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least as much, and I think I may venture to say more, of book knowledge, than he would under the present system.
2d. In addition to this, he would go into the world an accomplished soldier, a scientific and practical agriculturist, an expert mechanician, an intelligent merchant, a political economist, legislator, and statesman. In fine, he could hardly be placed in any situation, the duties of which he would not be prepared to discharge with honor to himself, and advantage to his fellow citizens and his country.
3d. In addition to the foregoing, he would grow up with habits of industry, economy and morality, and, what is of little less importance, a firm and vigorous constitution ; with a head to conceive and an arm to execute-he would emphatically possess a sound mind in a sound body.
THOUGHTS ON THE EDUCATION OF FEMALES. (Concluded.)
Domestic education and maternal influence.
Domestic education has great power in the establishment of those habits which ultimately stamp the character for good or evil. Under its jurisdiction, the Protean forms of selfishness are best detected and eradicated. It is inseparable from the well-being of woman, that she be disinterested. In the height of youth and beauty, she may inhale incense as a goddess, but a time will come for nectar and ambrosia to yield to the food of mortals. Then the essence of her happiness will be found to consist in imparting it. If she seek to intrench herself in solitary indifference, her native dependence comes over her from sources where it is least expected, convincing her that the true excellence of her nature is to conser, rather than to monopolise felicity. When we recollect that her prescribed sphere mingles with its purest brightness seasons of deep endurance, anxieties which no other heart can participate, and sorrows for which earth has no remedy, we would earnestly incite those who gird her for the warfare of life, to confirm habits of fortitude, self-renunciation, and calm reliance on an Invisible Supporter.
We are not willing to dismiss this subject without indulging a few thoughts on maternal influence. Its agency, in the culture of the affections, those springs which put in motion the human machine, has been long conceded. That it might also bear directly upon the developement of intellect, and the growth of the sterner virtues of manhood, is proved by the obligations of the great Bacon to his studious mother, and the acknowledged indebtedness of
Washington, to the decision, to the almost Lacedemonian culture of his maternal guide. The immense force of first impressions is on the side of the mother. An engine of uncomputed power is committed to her hand. If she fix her lever judiciously, though she may not like Archimedes aspire to move the earth, she may hope to raise one of the habitants of earth to heaven. Her danger will arise from delay in the commencement of her operations; as well as from doing too little, or too much, after she has engaged in the work. As there is a medium in chemistry between the exhausted receiver, and the compound blow-pipe, so in early education the inertness which undertakes nothing, and the impatience which attempts all things at once, may be equally indiscreet and fatal.
The mental fountain is unscaled to the eye of a mother, ere it has chosen a channel, or breathed a inurmur. She may tinge with sweetness or bitterness, the whole stream of future life. Other teachers have to contend with unhappy combinations of ideas, she rules the simple and plastic elements. Of her, we may say, she hath entered into the magazines of snow, and seen the treasures of the hail.' In the moral field, she is a privileged laborer. Ere the dews of morning begin to exhale, she is there. She breaks up a soil which the root of error and the thorns of prejudice have not pre-occupied. She plants germs whose fruit is for eternity. While she feels that she is required to educate not merely a virtuous member of society, but a christian, an angel, a servant of the Most High, how does so holy a charge quicken piety, by teaching the heart its own insufficiency!
The soul of her infant is uncovered before her. She knows that the images which she enshrines in that unpolluted sanctuary must rise before her at the bar of doom. Trembling at such tremendous responsibility, she teaches the little being, whose life is her dearest care, of the God who made him; and who can measure the extent of a mother's lessons of piety, unless his hand might remove the veil which divides terrestrial from celestial things ?
"When I was a little child, said a good man, my mother used to bid me kneel beside her, and place her hand upon my head, while she prayed. Ere I was old enough to know her worth, she died, and I was left too much to my own guidance. Like others, I was inclined to evil passions, but often felt myself checked, and as it were drawn back, by a soft hand upon my head. When a young man, I travelled in foreign lands, and was exposed to many temptations. But when I would have yielded, that same hand was upon my head, and I was saved. I seemed to feel its pressure as in the days of my happy infancy, and sometimes there came with it a voice, in my heart, a voice that must be obeyed—'Oh ! do not this wickedness, my son, nor sin against thy God.”
M. M.-A. JULLIEN'S QUESTIONS ON COMPARATIVE EDUCATION.
A FRIEND has favored us with a French pamphlet under the following title
Esquisse et Vues Préliminaires d'un ouvrage sur L''Education Comparée, &c.
The author M.M.-A. Jullien of Paris, holds a distinguished rank among the literary and scientific men of his country. He has devoted a more persevering and systematic attention to the subject of education, than perhaps any other individual of our day. The substance of his pamphlet which we have mentioned above, has appeared in the Journal D''Education, a work published under the auspices of the Paris Society for the Improvement of Elementary Instruction.*
The author's object in the pamphlet from which the following extracts are made, is to present a preliminary sketch of a great work, designed to embrace a comparative view of the actual state of education throughout Europe. He commences by expressing a well founded regret that there is a great want of connection, harmony, · and proportion, in the grand departments of physical, moral, and intellectual education, as hitherto conducted. He then suggests the advantages likely to arise from a work which might offer the results of a diligent and thorough investigation of the present state of the various establishments for education in Europe—whether elementary and common, secondary and classical, superior and scientific, or special. Of this classification the first branch corresponds to our common schools, the second to academies, and other preparatory seminaries, the third to colleges, the fourth to professional institutions.
The schools of Pestalozzi and Fellenberg are mentioned with commendation, as auspicious to improvement, also the polytechnic school of Paris, and the Lancasterian schools in England.
The attention of the sovereigns of Europe is invited to the formation of a special Commission of Education, to be composed of a few individuals who might chuse corresponding members at a distance, and proceed to the great work of compiling an account of the state of education.
M. Jullien suggests, further, the establishment of a Normal Institute of Education, for the instruction of teachers, under the most favorable circumstances for personal and professional improvement.
He recommends a Bulletin or Journal of Education, arranged
* For an account of this society sec intelligence Nos. 1 and 2 of this Jouroa!,
under the same number of heads as might be adopted in the inquiries of the Special Commission already mentioned. These inquiries would be guided by the scheme of questions which forms the principal part of the author's pamphlet.
The following are the leading topics of this department of the work.
Education.—1st. its subject. -2d. its object.-3d. its instrument.
1. The (subject,) Man—as composed of three elements: the body, -the heart, (the affections,)—the intellect.
2. (The object of education,) Happiness-as consisting in three things: health, -virtue, --instruction.
3. (The instrument of education,) time as divided into infancy, boyhood, youth.
The series of questions which follow are arranged under the principal heads of
Schools, 1st, Elementary, primary, and common.
Subdivison of the First Series, Education primary and common. 1. Schools.--2. Teachers.-3. Pupils.-4. Physical and gymnastic education.-5. Moral and religious education.-6. Intellectual instruction.—7. Connection between domestic and private, and public education.-8. Connection between primary and secondary schools.-9. General considerations, and miscellaneous questions.
These nine topics are applied with suitable modifications to secondary and classical schools, and the others which are mentioned.
We return to the questions under the head of
Schools. 1. What is the number of elementary or primary schools in the town, district, canton, province, &c.?
2. What is the nature, and what are the names of the schools, as German, French, &c. week-day or Sunday, common to the two sexes or restricted to one; common to all children in the same place, or appropriated to the poor, to the rich, to the middle class?
3. At what date was each school founded? Who were the founders?
4. How are these schools supported-at the expense and under the charge of the central government, of each community, or
of particular societies, or of revenues arising from endowments? How are the funds administered by which they are supported?
5. What are the buildings appropriated to these schools-more or less spacious, commodious, airy, and adapted to their object? (The places where children are brought up during their first years, exercise a powerful influence on their imagination, and the developement of all their faculties.)
6. What are the circles which these schools embrace-a town or only part of a town, a parish, a borough, a village, or one or more hamlets?
7. In what proportion is the number of these schools to the town, circle, district, &c. in which they are established, and to the whole number of children who attend them?
8. Are there distinct schools for children whose parents are of different religious communions; and what is the proportion between the schools of each communion?
9. If there are distinct schools for children of different religious communions, . what difference can be remarked between these schools in regard to their origin and foundation, their organisation and their maintenance, material, (of which the buildings are constructed) site, administration, and expenses, number of pupils proportioned to that of the inhabitants professing the same religion, choice of instructers, instruction and progress of the children, internal discipline, and external superintendence.
10. Are the schools gratuitous or not, or what is the monthly or yearly sum paid for each child?
11. What are the terms of admission to the primary schools?
12. Do all the parents send their children to these schools, and are they invited or obliged by legislative measures, or by local regulations to send them?
Primary Instruclers. 13. What pains are taken to form good instructers of primary schools?
14. What are the conditions of age, country, religion, morality, capacity, which are required for such employment?
15. How, and by what authorities or corporations, or by what individuals, are the nominations made?
16. What is the number of instructers in the town, circle, district, &c.?
17. In what proportion is the number of these instructers to the whole population of the town, &c.?
18. In what proportion to the total number of pupils, and to the pupils in each school?