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ing as men are free and able, the Collidge may have some considerable yearly healp towards their occasions, and herein, if the Massachusetts please to give a leading example, the rest may probably the more reddyly follow."*

Notwithstanding the solicitude of the puritans, that the rising generation should be educated sound in the faith, as well as correct in practice, it seems, the perversity of human nature did sometimes, even in those good days, prevail; and it was difficult to find proper objects of the public favor. The government of the College ask direction of the General Court, as to the distribution of their bounty in the following words.

Whither we shall have respect, in the disposall of the said contributions, to all the schollars in generall, (as by maintenance of common officers and the like,) or especially, to such as are poore, pious, and learned; the three usual qualifications looked at in such cases.' The Court reply; The supplies granted by the severall Collonies were first intended for the support and encouragement of poore, pious, and learned youthes, and it is desired these ends may cheefly be attended in the disposall thereof; onely if no such youthes be present, it may be imployed for the common advantage of the Collidge.'I

These evidences of early attention to Harvard College are cited, not because it is that, in which I am now chiefly interested, but to show the interest our ancestors felt on the subject of education, and the sacrifices they were willing to make for the general diffusion of knowledge. Although the College was a favorite object of patronage, the puritans did not forget the primary schools.' They bestowed upon them an attention, which evinced how well they judged, that it is in them the character of the mass of the people is formed. So far as education is concerned, the highest seminaries may furnish the ornament, but the primary schools must afford the strength and stability of republican institutions. As early as 1617, less than twenty years from the date of their first charter, the colony of Massachusetts Bay made provision by law, for the support of schools at the public expense, for instruction in reading and writing, in every town containing fifty families; and for the support of a grammar school, the instructer of which should be competent to prepare young men for the University, in every town

* Haz. Hist. Coll. vol. ii. p. 107. + Hist. Coll. vol. ji. p. 85.

Hist. Coll. vol. ii. pp. 86, 87.

This phrase is used to denote the elementary or lowest class of schools, which are supported by the districts of each town.

containing one hundred families. For this exertion, which, considering the state of the Colonies at this period of their history, must have been no inconsiderable one, they assign the following truly catholic and pious reason:

• It being one chief project of Satan to keep men from the knowledge of the scripture, as in former times keeping them in unknown tongues, so in these latter times, by persuading from the use of tongues, that so at least the true sense and meaning of the original might be clouded and corrupted with false glosses of deceivers; to the end that learning may not be buried in the graves of our forefathers in church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors:

‘Sec. I. It is therefore ordered by this court and the authority thereof; that every township within this jurisdiction, after the Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty householders, shall then forthwith appoint one within their towns to teach all such children as shall resort to him, to write and read, whose wages shall be paid either by the parents or masters of such children, or by the inhabitants in general, by way of supply, as the major part of those that order the prudentials of the town, shall appoint: provided that those who send their children be not oppressed by paying much more than they can have them taught for in other towns.

‘Sec. II. And it is further ordered, that where any town shall increase to the number of one hundred families or householders, they shall set up a grammar school, the master thereof being able to instruct youth, so far as they may be fitted for the University; and if any town neglect the performance hereof above one year, then every such town shall pay five pounds per annum to the next such school, till they shall perform this order."*

To insure the object of the law, the penalty was afterwards increased to ten, and finally to twenty pounds. And lest the moral characters of the young should suffer, by their being educated by improper instructers, this cautious and saving admonition is subjoined; "this court doth commend it to the serious consideration and special care of our overseers of the college, and the selectmen in the several towns, not to admit or suffer any such to be continued in the office or place of teaching, educating, or instructing youth or children in the college or schools, that have manifested themselves unsound in the faith, or scandalous in their lives, and have not given satisfaction according to the rules of Christ.'

As the population increased in some towns, so as to render the former provisions inadequate to their purpose, another law provided, that every town consisting of more than five hundred families

* Colony Laws, chap. 79.

or householders, shall set up and maintain two grammar school and two writing schools, the masters whereof shall be fit and abs to instruct youth as the law directs. These were the laws for the support of free schools, which obtained under the Colony Charte of Massachusetts Bay, and as they were executed, they secured to all, the means of some education.

The colony of Plymouth, though not approaching that of Vas sachusetts in population and resources, was hardly inferior in the enlightened views entertained upon the subject of tree schools. In 1667, their legislature hold the following language; ‘For as much as the maintenance of good literature doth much tend to the ad vancement of the weal and flourishing state of societies and republics, this court doth therefore order, that in whatever township in this government, consisting of fifty families or upwards, any meet man shall be obtained to teach a grammar school, such township shall allow at least twelve pounds, to be raised by rate on all the inhabitants. As the colony of Connecticut was principally settled by emigration from the older colony of Massachusetts, it early adopted the spirit of its laws, upon all subjects. The causes, which influenced so strongly all the early institutions of New England, operated as powerfully in Connecticut, as in any of the colonies. They loved free institutions, and were impatient of control from any source foreign to themselves. And their zeal to propagate and perpetuate a blind and bigotted faith was proverbial. But they did all for conscience' sake. Whatever were the causes which led the puritans of New England to the adoption of their liberal and enlightened policy in regard to free schools, the effects were, certainly, most happy upon the condition of the people. And with the advantages of their experience, and of living in a more enlightened age, though we might wish to change some shades in their motives, we could hardly hope, on the whole, to make more noble exertions for the promotion of the same object. Their pious care of the morals of the young; their deep and devoted interest in the general dissemination of knowledge; and the sacrifices they esdured to afford encouragement and patronage to those nurseries of piety and knowledge, the free schools, are without parallel in the history of this or any other country.

REVIEWS.

Outlines of Philosophical Education, illustrated by the method of teach

ing the Logic Class in the University of Glasgow ; together with Observations on the expediency of extending the Practical System to other Academical Establishments, and on the propriety of making certain additions to the Course of Philosophical Education in Universities. By George Jardine, A. M., F. R. S. E., Professor of Logic and Rhetoric in that University. Second edition, enlarged. Glasgow, 1825.

12mo. pp. 542.

(Concluded from p. 553.) The following account of the progress of improvement, (resumed from our last number,) in the university of Glasgow, will enable our readers to appreciate more justly the labors of Professor Jardine, and the important services which he rendered to the business of education,

• During the seventeenth century, various circumstances concurred to prove, both that the Aristotelian philosophy was itself declining in reputation, and also that the scholastic method of teaching was felt to be no longer suitable to the spirit of the times. About 1646 or 1647, complaints upon this head bad reached the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; upon which, this body of divines conceiving, themselves to be invested with the right of superintending universities, as well as inferior schools, appointed commissioners to examine into the practical details of their several modes of teaching, with powers to remedy abuses of every kind. In one of the Acts, accordingly, of these commissioners, it is declared, “ that the dyting (dictating) of long notes has, in time past, proved not only a binderance to the necessary studies, but also to the knowledge of the text itself, and to the examination of such ibings as are taught; it is therefore sincerely recommended by the commissioners to the dean and faculty of arts, that the Regents (the prosessors who bad the charge of educating the youth) spend not so much time in dyting of their notes ; that no new lesson be taught till the former be examined ; that every student have the text of Aristotle in Greek ; and that the Regent first analyse the iext, viva voce, and thereafter give the sum thereof in writing.” We may also mention, in passing, that it was likewise proposed to the commissioners, by their reverend constituents, to introduce a uniform system of instruction into all the Scots universities; but this object, after much conference and discussion on the part of the commissioners, and an actual comparison of the several plans of teaching then in use, was afterwards abandoned, as being impracticable, or at least inexpedient, in the existing circumstances of the times. VOL. I.

77

A Royal Visitation, which took place in 1727, was the means of introducing, into the college of Glasgow, the first radical reform in the method of teaching philosophy. Prior to this date, each professor conducted his pupils through the whole philosophical course ; giving lectures in three successive years, on logic, ethics, and physics. One of the principal changes recommended by the royal visiters on this occasion, consisted in restricting the professors of philosophy to a particular department. The former method was, no doubt, attended with some considerable advantages altogether peculiar to it; and accordingly it still remains questionable with many persons, fully competent to form a judgement on such matters, whether the innovation now stated, was in every point of view, a decided improvement. When the primary object of a professor is not so much to extend the bounds of science, by original speculations of his own, as to communicate to youth elementary instruction, drawn from the works of others, he may not find much difficulty in making himself sufficiently master of all that is necessary to be taught, in each department; whilst, from an intercourse with his students, during three sessions of college, he has such an opportunity of becoming acquainted with their several talents and dispositions, as enables him to adapt, with every prospect of success, bis mode of instruction to their respective capacities. If, in addition to this, we could have any ground for assurance, that the duties of a professor would always be discharged by able men, and zealous teachers, there could be no besitation in pronouncing the ancient system decidedly superior to the modern ; but, wben, on the contrary, it is morally ceriain ihat professorial chairs will not always be filled by individuals so highly qualified, and as men of ordinary talents may, nevertheless, by confining their attention to one particular field of study, not only acquire some eininence, but become very successful instructers, it is extremely probable, all things considered, that each branch of knowl. edge will be better taught by being intrusted to a separate professor. Besides, there is possibly some improvement to be derived from the opportunity, thus furnished to a young man, of observing and comparing different modes of communicating instruction; and, at all events, it is an advantage not entirely to be overlooked, that students sbould not during their whole academical course be confined to one teacher, but should have it in their power to attend the lectures of any distinguishied professor, who may happen at the time to adorn our seat of learning.'

It is one of the characteristic arrangements of the Scottish universities, that no student is compelled to attend the whole round of lectures which constitutes the college course. He may select what branches he pleases, and omit others, making the selection with reference to his future avocation in life; and, at the same time, any individual in private life, who is zealous for his own improvement, may attend as many of the lectures as he pleases. It is not at all unusual to find a merchant or even a mechanic here

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