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full. The examiners are three in number, annually appointed by the university, and sworn to the faithful performance of their duty.
• If the student fails on this occasion, it passes sub silentio. He does not receive bis certificate at the close of the day; and he may present bimself again the next term.
• After having passed this examination, his studies are directed more steadily to the other, where the honor be acquires will depend en. tirely on his own exertions. He cannot present himself till after the third year is completed, and it is common to defer it till the end of the fourth year.
He is then examined first in the rudiments of religion : a passage in the Greek 'Testament is given him to construe, and be is tried, by questions arising out of it, whether he has a proper view of the Christian scheme, and of the outline of sacred history. He is ex. pected to give some account of the evidences of Christianity, and to show by bis answers that he is acquainted with the thirty nine articles and has read attentively some commentary upon them. He is examined again in logic, the object being chiefly to see that he has just and firm conceptions of its leading principles; and, on this occasion, selections from the Organon are often introduced.
• The examination then proceeds to rhetoric and ethics. Upon these subjects the celebrated treatises of Aristotle are chiefly used : and whoever is master of them knows what an exercise of the mind it is to acquire a thorough insight into the argument, and what a serious discipline the student must bave undergone who has accomplished this point. The accurate method observed in each treatise renders it not a per. plexing, but merely an arduous task : the precision of the language, the close connection of the reasoning, the enlarged philosopbical views, and the inmense store of principles and maxims which they contain, point them out as the best calculated perhaps of any single works for bringing into play all the energies of the intellect, and for trying, not merely the diligence of the scholar, but the habit of discrimination which he bas formed, the general accuracy of his thoughts, and the force and vigor of his mind. If it be at all of use to divide, to distinguish, and to define, to study clear arrangeinents and order, to discern connection, and to comprehend a plan composed of many widely-separated parts, hardly any works can be named, so well adapted to all these purposes. To these is often added, at the option of the student, the treatise on politics, which is in fact a continuation and completion of the ethical system.
• Besides these treatises of Aristotle, Quintilian as belonging to rhetoric, and the philosophical works of Cicero, especially ibat De Orficiis
, as belonging to ethics, are admitted. And the last, as being of easier attainment, are of course the choice of many candidates. But neither of them are strictly indispensable.
At this examination the student presents what number of classical authors he pleases, provided they be no less than three, and those of the higher order, including both languages. It is not unusual for those who aiın at the highest honors to mention Homer, Pindar, one,
two, or three of the Greek tragedians, and Aristophanes. Thucydides is seldom omitted. The other historians, and the orators, are also included, according as the student's line of reading has been. of Latin authors, besides the poets of the Augustan age, Livy, Tacitus, Cicero, Juvenal, and Lucretius, are the most usual. In the books that he names, he is expected to be well and accurately versed. And although great encouragement is given to an enlarged range, yet a basty and unscholarlike inanner of reading, however extensive it may be, will not obtain reward, and is in fact much discountenanced.
• Besides the questions proposed viva voce, many others in the different branches of the examination are put, and answered on pa. per, while other things are going on, And in this manner also the candidate's knowledge of Latinity is tried.
• The examiners are sworn officers, appointed for two years; they are four in number, and must all be present, unless prevented by sickness or soine very urgent cause.
• It will be evident from the statement here given, that the students are prepared to pass this examination, not by solemn public lectures, delivered to a numerous class from a professor's chair, but by privale study in their respective colleges.'
Such is the arduous but honorable course of intellectual discipline, which has been pursued by those eminent scholars, philosophers, orators, and statesmen, whose names have shed an unfading lustre upon the land of our fathers. Such too, is the discipline, which will eagerly be submitted to by those high-minded young men in our own universities, who are ambitious that their own country shall not be excelled, either in science or literature, by any nation on the globe. And if, by emulating such illustrious examples, they shall be fired with the same ardor to secure an honorable fame both for their country and themselves, they will not be obliged to cover up a disgraceful ignorance with the poor apology, which the Roman poet was compelled to make for his countrymen, when he felt conscious, that they could not attain to Grecian excellence in the elegant and useful arts and sciences, but must confine themselves to being politicians and warriors only
Excudent alii spirantia mollius æra ;
Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento.
of mental contemplation, may be justly considered as the summit of intellectual excellence.
The REFERENCE BIBLE, containing an accurate copy of the common
English Version of the old and new Testaments : with References and a Key Sheet of Questions, Geographical, Historical, Doctrinal, Praca tical, and Experimental, accompanied with valuable Chronological Harmonies of both Testaments; correct and elegant Maps, and highly useful Tables of scripture Names, scripture Geography, scripture Chronology, scripture References, &c. The whole designed to facilitate the acquisition of scriptural knowledge in Bible Classes, Sunday Schools, Common Schools, and private families. By Hervey Wilbur, A. M. Boston.
Ir is beginning to be known, and ought to be deeply regretted, that mechanical rather than intellectual habits are formed in many schools intended to educate the young. Children often learn to distinguish the forms and the names of letters, to combine them in syllables, and articulate the words thus formed, without attaching any meaning to sentences, paragraphs, and pages, over which the eye wanders. These habits where they exist are insuperable barriers to a thirst for knowledge, or an expansion of the mind. Their influence is most pernicious when brought to the sacred scriptures. Any attempts to prevent such habits, or to diminish their deleterious influence we shall ever hail with joy. Such
appears to have been the primary object of the Reference Bible. The editor has marked his margin, or rather the indentation of the verses, with letters of reference, not to collateral texts of scripture, but to a key sheet
questions, which are few and general, yet well adapted to excite in the youthful mind attention, and promote habits of reflection. We might not have asked some of those questions, and very different answers would undoubtedly be given by different persons, where
of the reference letters are applied, but as they were intended for an index to reflection, they will answer an important purpose; if they attract attention to the truth, whether it be always consonant to the editor's views or not.
That our readers may the better understand the plan, we shall insert a few of the questions, and their application. Before this passage, 'The path of the just is as the shining light which shineth more and more unto the perfect day,' we find a capital A inserted. We look at the Key page, which is judiciously made to turn out,
be seen in connection with any passage, and we find this question propounded. "What analogies between sensible and spirit
that it may
ual things may here be traced?' The mind is at once pleased and interested with the employment of tracing this beautiful analogy.
We open the inspired volume where Judah is pleading the cause of Benjamin before Joseph, and find a capital E inserted. We consult the key page for the corresponding letter, and find annexed to it this question, "What particular strain of ELOQUENCE can you point out in this paragraph? We at once contemplate the classical beauties of the passage. The same effect is produced when we see a capital S inserted before passages like the following—God came from Ternan, and the Holy One from mount Paran. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.' • Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand. Behold the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the ballance.' With that S we find the questions asked, What sublimity of thought, or of language, is here? What inference follows?
Among the reference letters often recurring we find the small d, this has several questions annexed to it. What duty is here enjoined? On whom? Is it taught by precept, example, or inference?
How enforced? This letter found before the passage, 'Enter into thy closet, and pray to thy father,' &c., would be answered that secret prayer is here enjoined, that it is obligatory on all; that it is here taught by precept, and enforced by the assurance that God will reward the devotion which flows from love and obedience to him. When d is found before the account of Christ's retirement for secret prayer, the same duty is inculcated, but in this instance by example.
The asterisk is sometimes inserted with a letter, and renders it emphatic, for instance, before the golden rule, or the duty of love for enemies, d* is inserted, denoting the propriety of profound attention.
The number of letters of reference, though small, affords good analysis of general scripture truth. They are more easily remembered as they belong to the prominent word in the questions, A for analogies, b blessing, c character, d duty, t doctrinal truth, f facts, m miracle, o oriental custom, p prohibition, v vision, &c.
We think it will be obvious to every one, that mental habits of inestimable value must be formed and invigorated by such a process of perusing the sacred scriptures.
The useful tables which accompany the Reference Bible, and which are to be had in a detached form, have been already mentioned in this journal. (See notice in No. 4.]
The cheap edition of the Reference Bible, intended for general circulation, is printed on paper of too inferior a quality for such a
work, But the other editions are on paper and in a style of typography highly creditable to the American press, especially to the mechanism of the power press, where it is executed. We have seen no edition of the scriptures, published in this country, which will not suffer by a comparison with this duodecimo edition.
We sincerely hope this work will have a widely extended and lasting circulation.
Strictures on Murray's Grammar,
(Continued from p. 309.) The object we have in view, in these essays, is merely to point out the more glaring inconsistencies of Murray's grammar. We are therefore obliged to confine our remarks to the leading points in his second division of grammar, Etymology.
Murray says there are in English nine sorts of words, or, as they are commonly called, parts of speech.' We shall not dispute about terms; although it would be a fair question to ask, if there are not as many parts of speech as there are words used in speaking; or, indeed, if a letter is not a part of speech, so that, properly speaking, we have twenty-six parts of speech. We do not wish to cavil unnecessarily, nor shall we, with Horne Tooke and others, resolve all the classes of words, into one. We are willing to allow several, and shall, in our remarks upon them, endeavor to follow the order our author has adopted.
The Article * An article is a word prefixed to substantives to point them out, and to show how far their signification extends. Again 'There are but two articles, A and the. A becomes an before a vowel or a silent h.'
It was not difficult to find words in English resembling the nouns, verbs, adjectives, &c. of the ancient languages; but this was not enough for the first English grammarians, they must find in English as many sorts of words as were said to exist elsewhere. Something called an article was found in Greek, and suspected to exist in Latin. 0, the Greek article is equivalent to hic in Latin, and hic, in Latin, is this, (in some dialects thic,) in English. But this Murray calls a pronoun. The, his article, is a contraction of this, once spelled thae and afterwards the. The has been pressed into the service and made an article; while this has been denied the (or this or that) honor; for two words that are entitled to form a separate classi are certainly highly distinguished.