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claring the captain of the Leander to be a murderer, 1806. and calling upon the citizens to seize him, captain'. Whitby, that he might be proceeded against according to law. By the same proclamation, the Leander, and the two ships in her company at the time the unfortunate occurrence happened, as well as all other vessels commanded by the same three captains, were prohibited from entering the harbours and waters of the United States. At a subsequent; period captain Whitby, at the instance of the british ...eadmiralty, was tried by a court-martial for the mur- quitted. der of John Pierce, and, there not being a particle of evidence to prove the charge, was acquitted. On the 25th of May, in the afternoon, the british 18-gun ship-sloop Renard, (sixteen 18-pounder carronades and two sixes,) captain Jeremiah Coghlan, being about 10 miles north-north-east of the island no of Mona, standing to the northward, with a light. wind at east-south-east, saw and chased a strange . sail under the island of Zacheo, bearing south-east." The pursuit continued all night; and daylight on the 26th discovered the stranger to be a brig, and apparently a cruiser. All this day and night passed in chase, each vessel still on the starboard tack, the Renard gaining. On the 27th, at 8 A.M., owing to the calm state of the weather, the Renard took to her sweeps, and continued plying them until 8 P.M., when a light breeze sprang up. That night passed, and at noon on the 28th the Renard, being in latitude 20° 30' north, longitude 68° west, and having got almost near enough to the stranger to open her fire, was saved that trouble by the french brig-corvette Diligent, lieutenant Vincent Thevenard, haul-puting down her colours; and this, notwithstanding the gent brig mounted 14 long 6-pounders and two brass 36- ..." pounder carronades, and had on board a crew of 125 men. The Diligent had sailed from Pointe-àPitre seven days before, and was bound to Lorient. What could have possessed M. Thevenard, that he should have so disgraced the flag under which

** he served as to haul it down without making the

May. Re

slightest resistance? As the bearer of despatches from Guadeloupe to France, he was justified in

... speaking no one. That excused his flight, but not .* his surrender. The moment he saw that he could




WarrenHastings sails from , England.

not escape, and that the ship approaching him was
of about equal size to his own, (the Renard was of
348, the Diligent of 317 tons,) he should have fought
her. Not a 10-gun schooner-privateer from the
island he had quitted, but would have done so.
What had he to fear, with the weathergage and a
battery of seven french 6-pounders and one 36.
pounder carronade, opposed to eight 18-pounder
carronades and one 6-pounder 2 The only difference
in force between the Renard and a common english
gun-brig, or one of the large armed schooners, was
in number, not in caliber of guns. On coming to
close quarters, and beginning to feel the weight of
his opponent's heavier shot, what was to hinder the
french captain from boarding?
To call the conduct of M. Thevenard by any
softer name than cowardice, would be acting more
leniently towards a Frenchman than we are accus-
tomed to act towards an Englishman. To the
honour of both navies, cases of the kind are rare,
very rare; and if M. Thevenard continued to belong
to the french navy, as it appears, he did, until the
reduction that took place in the year 1817, it must
have been because he misrepresented the circum-
stances under which he had been captured in 1806.
What would Napoléon have done, had he known
that the commander of one of his brig-corvettes had
o: to a vessel of equal force without firing a
Shot %
On the 17th of February, 1805, the honourable
East India company’s ship Warren-Hastings, cap-
tain Thomas Larkins, mounting 44 guns, with a
complement of 196 men and boys, sailed from Ports-
mouth on a voyage to China. As extraordinary
pains had been taken in the equipment of this ship,

to enable her to defend herself against a french 1806. frigate should she chance to fall in with one, we will give a more particular account of her armament. The Warren-Hastings mounted 26 medium 18-}. pounders on her main or lower deck, 14 carronades,” 18-pounders, on her upper deck, and four carronades, 12-pounders, on her poop. The medium gun was six feet long, and weighed about 263 cwt.; whereas the common 18-pounder of the british navy is nine feet long, and weighs about 424 cwt. The former, when run out, did not reach above a foot beyond the ship's side, and, in traversing, wooded, or touched the side of the port, at an angle of less than three points from the beam. The 18-pounder carronade was five feet long, and weighed about 154 cwt. ; the 12-pounder was three feet and a quarter long, and weighed about 8 cwt. A navy carronade of each caliber is in length and weight as follows: the 18pounder, three feet four inches, and about 104 cwt. ; the 12-pounder, two feet eight inches, and about 64 cwt. The carronades of the Warren-Hastings were mounted upon a carriage resembling Gover's in every particular but the only essential one, the having of rollers adapted to a groove in the slide. The consequence of this silly evasion of an ingenious man's patent was, that the whole of the ship's quarterdeck and poop guns became utterly useless, after only a few rounds had been fired from them. The first discovery of any imperfection in the new carriage occurred at exercise; but a plentiful supply of black lead upon the upper surface of the slide lessened the friction, and, with the aid of an additional hand, enabled the gun to be run out. On account, however, of the rain, and the salt water in washing the deck, the application of black lead was obliged to be repeated every time of exercise. The Warren-Hastings arrived out without meet; i.” ing any opponent to try her powers upon, and sailed in. again on her return, but not quite so strongly armed. Four of her maindeck ports had been calked up,


to afford space for a store-room, and the four guns
transferred to the hold; and, on account of a re-
duction in her crew, occasioned by her 40 Chinamen
remaining at Canton and a british ship of war
pressing 18 of her english seamen, four of the 18-
pounder carronades were also removed below. Con-
sequently the ship now mounted but 36 guns, with
a crew of only 138 men and boys.
On the 21st of June, at 7 h. 30 m. A. M., in latitude
26° 13' south, longitude 56° 45' east, the Warren-
Hastings, steering west by south under a press of
sail, with a strong breeze from north-east by east,
descried in the south-west quarter a strange ship
standing to the south-east under treble-reefed topsails
and courses. This was the french 40-gun frigate Pié-
montaise, captain Jacques Epron. . As this ship was
armed somewhat differently from her class, we will
here state her force. Her maindeck guns were the
customary 28 long 18-pounders; and on the quar-
terdeck and forecastle she mounted 10 iron, and two
brass, 36-pounder carronades, two long french 8-
o, and four long english 9-pounders. These
ad belonged to the british frigate Jason, having
been thrown overboard by her when she grounded
off Pointe de la Trenche at the capture of the Seine
in June, 1798.*
Exclusive of her 46 carriage-guns, the Piémon-
taise carried swivels and musketoons in her tops
and along her gunwales. In other respects, also,
this french frigate was equipped in an extraordinary
manner. On each fore and main yard-arm was fixed
a tripod, calculated to contain a shell weighing 5 cwt.
In the event of the ships getting close alongside
each other, the shell, having been previously placed
on the tripod, was to have its fusee lighted by a man
lying out on the yard with a match in his hand: it
was then to be thrown from the tripod, and, falling
upon the other ship's deck, would, from its weight,


Falls in with PiéInontaise.

Force of latter.

* See vol. ii. p. 321

pass through to the deck below. Here its explosion 896. would scatter destruction all around; and, in the Joe, midst of the confusion, the Frenchmen were to rush on board. These again, were armed more like assassins than men-of-war's men; each having, besides the usual boarding weapons, a poignard stuck through the button-holes of his jacket. At 9 A.M., having brought the Warren-Hastings chases to bear well on her weather quarter, the Piémon-..."


taise, shaking the reefs out of her topsails, stood Hasttowards the former, who still continued upon her.” course. At 9 h. 30 m., although gaining fast on the indiaman, the frigate set her topgallantsails and fore and main topmast studding-sails, and at 10 A. M. showed an english blue ensign and pendant. Notwithstanding these friendly demonstrations, the Warren-Hastings suspected the character of her pursuer, and, along with her colours, hoisted the private signal. Of this the Piémontaise took no notice, but continued rapidly to approach. At 11 A. M. the indiaman shortened sail, hauled up a point, and cleared for action. At noon the frigate took in her studding-sails and stay-sails, and brailed up her mainsail; and soon afterwards, having approached within a mile, hauled down the english and hoisted french colours. At 10h. 20 m., choosing a leeward station, on Action account, says captain Epron, of the heel caused by ... the high wind, the Piémontaise opened her fire upon the larboard quarter of the Warren-Hastings within musket-shot distance; and which fire the latter, as soon as she could bring her guns to bear, returned. The action, thus commenced, continued for about a quarter of an hour, when the frigate filled and passed ahead, having done no other damage to the indiaman than disabling a part of her rigging. On getting about a mile and a half ahead of her antagomist, the Piémontaise tacked, and, passing close toleeward of the Warren-Hastings, gave and received a smart fire. In this the Piémontaise, besides killing

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