25,000 56,605 231 219 1855.... 227,306 73,562 300,868 163,599 13,000 70,269 25500

332 1856.... 301,729 15,675 317,404 185,687 80,000 151,716} 22 a 251 295 1857.... 355,858 15,846 371,704 223,621 60,000 128,083 221 276 1858

372,976 29,179 402,155 237,631 80,000 144,524 18 a 201 297 336,133 32,469 368,692 258,258 100,000 135,334 15 a 16 306

75,000

16 a 17

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1859.... 1860....

SUGAR AND COFFEE IN EUROPE.

IMPORTS AND STOCKS OF SUGAR AND COFFEE AT THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN PORTS, FOR THE

TWELVE MONTAS ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, 1858 AND 1859.

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* The stocks in Holland are in first hands only; in all other countries in first and second hands. VOL. XLIII.-NO, I.

7

PROGRESS OF BRITISH SHIPPING-RAPID INCREASE OF STEAM TONNAGE.

The Liverpool Mercury, in a recent number, presents the following review of the shipping interest of Great Britain :

It appears from a return just laid before Parliament, that the number of British registered vessels employed in the home and foreign trade has increased from 17,828 in the year 1855, to 19,570 in the year 1859 ; that the tonnage has increased from 3.990,170 tons to 4,269,109 tops, and that the number of men employed, exclusive of masters, has increased from 168,537 in 1855, to 172,506 in 1859. There is, therefore, a considerable increase of vessels, tonnage, and seamen employed in 1859, but that year is not the best of the series, for in 1858 the number of vessels was 20.071, the tonnage was 4,325,242, and the number of men employed was 177,832. The pressure on the shipping interest, which was no doubt very severe in the year 1859, although somewhat diminished in 1860, was the cause of the difference. There are fluctuations from year to year, but always a considerable increase if a period of four or five years is taken.

It appears, however, from this return, that a great change is taking place in the proportions between the steam and sailing vessels of this country.

As regards the sailing vessels, the increase is only from 3.701,214 tops in 1855, to 3.879.592 in 1859 ; wbilst in steam vessels the increase in that period is from 288,956 tons to 389,515. This, it will be seen, is a very much more rapid rate of increase. The tendency in the British mercantile marine is very strong to substitute the rapid and regular power of steam for the bafiling and uncertain power of wind, and this tendency will become still stronger if the experiments wbich have been tried by the Pacific Ocean Steam Navigation Company in economizing fuel should be as successful as they are expected to be. According to statements made with regard to the result of these experiments, the saving of fuel is from one-half to two-thirds. A much smaller saving of fuel than this would cause a very great extension of steam navigation, and effect its employ ment in trades in which no one has hitherio thought of applying it.

The increase in the tonnage of the sailing vessels employed in the home trade is from 691,128 to 777,422 tons, whilst the increase in the tonnage of steamers employed in the home trade is from 57,415 to 90,867 tops. There is no increase, but a decrease from 210,114 to 132,768 tops in British vessels employed partly as home trade ships and partly as foreign-going ships, whilst in steam vessels engaged in that trade there is an increase from 12,562 tons to 21,123 tons. In foreigo-going ships the increase in sailing vessels is from 2,799.972 tons to 2,877,527 tons. The total increase in sailing vessels is thus from 3,701,214 tops to 3,879,592 tons, whilst the increase in steam vessels is from 288,956 to 389,515 tons.

An increase of 100.000 tons of steam shipping is equal to more than an increase of 200,000 tons of sailing shipping, whether we consider the cost of construction or the power of navigation. One thing is quite clear through all these returns, namely, that the mercantile steam marine of this country far surpasses that of all other nations in extent, and is increasing in a much greater ratio than that of any other nation. The consequence of this is that the British steanship owner has the carrying of nearly all the first-class passengers who cross the ocean, and of all the finer and more profitable articles of merchandise conveyed, to or from this country. As far as second-class passengers and beavy goods are concerned, the American and the British shipowners divide the greater part of the trade of the world between them.

UNITED STATES TRADE WITI MARSEILLES. During the year ending Dec. 31, 1859, the number of arrivals of United States vessels at Marseilles has far exceeded that of the preceding year. There arrived in all eighty-five vessels, gauging 37,681 tons, the cargoes of which were worth $1,478,153; there cleared eighty five vessels, with a tonnage of 37,201

tons, with outward bound cargoes valued at $1,031,114. Durivg the preceding twelve months there were forty-eight arrivals and forty-seven departures ; the former measuring 20,110 tons, with cargoes worth $1,675,731 ; the latter 20,658 tons, with exported goods to the amount of $1,290,918.

Thus it will be observed that, although the number of arrivals, departures, and tonpage for the year just closed exceeds by nearly one hundred per cent those of the former year, yet the amount of importation in 1858 exceeds that of 1859 by $197,578, and the exportation by $259,804. This is to be attributed to the fact that in the year 1858 the articles of importation from the United States were all valuable, consisting chiefly of tobacco, sugar, coffee, and cotton; and in 1859 the largest portion of the ships that arrived were laden with staves and coal for the use of the belligerents. These ships have all or nearly all cleared in ballast for the Italian and Sicilian ports. This accounts also for the difference in the amount of exported goods during these two years.

THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, Canadian newspapers publish the annual returns showing the progress of trade and navigation of the province for the year 1859. The canal returns show a falling off in the tonnage and merchandise which have passed through, and the tolls which have been collected from the Welland Canal, with slight increase in the same items on the St. Lawrence, and a largely and steadily augmenting trade on the Chambly Canal. The value of the principal articles imported via the St. Lawrence during the year 1859 is $11,519,068, against $10,765,077 for the previous year. The free goods imported from the United States under the reciprocity treaty were of the value in 1858 of $5,564,115, and in 1857 of $7.106,116.

The goods passing through the United States in bond were of the value of $4,546,491 ; the produce of the United States, including free goods, $12,237,541 ; and goods not the produce of the United States were of the value of $5,351,865.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF BOOTS AND SHOES, LEATHER AND HIDES,

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66

-1857.-
--1858.-

--1859.-Quantity. Valuo. Quantity. Valuo. Quantity. Valao. Baots and shoes ...prs 561,505 813,995 609,982 663,905 627,850 820,176

lad, rubbers 673,238 331,!25 247,389 185,941 102,637 62,006 Hides 153,726 624,867

875,763

520,539 Leather..

.. lbs. 1,716,548 497,714 2,505,367 605 589 2,063,040 499,718 Morocco, etc.

2,119
13,099

41,465 Saddlery

45,222
55,280

68,870

..NO

IRON TRADE IN SWEDEN. As iron is the principal branch of Swedish industry, and certainly that which is of the greatest interest to our readers, it may be as well here to give a brief description of the Swedish irons, which are of various qualities, each mine baving distinct properties. They may be classed under three heads :

1. The Danemora irons, which are the most valuable, and of which nine-tenths are used in England, (almost entirely in Sheffield,) where their value varies from £25 to £34 per ton. The whole quantity made at all the Swedish forges, where these ores are used, only amounts to about 4,500 tons, and the recent convulsions in the commercial world have had no effect upon their value.

2. Next in estimation to the Dabemora irons are the tumerous brands wbich are used for steel and other purposes, for which their good quality renders them desirable. For the sale of ihese irons Sweden depenes upon the state of trade in England and the United States. In 1857, these irops were worth from £15 to £19 per ton in England, whereas in 1858 their value decreased to from £13 to £15 per ton. lc a good state of trade these irons have a bigher value than the third class of Swedish irons.

3. These are commonly called “ assorted bar iron," or “common Swedish iron.” When, however, trade in the two principal countries where the second class of iron is used is depressed, the common irons bave a higher value, as they find a market in every part of the world. The price of common Swedish irons was in Sweden, at the date of Mr. Grey's report. from £10 to £13 per ton.

During the two years preceding Mr. Grey's report, Mr. Bessemer's process of making steel had been tried at Edsken, near Hægbo, in the province of Gefle, upon a larger scale and with more success up to that time than in any other country, and great results were then anticipated-results that, we doubt not, will be little short of being fully realized. The steel so made is already in practical use in Sweden, where a species of Swedish steel, called in England German steel, has hitherto been employed for general purposes, for which caststeel only is used in England and other countries where manufactures are in a more advanced state. At the manufactory of Messrs. BoLinder, at Stockholm, the tools used are mostly of BessEMER steel, and those persons who manipulate with them say that they are as good as is required.

EXPORTS,

TRADE OF BOSTON FOR APRIL. The following is the monthly statement of the value of imports and exports of goods, wares, and merchandise entered at the port of Boston during the month of April, 1860 :

IMPORTS. Dutiable, entered for con

Domestic merchandise ..., $1,152,985 sumption... $1,795,905 Foreigu

dutiable 74,937 Dutiable, warehoused... 839,696 Foreign

free .... 58,700 Free (exclusive of specie &

Specie and bullion....

6,030 bullion). .....

852,484 Specie and bullion..

Total exports...

$1,292,652

Merch'dise withdrawn from Total imports... $3,488,085 warehouse for consumption 639,807

TOBACCO AND THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT, The Spanish government have issued proposals for Virginia and Kentucky tobacco to the extent of 300,000 Castilian quintals, or 30,000,000 lbs.

POSTAL DEPARTMENT.

DEAD-LETTERS-NEW LAW.

The following are among the recent acts of Congress which the whole community will approve of. The number of dead-letters will diminish under the new law; and letter writers generally, will perceive the utility of placing their printed dames on each epvelop. The reduced rate for the receipt and delivery of letters in the city, to one cent, is certainly a good improvement :

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE RETURN OF UNDELIVERED LETTERS IN THE POST

OFFICE.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That when any person shall indorse on any letter his or her name and place of residence, as writer thereof, the same after remaining uncalled for at the office to which it is directed thirty days, or the time the writer may direct, shall be returned by mail to said writer, and no such letters shall be advertised, nor shall the same be treated as dead-letters, until so returned to the Post-office of the writer, and there remain uncalled for one quarter. Approved 6th April, 1860.

AN ACT AUTHORIZING PUBLISHERS TO PRINT ON THEIR PAPERS THE DATE WHEN
SUBSCRIPTIONS EXPIRE, AND IN RELATION TO THE POSTAGE ON DROP LETTERS.

lows, namely:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Cougress assembled, That the second clause of section third of the act of thirtieth August, eighteen hundred and fifty-two, establishing the rates of postage on printed matter, is hereby so modified as to read as fol.

Second. I'here shall be no word or communication printed on the same after its publication, or upon the cover or wrapper thereof, nor any writing nor mark upon it, nor upon the cover or wrapper thereof, except the name, the date when the subscription expires, and the address of the person to whom it is to be sent.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That on all drop letters delivered within the limits of any city or town by carriers, under the authority of the Post-office Department, one cent each shall be charged for the receipt and delivery of said letter, and no more.

Approved 30 April, 1860.

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THE BRITISH POST-OFFICE. The following table shows the number of letters delivered in the United Kingdom during the last year, with the rate of increase, and the proportion of letters to population :

Increase

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