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1805, Mont-Blanc and Atlas, the Pluton succeeded, and Jú, the Espana was rescued. Amidst the derangement of the franco-spanish line, the Atlas suffered most severely, and, but for the support of her friends, among whom the Neptune was foremost, would certainly have been captured. ‘. . Soon after 8 P.M. the Firme, with the loss of her Film main and mizen masts, and subsequently of all her §. masts, struck; and the San-Rafaél, with the loss of her Rafael, main topmast, and subsequently of all her masts also, did not hold out many minutes longer. At 8 h. 25 m., at which time the british ships were disunited and scattered, the body of the combined fleet barely within gun-shot to-windward, and the shades of night combining with the fog and smoke to render objects still more indistinct, sir Robert made the night private signal to discontinue the action. At about 9 P.M. the Windsor-Castle, with her fore topmast gone, passed close to-windward of the Prince-ofWales, and then bore up and was taken in tow by the Dragon; who, with all her efforts, had not got up in time to take more than a very slight part in the action: indeed, it was nearly 8 P.M. when the Dragon fell into line ahead of the Barfleur, who herself had been unable to get very close to the enemy. The signal to discontinue the action being seen but by few ships, the general firing did not cease until 9 h. 30 m. P. M. The british ships soon afterwards brought to upon the starboard tack, with their heads about south-west by west, and lay by for the night, repairing their damages, in order to be ready to renew the contest on the morrow. Loss of The loss, in gross, sustained by the british fleet British amounted to 39 officers and men killed and 159 wounded; and, as sir Robert Calder, in his official return, has, contrary to what is customary, omitted to specify the names or qualities of the officers killed and wounded, we are constrained to do the same. One ship, the Warrior, escaped with entire impunity; and the Hero, Agamemnon, Repulse, Raisonable, Glory,

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and Dragon, lost between them but three men killed 1805;
and 14 wounded ; nor were the Dragon’s four men of
wounded by the enemy’s shot, but by an accidental
explosion. No ship had a mast shot away, but the
Windsor-Castle and Agamemnon, nor a yard except
the Ajax.” The loss on board the two prizes was
stated to consist of about 600 in killed and wounded; or
but a careful comparison of the number of wounded one,
and unwounded prisoners, with the number of men.
deposed to have been on board each ship at theird.
commencement of the action, has reduced the number
considerably. In this amended state, the gross loss
sustained by the combined fleet amounts to 476 -
officers and men killed and wounded. H With re- "
spect to damages, the french and spanish ships did not
exhibit many marks in their masts and rigging ; but
some of them, undoubtedly, were much hit in the
hull. One ship, we believe the Atlas, had the head
of her bowsprit shot away; another, her fore yard
and fore topgallantmast; and a third, a topsailyard.
Had a court-martial on the french, as was the case
with the british, commander in chief, called for a
specific statement of each ship's damage, every
wounded topgallantmast and spritsail-yard, ever Rel
cut rope and shot-graze, would have been formally .
set forth; and then, and then only, would a fair op- ..
portunity have been afforded, of comparing the to
relative damage on board the two fleets. fleets.
It was extremely natural for the french writers to

make the most of the minute statement of damages
published along with the proceedings of the court-
martial which sat upon sir Robert Calder; but they
evinced very little candour, when they confronted
the whole loss on the british side with a part only of

the loss on their side, and then drew from it the

inference, that their fleet had suffered the least in the

| action. To have acted impartially, they should have

struck out of the british returns the two ships that
* See Appendix, No. 1. - .
to See Appendix, No. 2.

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1895, had sustained the heaviest loss, as a set-off against Jo, the two prizes, whose united loss, although the French



were unable to enumerate it, they knew amounted to
much more than that of any other two, or any four

i., of ships in the combined fleet. This would have made '...” the numbers stand thus: british loss in killed and

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Second day of meet



wounded, except of Windsor-Castle and Malta, 108;
franco-spanish loss in killed and wounded, except of
§. and Firme, 171. But, if we add the loss
of the two omitted ships on each side, as given (with
respect to the spanish ships for the first time) in the
preceding page, the relative quantum of loss will be
more than two to one in favour of the British.
Daybreak on the 23d found the two fleets about
17 miles apart, reckoning from their respective
centres; but, owing to the hazy state of the morn-
ing, neither fleet had of the other more than a partial

view. The ships of each were lying to, or making

very little way, with the wind, as on the preceding
day, a moderate breeze from north-west by west.
The british fleet had just come to the wind on the
larboard tack, but the combined fleet still remained

in of on the starboard. The british advanced squadron,

each fleet.

consisting of the Barfleur, Hero, Triumph, and Aga-
memnon, lay about five miles to-windward of the main
body; and, at the distance of about six miles to-wind-
ward of the former, lay M. Villeneuve's advanced
squadron, consisting also of four sail of the line, besides
a few frigates. To-windward of these again, at the dis-
tance of other five or six miles, lay the body of the
franco-spanish fleet. To-leeward of the british main
body, about five miles, lay the crippled Windsor-
Castle, with the Dragon approaching to take her in
tow; and still further to-leeward, at about an equal
distance, lay the Malta, Thunderer, two frigates, and
prizes, all of whom were out of sight of the admiral.

At 6 h. 30 m. A. M. the Prince-of-Wales, and the
ships with her, filled their main topsails; and at
8 A.M. the van-division, by signal, bore up to close
the former, which had then wore, and, under their

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topsails were running to-leeward, to join the
prizes and the ships with them. . At 9 A.M., having
concentrated his fleet, the british admiral hauled
up on the larboard tack, and steered about north-
east; keeping between the franco-spanish fleet and
his three disabled ships. Of these the Windsor-
Castle was in tow by the Dragon, the Firme, by the
Sirius, and the San-Rafaél, at present by the
Egyptienne, who had recently taken charge of her
from the Malta.
No sooner had the weathermost british ship bore
up to join the prizes, than, imagining that the former,
although under topsails only, were flying in dis-
order, “fuyant en désordre,” the french admiral went
with his staff on board the Hortense frigate, and
calling to him all the other frigates, except the Didon,
which latter had been sent ahead to reconnoitre,
ordered them to inform his captains, that he meant
to bring on a decisive action, and that they were to
lay their ships as close as possible alongside of the
enemy.* hile the five frigates were hailing the
line-of-battle ships successively, to acquaint them,
“au porte-voix,” with their chief's intention, the
Didon, confiding in her superior sailing, had ap-
proached very near to the british fleet; so near, that
the Triumph, at 11 A.M., for the want of a frigate to
perform the office, tacked and chased her away.
Towards noon the wind veered more to the north-
ward and got very light, and a heavy swell came
on from the same quarter. At a few minutes past
noon the combined fleet, formed in order of battle,
bore up towards the british fleet, then about four
leagues off in the east-south-east; but, owing to the
distance, and to the extreme lightness of the breeze,
it was not until 3 h. 10 m. P. M. that the advance of
the French and Spaniards was noticed by the British.
Immediately the ships of the latter hoisted their
colours, and hauled closer to the wind, awaiting the

* Victoires et Conquêtes, tome xvi. p. 142.

1805. July.

of a re-

1805, expected attack. At 4 P. M. however, the ships of - the combined fleet, with colours also hoisted, and ” then distant about three leagues from their oppo. †. nents, hauled to the wind on the same tack as the lish british ships; thus evidently declining, for the pre... sent, a renewal of the engagement. For a fact so im*::: portant, and so utterly at variance with the statement engage, at first given out by the French, some authority may be requisite. “A midi, toute la flotte prit chasse sur l'ennemi, qu'on estimait a trois lieues et demie: le vent était faible. A quatre heures, on n’avait encore gagné qu'une lieue à l'escadre anglaise; il n’y avait par conséquent pas d'espoir de l'atteindre avant la nuit, mais on pouvait au moins l'approcher davantage; cependant Villeneuve fit signal à la flotte de serrer le vent, son intention étant de n'attaquer l'ennemi que le lendemain; ce signal étonna autant qu'il affligea les officiers et les marins; on prévit dês lors qu'on ne parviendrait plus à joindre l’ennemi.”% ... The british admiral resumed his course to the of north-east, but was soon driven from it by a change of ... wind; which, commencing about midnight at north, ** became, by 8 A.M. on the 24th, north-north-east, and

wind occasionally north-east, but it was very moderate,

*::::. amounting almost to a calm. This brought the com... bined fleet nearly astern of the british fleet; which on" was now to-windward, and might, in all probability, *ly have renewed the action. No attempt of the kind was made. Sir Robert, for reasons that will appear presently, continued with his prizes, under easy sail, working towards a british port, steering about southeast by east. The combined fleet had steered the same course as the british fleet until 8 A. M.: the

ships then edged away and steered south-east by

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Fleets south. At 4 P. M. one ship only of the franco


... spanish fleet was in sight of the british fleet, and by

6 P. M. the two fleets had wholly disappeared from

each other. * Victoires et Conquêtes, tome xvi. p. 143.

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