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where these exercises were introduced, concurred in their favorable effect upon bealth; and parents and teachers uniformly testified, that by them their sons and pupils, like all other young men who cultivated them, had become more open and free, and more graceful in their deportinent. Fortune led nie to the celebrated establishment of M. Von Fellenberg, and this great philosopher, and at the same time practical educator, gave the high authority of his approbation to the gymnastic science. It would pot become me to state how I have labored in the acad. my of that gentleman ; but the recommendations with which he and others have favored me, and also the testimonials for which I am indebted to them, sufficiently prove that I do not set too high a value upon the utility of this branch of education. After I had established this system of education there, I accepted an invitation as Professor of the Canton School at Chur, which I received from the government of the Canton. My exertions here had the same result as in other establishments, as is fully shown by the testimonials of the government.
The thanks which I received from so many of my pupils, the testimonials from the directors of those establishments in which I have taught, my own consciousness of not having worked in vain, and the invitations of some friends, emboldened me to come forward in England, also, with Gymnastics, on the plan of Professor Jahn, and animate me with the confidence that here, too, my endea vors will not be fruitless.
I have, therefore, opened a GYMNASIUM in an airy and healthy part of the suburbs of London, the neighborhood of the Regent's Park, No. 1, Union Place, New Road; and I trust, that parents and educators will willingly entrust me with their children and pupils, and that gentlemen will participate in the exercises.
Exercises at Prof. Voelker's Gymnasium, London. I. Preliminary exercises, which serve principally to strengthen the arms and Jegs, and to increase their activity, to give the body a graceful carriage, to accustom it to labor, and thus prepare it for the other exercises.
II. Running for a length of time, and with celerity. If the pupil follows the prescribed rules, and is not deterred by a little fatigue ip the first six lessons, he will soon be able to run three English miles in from twenty to twenty-five mine utes. I have had pupils who could run for two hours incessantly, and without being much out of breath.
III. Leaping in distance and height, with and without a pole. Every pupil will soon convince hinself to what degree the strength of the arms, the energy of the muscles of the feet, and good carriage of the body, are increased by leaping, particularly with a pole. Almost every one learns in a short time to leap his own height, and some of my pupils have been able to leap ten or eleven feet high. It is equally easy to learn to leap horizontally over a space three times the length of the body'; even four times that length has been attained.
IV. Climbing up masts, ropes, and ladders. Every pupil will soon learn to climb up a mast, rope, or ladder of twenty-four feet high; and after six months' exercise, even of thirty-four or thirty-six feet. The use of this exercise is very great in strengthening the arms.
V. The exercises on the pole and parallel bars, serve in particular to expand the chest, to strengthen the muscles of the breast and small of the back, and to make the latter flexible. In a short time, every pupil will be enabled to perform exercises of which he could not have thought himself capable, provided that he do not deviate from the prescribed course and rules.
VI. Vaulting, which is considered one of the principal exercises for the increase of strength, activity, good carriage of the body, and courage, which employs and improves the powers of alipost all parts of the body, and has hitherto always been taught as an art by itself, is brought to some perfection in three months.
VII. Fencing with the broad sword, throwing lances, wrestling, and many other exercises.
All these exercises so differ from one another, that generally those parts of the body which are employed in one, rest in another. Every lesson occupies from one hour and a half to two hours, its length depending on the degree oi' labor required for the exercises practised in it.
CARL VOELKER, Professor of Gymnastics. No. 1, Union Place, New Road, Regent's Park.
[Professor Voelker's institution has the highest recommendations from the con tinent, and is equally esteemed by those English and American gentlemen, who have taken lessons at the gymnasium.]
DEAF AND DUMB.
Stalement made by Dr. Akerly, in relation to the Deaf and Dumb. The deaf and dumb are calculated to be in the proportion of one in
2000 of the population of the United States, which will give over 5000.
The same estimation is made in Europe.
The proportion holds good in New York, Philadelphia, Albany, and Cincinna. ti in Ohio, where the number of deaf and dumb has been ascertained.
The school for the deaf and dumb in New York, contains fifty-four pupils, of whom, twenty-seven are provided for by a law of the state of New York, and the remainder are principally charity pupils.
The directors have always been embarrassed in making selections from among the numerous applicants, and they now have on file a list of seventy or more that cannot be received.
There are several schools for the deaf and dumb in the United States, estab. lished in the following order :
1. Jo Hartford, Connecticut.
4. A private school in Philadelphia, by D. G. Seixas, when he was remored from the other. He has recently located his school in New Jersey, and obtained the patronage of the legislature of that state.
5. A school at Danville, in Kentucky.
The effects of instruction on the deaf and dumb are very observable in brightening the countenance and altering the expression, giving evidence of increasing intelligence : in improving the moral principle which is torpid and almost obliterated; and opening the way to religious instruction and knowledge of the Deity, which is almost void.-N. Y. Statesman.
DERBY ACADEMY, HINGHAM, MASS. [Mr. Daniel Kimball
, Preceptor, has favored us with the following account of this institution.]
The Derby Academy, for the education of both sexes, was founded by Mrs. Sarah Derby, of this town, and was first incorporated by the name of the Derby School, Nov. 11,
1784. The name
of school was change:d, by an act of the legislature, June 17, 1797, to that of Academy. The institution went into opera. tion immediately after the death of its founder, in the year 1789. Mrs. Derby erected the first house, and superintended the building in person.
The Academy is situated on the public road through Hingham to Plymouth, in the centre of the north part of the town. The situation is not sufficiently retired, and the play ground is much too limited.
The building is of wood, 50 feet by 30, and three stories high. The first story; consists of the Trustees' room, a room for a private school, and two large wood
The second story contains the two school rooms, each twenty-five feet
square and ten in height, with a very thick partition between them. They have convenient back entries for hanging clothes, &c. The third story consists of a spacious hall.
The number of instructers is three; the preceptor, preceptress, and her assistant. The preceptor has no agency in the female department.
The present number of male scholars is thirty-eight, and the seats are full. The number of females in winter is about forty, in summer, forty to fiftyfive, and seats for sixty. Females may enter the institution and stay at pleasure : males not intended for college, at twelve years of age ; if for college, younger at discretion. The studies specified by Mrs. Derby, are "for males, the Latin, Greek, English, and French languages, and the sciences of Mathematics and Geography; and for females, writing, and the English and French languages, Arithmetic, and the art of needle work in general. To these may be added reading, orthography, history, rhetoric, philosophy, astronomy, and composition. Books.-Murray, Enfield, Evening Entertainments, Friend of Youth, Blair, Wilkins, Adams, and Tytler ; Walsh, Adams, Colburo, Bowditch, Flint, Worcester, Lacroix, and Euler ; Adams? Latin Grammar, Liber Primus, Viri Romæ, Cæsar, Selectæ e Profanis, Ovid, Cicero, Sallust, Virgil, Livy, Horace ; Valpy's Greek Grammar, Delectus, Greek Evangelists, Minora, Testament, and Greek Reader. A morning exercise in Geography, Grammar, writing Latin, &c., prepared at home. The exercises are so arranged as to follow in regular gradation, and to fill the whole time. In the female department, they study in the morning, and work in the afternoon. In preparing lessons in geography, the use of maps is made indispensable. I doubt very much the utility of the long list of questions subjoined to so many of our school books. In arithmetic, the questions which I ask, are not by what rule did you do this, &c.; but why did you do it so ? The direction given is, endeavor to understand the nature of the question, the principle to be applied, and the reason for the performance. And in all that is studied, the importance of understanding the author, rather than merely repeat. ing bis words, is constantly kept in view. A few principles understood are far more valuable than volumes on the surface of the memory. If this mode of instruction is not always satisfactory to parents, it is certainly highly useful to pupils.
In the languages I have four classes. In their recitations, I sometimes apply the monitorial system. I think very highly of this method, though we are not without our prejudices against it here. I have had scholars who were so faithful in their studies as to need attention only to the most difficult passages of Greek or Latin, and have been permitted to save that time for study wbich is usually spent in writing.
About two Ofths of the male scholars are not classed, except in reading. These are such as enter the institution for the purpose of attending almost exclusively to one object of study, in arithmetic, navigation, or surveying, for example. The scholars are very injudiciously admitted at any time in the term, and for as short a period as three months. This has a very unfavorable operation in regard to forming them into classes.
There has been very little use of corporal punishment in the institution, since my acquaintance with it, which is more than fifteen years. I am perfectly convinced of its inutility and injurious influence. Detention of those who are idle and careless, and attention to them in the intervals of study, I have sometimes practised with very good effect.
The institution is supported, principally, by funds furnished by Mrs. Derby. The salary of the Preceptor is from 600 to 700 dollars, that of Preceptress 300, of assistant 150.
A sermon is preached annually for the benefit of the scholars. This, which ought unquestionably to be preached alternately in the meeting houses of the first and third parishes, has, for seventeen or eighteen years, been exclusively in the house of the third parish. The preacher on this occasion receives from the funds of the institution i wenty dollars, agreeably to Mrs. Derby's will.
ONTARIO FEMALE SEMINARY, CANANDAIGUA, N. Y. To persons not acquainted with this institution, it may be interesting to state, that it was incorporated by the legislature about a year since, with a capital of 10,000 dollars. Six tenths of the stock were taken with a promptitude that manifested the most lively interest in the object; and measures were immediately entered upon to form such an establishment as should not disappoint the fair ex. pectations of the public-spirited stock holders, who are detern.ined to render it useful to the coinmunity, and in all respects worthy of liberal support.
The edifice is situated in a central and pleasant part of the village of Canandaigua—is a neat and capacious building, of three stories, including the basement, seventy-five by filty feet, and arranged to accommodate at least one hundred young ladies with boarding, school and lodging rooms, besides the family of the principal. The experience, high character and attainments of Mr. and Mrs. Whittlesey, (of Hartford, Conn.) whom the Trustees have been so fortunate as to place at the head of this institution, cannot fail to render it highly respecta. ble and useful.
The jnhabitants of this western region, like those of all new countries, bave long been dependent upon the older settements, for the instruction of their daughters in the higer branches of education ; and as the country has now become populous and rich, and the number of those who desire such instruction greatly increased, it is cause of congratulation that a school of the first order, where those branches, as well as the elementary studies, will be taught, possesse ing all the advantages of the best female schools, and of which parents in this part of the state can avail themselves, without incurring the great expense and inconvenience of sending their daughters several hundred miles from home.
Ontario Repository. PRACTICAL INSTITUTION AND SCHOOL FOR INSTRUCTERS, MASS. Extracts from Gov. Lincoln's speech at the opening of the Legislature, May, 1826.
• The short period which has elapsed since the close of the unusually laborious session of the last legislature, has Turnished few new subjects of public interest, for executive communication, and the invariable custom of this Government, sanctioned by considerations of general convenience, dispenses with the devotion of much time to the concerns of ordinary legislation, at the present season of the year. The government being fully organised, the wishes and interests of our constituents, will probably be best satisfied by a preparatory disposition of meas. ures for more leisure attention at the winter session, and will leave you at liberty to consult your personal accommodation, in conforming to the usual practice, by an early adjournment. I have pleasure in informing you, that I know of do business, which will particularly interfere with such an arrangement, in the exercise of your discretion.
Although these suggestions are respectfully made from a view to the general condition of the Commonwealth, in the common course of the administration of its affairs, yet they will not, I trust, be regarded, as the manifestation of any indifference, or of change of opioion, in reference to the advancement of those high objects of public improvement, which have heretofore been presented for legislative consideration. Indeed, further inquiry and reflection, with extended means of information, have but strengthened the opinion, that the important interests of the people can only be preserved, and the honor and prosperity of the State promoted, by a system of governmental enterprise, and liberality, in accordance with the spirit of the age, and commensuraie with the opportunities which the bounty of nature and human genius offer to their indulgence. While all around is in a state of advancement, can Massachusetts alone, remain stationary, without prejudice? Are stupendous works of public improvement to be elsewhere constructed, opening new lands to settlement, new markets to population, rewarding the labours of industry, pouring riches into the treasury of States, and creating lasting resources for the support of civil government and for the en
couragement of the noblest institutions of learning and the arts, and this ancient Commonwealth, in indifference and inertness, suffer nothing from the comparison ? Not so was the forecast of our wise and clearsighted ancestors, even in the earliest periods of their colonial and provincial history. Whatever tended to distinguish their condition above that of others, to improve the prospects of the future, to secure to the generations of their posterity a great and lasting benefit, was anxiously and perseveringly pursued, -and for most of the peculiar blessings of which we are now in the enjoyment, we are indebted to their enlightened views of the public good, and their disinterested devotion to public objects. Unheeding all personal gratifications, they looked forward to the greatness of the people, of whom they were to become the progenitors.-In self-depial and suffering, and of their pirtance of worldly substance, they laid deep the foundation of vational strength and glory. To the churches and the schools, and to the permanent inprovement of the condition of society, they applied the utmost of their limited means. With them every thing was for the common weal, for the hope of the future, for a better and brighter condition to those who should come after them. If their example be not a reproach to the indulgence and supineness of the present day, still, upon what shall we rest for proof of its worthiest imitation? If they planted the fre schools of Massachusetts, shall not we cherish the cause of learning, with our kindest care? If they founded Institutions of civil government, for the promotion of the general welfare, shall we not improve them, to advance the best interests of the age in which we live, and in our day also, add something of value to the inheritance of those who shall succeed to us? These inquiries belong to public men. It is in consistency with the genius of a popular government, ihat the constituted agents of the people execute the public will, nay even, that often, by anticipation, they take the responsibility of its ultimate approval, in measures which are clearly within the delegated authority, and are suggested by the sound dictates of a liberal and enlightened judge. ment. The intelligence of the people is not so much exercised in the direction of precise acts, as the expression of general principles, and the mode in wbich these are most efficaciously to be illustrated is usually submitted, with a generous confidence, to the discretion of those whom they voluntarily appoint, to represent and to act for them.
Among the many advantages resulting from a frequent recurrence of elections, is the knowledge, which is thus obtained of public sentiment upon subjects, which have previously engaged official attention. Since the interesting discussions of the last legislature upon the general topics of education, and of a system of measures in relation to the resources and internal improvements of the Commonwealth, an opportunity has been afforded for an expression of the opinions, which are entertained by the great body of the people. Coming as you now recently do, gentlemen, from every part of the state, it cannot be difficult to determine upon measures, which the interests of the community require, and your fellow citizens are prepared to sustain. It becomes my duty, respectfully to invite your deliberations, upon such of them as were postponed for further consideration, and your attention to others, which have peculiar application, 10 the character of the times, and the existing circumstances of the Commonwealth.
of the most important of the referred business, was the proposition for the establishment of a seminary of practical arts and sciences. A committee of the House of Representatives having been charged with a revision of this subject, it will probably be addressed to you, under the favorable circumstance of their intelligent expositions. It must be worthy of serious regard, that the means of instruction should keep pace with the increased and increasing population of the state, and are at all times, wisely adapted to the pursuits and requirements of the people. The system of education, as now supported by the provisions of law, has but little changed wiih all the astonishing changes, which a half century of national independence, of vicissitude from poverty and privation to public and private prosperity, wealth and luxury, have produced. Whatever improvenient has been made, is rather in the character of the books used in instruction,