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trol which has affinity with many of their virtues, and most of their duties. To aid it, the instructer should require perseverance, repress irritability, and idle curiosity, and by teaching the mind the pleasure of surmounting obstacles in the path of knowledge, lead it to a more sublime victory over its internal foes. The danger of being superficial is to be guarded against, because its tendency is to nourish vanity, that indigenous production of the heart's light soil.' Some bave supposed that by substituting the solid pursuits of science, for the tinsel of showy accomplishments, all undue effervescence of mind will be effectually checked. Yet we apprehend that a young lady may be as vain of repeating the technical phrases of the professor, or of chattering in a foreign language, as of rattling the keys of her piano in the finest style, or dancing with the grace of Vestris. In each case the passion for display is gratified. The antidote will be found less in the nature of her studies, than in the depth of her knowledge.

Yet it will usually be of slight avail for the instructer of females to devise the most judicious system, or with consummate skill adapt it to varieties of taste, temper and talent, unless there exists some degree of domestic co-operation. To elevate the mind for a few hours, and then plunge it into an atmosphere where frivolity reigns, is like training the young vine upward, and then unclasping its tendril to cover it with dust. A powerful intellect may indeed conquer this revulsion, and secure both developement and nurture. Yet still it is to the sanctuary of home, where the elements of character in all stages of their combination are exhibited without disguise, that we are to look for the culture of the affections, and the regulation of moral principles. Without these, we see only a tree unstable at the root, a fruit unsound at the core, the watering of Apollos, or the planting of Paul, without the increase of God.

It is also in the domestic sphere, that physical education generally receives its principal attention. We know not why it should ever be disjoined from intellectual and moral culture, or why it so often knows no longer date than those anxieties which the helplessness of infancy, or the dangers of early childhood create. Great sufferings frequently ensue, from the neglect of those early habits which increase strength, and fortify the constitution. The unfeminine character of those gymnastic exercises which in Europe have been 80 successfully pursued by male students, entirely preclude females from their benefits. Yet regularity, or at least some appearance of system, may be given to those exercises which are congenial to their state. Health of body has in their case not only the same influence over vigor of mind, as in that of the 'lordly sex,' but is moreover enhanced by that class of considerations which constituted their sole value in the scale of being, according to the gradations of the politic Lycurgus. Regular habits of walking, or riding on horseback, should be encouraged as far as possible, and in unfavorable weather their houses might be made their gymnasia. Modern education might be improved by a slight infusion of the Spartan contempt of hardship.

It is presumed that young ladies would find their health promoted by attending to the entire arrangement of their own apartments; and that also by relieving their domestic guardians of a part of their pressure of care, the better dispositions of the heart would gain salutary expansion. Were it not for the danger of being accounted Goths or Vandals, we should venture to recommend that long banished article of furniture, the great spinning-wheel.

Should any sprightly young lady honor these pages with her attention, we imagine we can trace the sneer of contempt already rising over her polished brow, and curling her ruby lip. Nevertheless, we proceed in our praises of this despised instrument, patronised in ancient times by noble matrons, and fair princesses, and often in later days 'discoursing most eloquent music,' to the ear of the thrifty husband. An antiquated writer once denominated it Hygeia's harp,' and our descant upon its merits is confined to its affinity with health. We have known its moderate use for a few summers, in daily lessons of an hour each, exceedingly useful in counteracting a tendency to pulmonary complaints, by the erect posture, prominence of chest, and general arterial circulation which it induced. We are the more sensitive on the subject of physical welfare, because we are confident that the course of city education too generally, nourishes a sickly delicacy, which if it sooner or later assume not some form of morbid temperament, will yet be sure to lay its withering hand upon energy of character. While the daughters of our mother country, their cheeks glowing in the brisk air of autumn, are performing what we should consider equestrian fents, our own fairest and dearest, may be found seated day after day, in alarming proximity to a highly-heated stove, while they hang over the last novel, half in danger of the fate of Niobe. Sedentary habits, and the rust of indolence are permitted to steal over those, to whom education should give ‘firmness of nerve, and energy of soul.' The indifference to both luxury and hardship which distinguish a temperate and noble mind, are best acquired in early life, and would be best taught by parental guides, were it not for that false indulgence which too often leads them to yield their offspring a present gratification, at the expense of future good—that spirit of Esau still lingering among us, imitating his traffic but not edified by his repentance.

REVIEWS.

A Grammar of the Greek Language, &c. See No. 5.

(Concluded from p. 302.)

It is well known to every reader, that the principal difference between the two plans of arrangement in our Greek grammars, consists in the manner of classing the nouns and verbs under declensions and conjugations. By the method most generally followed, in the English schools and our own, nouns are arranged under ten Declensions, five of the Simple, and five of the Contract nouns; but by the modern or reformed method, all these ten are reduced to three. In like manner the verbs, according to the old grammarians, are arranged under thirteen conjugations, namely, six of the barytone verbs, three of the contracts, or circumflexed, and four of the verbs in mi; while by the new system all these conjugations are merged in two very general classes, distinguished by their termination, one of the verbs in w, and the other of the verbs in vi. Some grammarians, indeed, of high authority too, contend that we ought not to admit more than one conjugation, that is, in w; because, say they, the verbs in us, except in three of their tenses, follow the rules of the verbs in w. It is, in truth, difficult to perceive, why we should stop at two conjugations, when the reasons urged for that change would require us to carry the reduction of the number still farther. In addition to this general innovation upon the old system, some changes of inferior importance have been suggested by the ingepuity of modern times. The only one, however, which we shall notice on this occasion, is the transposition of two entire tenses, namely, the perfect and pluperfect middle, from the middle voice, where they have ever been ranked by native grammarians, into the active voice, in which they take the new appellation of second perfect and second pluperfect. This innovation appears in the valuable grammar of Buttmann, which we have before spoken of. The reasons for this change will be considered hereafter; at present we shall confine our remarks to the new classification of the nouns and

verbs.

The new arrangement of the nouns and verbs has greater simplicity, as it is commonly termed, and in certain respects may be considered more philosophical than the ancient; yet when we find that these very general classes of nouns and verbs, even according to the new scheme, are again to be subdivided, it may be doubted

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VOL. I.

whether there is much positive saving in the number of particulars which are to be learned by the pupil, or in the convenience of their application as he advances in his studies. Changes in the classification and nomenclature of the sciences, especially in mere practical matters connected with them, are always attended with inconveniences; and, to compare small things with great, we may apply to the present subject a remark made by an eminent British statesman and scholar upon certain writers, who were ambitious of discarding an old and well settled term in the Law of Nations, for the sake of introducing one, that should be more etymologically exact, in its stead; ' Perhaps,' says he, these learned writers do employ a phrase, which expresses the subject of this law with more accuracy than our common language; but I doubt whether innovations in the terms of science always repay us, by their superior precision, for the uncertainty and confusion which the change occasions.* The justness of this opinion is strongly felt by every one, who has attempted to instruct in that most delightiul and best adapted of all scientific studies to the youthful mind, natural history; in which the unnecessary and licentious departures from the Linnæan arrangement of the several kingdoms of nature, and the introduction of synonymes without number, have so loaded and ene cumbered that branch of study, as to appal the most resolute pupil, who is not willing to sacrifice every thing to that single pursuit. But to these general remarks we would add a few, which are more immediately applicable to the present question.

The old arrangement of the Declensions and Conjugations is substantially the same which was made by native grammarians of Greece at a period when their literature still retained its vigor, and when even the principles of language were discussed with as much acuteness as ever has been displayed; though certainly not under so many advantages, particularly in etymology, as we now possess by means of our extended acquaintance with the numberless dialects of the globe. Indeed the singularly ingenious and subtile discussions of the philosophers and professed grammarians of antiquity, not wholly unmixed with puerilities, almost lead one to agree with Lord Bacon, when in his ardor for the ancients he delicately recommends a little more modesty in his contemporaries, -Sane quis facile conjiciat (ulcumque nobis ipsi placeamus) ingenia priorum seculorum nostris fuisse multo acutiora et subtiliora.'t . It may not be altogether useless to bestow a moment's attention on some of the older writers, from whom we have derived our present systems of Greek grammar.

The earliest author, we believe, from whom we have anything

* Mackintosh's Introductory Lecture on the Law of Nations; in no!.
+ De Augm. Scient. vi. 1.

like a practical treatise on this subject, is the grammarian well known to scholars by the name of Dionysius Thrax, who is supposed to have lived just before the Christian era. His very concise treatise, under the common name of Toxun reaunetixo', was first published from the manuscript by Fabricius; but the manuscript used by that learned editor was extremely faulty, and his edition, of course, very defective. Villoison, many years after that, made numerous corrections from a manuscript in the Library of St. Mark's, at Venice; but a more complete edition has been lately published by Bekker, in his Anecdota Greeca, accompanied with a minute and curious Greek Commentary, which is compiled from authors of different, though very early periods. In the remains of this Treatise, as it has come down to our time, we do not find any systematic view of the Declension of Nouns. Yet, as we find in the later grammarians a system of Declensions, corresponding to our usual arrangement, just as their Conjugations of the verbs do, and as no intimations are given by these successive writers, that they are promulgating anything new or original, either in respect to the declensions or conjugations, we may fairly presume, that they have done no more than to copy their system of the former, as we know they have that of the latter, from writers of high antiquity. Now in respect to the Conjugations, we have in this Treatise of Dionysius Thrax a systematic view of them, which will doubtless surprise many readers, from its extraordinary conformity, not to say identity, both in its principles and its very examples, with that which has been universally taught in England and in our own country, till within a short period. This author says,

Conjugation is the systematic (or consecutive) inflexion of verbs.
There are six conjugations of barytone verbs, which are distinguished,

The first by β or por π or πτ, as λείξω, γράφω, τέρπω, κόπτω και
The second, by γ or και or g or κτ, as λέγω, πλέκω, τρέχω, τίκτω ;
The third, by 8 or 9 or 7, as '8w, arrólw, avúra ;
The fourth, by ζ or σσ, as Φράζω, νύσσω, ορύσσω και
The fifth, by the four unchangeable letters, a, peg », , as rúrow,

νέμω, κρίνω, σπείρω και The sixth, by a pure, as ιππεύω, πλέω, βασιλεύω, ακούω. But some introduce a seventh conjugation, in Ğ and y, as árégw and 74. a.

Of the circumflexed verbs, there are three conjugations, which are distinguished, The first, in the second and third person singular, by the dipthong

El, as vow, rosīs, vosi ; The

second, by the dipthong « (the o being written but not sounded)

as βοώ, βοάς, βοά και The third, by the dipibong os, as xquoü, xeurois, xquooi. Of the verbs ending in there are four conjugations; of which

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