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WORKS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. Pike's System of Arithmetic abridged: designed to facilitate the study of the Science of Numbers, comprebending the most perspicuous and accurate Rules, illustrated by useful Examples.--To which are added appropriate Questions, for the Examination of Scholars; and a
short System of Book-keeping.-By Dudley Leavitt, Teacher of Mai thematics and Natural Philosophy : Concord, N. H. 1826. CEB 208.
A new Ciphering Book, adapted to Pike's Arithmetic abridged ; containing illustrative notes, a variety of useful Mathematical Tables,
&c. with blank pages of fine paper, sufficient for writing down all the 23 more interesting operations. Concord : 1826.
This work has been so universally approved, and for such a number of years received as a standard in its department of education, that it is not necessary to discuss the utility of its rules as a work adapted to the business of instruction. The present form, however, in which it appears with various additions of what is useful in commercial life, and omissions of what is obsolete, possesses many merits. Its divisions are more simple, and more in unison with each other, than those of most other works of the kind. There are more illustrations in the present than in former editions of this work. Every page bas a few questions subjoined which will aid the learner both in acquiring its priuciples, and applying them in the business of life.
There are several other valuable additions to the'work. But the most useful of these is the blank Ciphering Book of which the title is given above, and which contains a great deal of valuable introductory matter well arranged.
Pike's Arithmetic modernised and improved, though not so weil adapted to the purposes of mental discipline as the works of Colburn, is still a valuable contribution to the department of school books; for io many parts of the country some teachers are still too apt to regard every attempt at improvement as mere innovation. To instructers who adhere to old standards the present edition of Pike will, we have no doubt, prove very acceptable.
A Spelling Book of the English language ; or, the American Tutor's Assistant,-intended particularly for the use of Common Schools. The pronunciation being adapted to the much approved principles of Walker.-By Elibu F. Marsball. Concord, N. H. 1826. 12mo. pp. 156.
This spelling book, like several others of which we have lately taken notice, contains many valuable improvements. The chief advantage proposed in this volume is an abstract of Walker's principles of pronunciation, with directions to the teacher for the method of using them in practical exercises. This part of Mr. Marshall's book is one which certainly will be found very useful, and especially to instructers, who have not previously given a systematic attention to pronunciation,
The scholar who uses this spelling book, is furnished, in addition to the usual quantity of reading lessons, with a useful collection of words accented and explained in the form of a dictionary. This part of the book would, we think, be much improved by being altered so far as to contain the meaning of every word which occurs in the spelling columns, and, perhaps, by being limited to these words.
T'he vocabulary of proper names from the New Testament is the least successful part of the work. In the etymology of such names particularly there seems to be occasionally a great want either of attention on the part of the printer, or of accuracy on that of the compiler.
BOOKS FOR CHILDREN. Edgewortb's Harry and Lucy. Parts I. II. III. IV. With the Address to Mothers, Little Dog Trusty, Orange Man, and The Cherry Orchard. Complele in one volume. With wood cuts. Boston, 1826. 18ino. pp. 273.
This little volume, of which mention was made in the intelligence of our last number, is made peculiarly valuable to parents by the insertion of the prefatory Address to Mothers. The book is rendered acceptable at the same time to children, by the number and neatness of the cuts. In this respect the present edition seems to possess a great advantage over most others.
of the works of Mr. and Miss Edgeworth it is hardly necessary for us to speak. But we should feel gratified, if any remark in our pages, should induce a single parent to add this volume to a juvenile library in which it had not previously bad a place.
The Early Lessons, and this portion of them, in particular, may be made, in the hands of an intelligent mother, to furnish more rational amusement as well as instruction, than perhaps any other volume in the English language.
Frank. By Maria Edgeworth. Parts I. II. III. IV. Complete in one voluine. Busion, 1826. 18mo. pp. 233.
It is no easy thing to find books adapted to the capacity of children just emerging from intancy; and it is this circumstance which stamps much of its peculiar value on this little volume.
The child to whom this book is read and explained, will be early exercise of attention, to reflection, and to practical habits of mind. All this will be effected, too, without intervals of weariness and yawning; if the mother only takes care to select sipall portions at a time, and in all cases in which it is in her power, to show the child the objects which are described in the book.
Employment, amusement, and instruction, may all be combined in this way, 50 as to brighten as well as invigorate the infant inind, and whet its appetite for the coming portions of the great banquet of knowledge and improvement, which education is designed to farnish.
wop to the
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Received since
our last, copies of The Juvenile Philosopher,--Cobb's Spelling Book,Goodrich's Geography, -Frost's Questions on Murray's Grammar, -"Mrs. Taylor's Practical Hints, and Maternal Solicitude, -Tales of the Bower,- The Knapsac,
Child's Mooi. tor,--and Franklin Primer.
The sketch of a Plan for Sell-educating Societies will be inserted as early as possible.
A correspondent (E.H.) who objects to our statements concerning an institution in another State, is reminded that the Journal is pledged as a record of whalever is doing in education, in every part of the country, and in every seminary, No. 1 of Suggestions to Parents
, and the Review of Professor Webster's Manual of Chemistry, shall be ioserted in our next number.
Typographical error in No. 7, p. 433, lide 20th from the bottom : for writing read reciting.
Exercise. As so much has been written on the necessity of proper exercise for children, one would have thought it absolutely unnecessary for me to have noticed the subject. But, 'custom, that plague of wise men, and idol of others,' is not so easily changed; hence a custom, although it may be quite contrary to reason, must be rigidly adhered to, for no other reason than because it is a custom. I trust, however, the time is fast approaching when every thing connected with the training and educating of the rising generation, will undergo a thorough revision, and that the legislative body will not think it beneath their notice to attend to this subject. It is not uncommon to see men take horses and dogs out for an airing, and give them exercise; but it is very uncommon to see a governess or master giving their pupils exercise. It is true that we may sometimes see the children of boarding-schools taking a little exercise, but not nearly so much as they ought; and when they do, it is turned to no other account than merely for the walk. So much are they rivetted to books, and confined to rooms, that it has never entered the mind of many masters to teach by things instead of books; and yet no one will deny, that the wide world furnishes plenty of lessons, and that many of the objects in nature would prove the best of books, if they were but read—but no, this is not the custom. Give a child a book into his hand, and let him addle his brain over it for two or three hours; and if he does not learn his task set him down for a blockhead: never mind whether he understands the subject. If he does not learn his task, flog him, No questions allowed by any means. Nothing can be greater impertinence, than for children to desire explanation: let them find it out, as well as they can. This is part of the old system; but will VOL. I.
it be argued that this is the best method to cultivate and treat the human mind? Of all the causes which conspire to render the life of man short and miserable, no one has greater influence than the want of proper exercise. Healthy parents, wholesome food, and proper clothing, will avail little where exercise is neglected. Sutficient exercise will counterbalance several defects in nursing; but nothing can supply the want of it: it is absolutely necessary to the health, the growth, and the strength of children.
The desire of exercise is coeval with life itself. Were this principle attended to, many diseases might be prevented; but while indolence and sedentary employments prevent two thirds of mankind from either taking sufficient exercise themselves, or giving it to their children, what have we to expect, but diseases and deformity among their offspring? The rickets, a disease which is very destructive to children, has greatly increased in Britain, since manyfactures began to flourish, and people, attracted by the love of gain, left the country to follow sedentary employments in great towns, It is amongst these people that this disease chiefly prevails, and not only deforms, but kills many of their offspring.
The conduct of other young animals shows the propriety of giving exercise to children. Every other animal makes use of its organs of motion, as soon as it can; and many of them, when under no necessity of moving in quest of food, cannot be restrained without force. This is evidently the case with the calf, the lamb, and most other young animals. If these creatures were not permitted to frisk about, and take exercise, they would soon die, or become diseased. The same inclination appears very early in the human species; but as they are not able to take exercise themselves, it is the business of their parents and nurses to assist them. may be exercised in various ways, and the method we take to er. ercise them is shown in other parts of this work. men should be so inattentive to this matter: their negligence is one reason why females know so little of it. Women will ever be desirous to excel in such accomplishments as recommend them to the other sex; but men generally keep at such a distance from even the smallest acquaintance with the affairs of the nursery, that many would reckon it an affront were they supposed to know anything of them. Not so, however, with the kennel or the stables; a gentleman of the first rank is not ashamed to give directions concerning the management of his dogs or horses, yet would blush were be surprised in performing the same office for that being who is to be the heir of his fortunes, and the future hopes of his country: from every part of the animal economy. Without exercise, the
Arguments to show the importance of exercise might be drawn circulation of the blood cannot be properly carried on, nor the
It is a pity that
different secretions duly performed: without exercise the fluids cannot be properly prepared, nor the solids rendered strong or firm. The action of the heart, the motion of the lungs, and all the vital functions, are greatly assisted by exercise. But to point out the manner in which these effects are produced, would lead us into the economy of the human body, which is not our object. We shall therefore only add, that when exercise is neglected, none of the animal functions can be duly performed; and when this is the case, the whole constitution must go to wreck. A good constitution ought certainly to be our first object in the management of children. It lays a foundation for their being useful and happy in life; and whoever neglects it, not only fails in his duty to his offspring, but to society.
I am sorry to say, that many men have considered it quite beneath their notice, to have any thing to do with infant children, and consequently have permitted their children to be sent to what are called schools, and there to be placed on seats for hours, under the care of some person, who, in many cases, is no more fit to teach and instruct children, than I am fit to be a monarch. If any man will take his children into his garden or fields, and encourage them to ask questions on the glories, works, and first great Cause of nature, he will soon find out the importance of the thing, and the necessity of his own mind being well cultivated, to be enabled to answer their questions. Whatever men may think of this subject, they will find, ultimately, that the rising generation have never had a fair chance of becoming wise; because they have not had proper exercise, either for their minds or bodies.
While this is the case, let us not complain of weak and thoughtdess children, or of weak and thoughtless servants; for the former owe it to the neglect of their parents and the public; and the latter to their not having been taught to think at all.
Thinking, As I have said a few words on the necessity of proper bodily exercise for children, it may not be amiss to make some remarks on the subject of mental exercise.
Now, thinking, like every thing else, may be abused; and therefore there is the greater necessity for choosing masters for infant schools, possessing some degree of talent, and who are, in some measure, acquainted with the human mind; otherwise they may do that which was never intended, and thereby abuse the best of powers. For instance:-Intense thinking is so destructive to health, that few instances can be produced of studious persons who are strong and healthy. Hard study always implies a sedentary life; and when intense thinking is joined to the want of exercise, the conse