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1805, preceding month, and required that the fleet should o: pass the Straits, land the troops on the neapolitan Naro- coast, sweep the Mediterranean of all british comlon's merce and cruisers, and enter the port of Toulon to one refit and revictual.” Although in M. Villeneuve's in** structions no mention is made of the spanish fleet, it ville. may naturally be supposed that the latter would de** sire to take advantage of the exit of a formidable french fleet, to effect its junction with the seven sail of the line hitherto so closely blocked up in the port of Carthagena. That, indeed, would be but the return of a similar favour, granted nine years before to the french rear-admiral Richery: Every exertion was therefore made to fill up the complements of the six ships, which, in all other respects, had been ready for sea ever since vice-admiral Willeneuve's arrival. Of the two that had been present in sir Robert Calder's action, one, the Argonauta, had since been repaired and refitted; but the damage done to the other, the Terrible, proved of so serious a nature, that she was disarmed, and her crew divided among the short-manned ships. ... On the 9th or 10th of October, the french troops i." having reembarked, the franco-spanish fleet, with ... the exception of one ship, the San-Fulgencio 64, (for 8. Some unknown reason detained,) moved to the entrance of the harbour, to be ready for a start at a moment’s warning. From the 10th to the 17th hard gales from the westward continued to blow, with very slight intermissions. On the 17th, at midnight, the wind shifted to the eastward; and on the 18th admiral Willeneuve informed admiral Gravina, of his intention to put to sea on the following day. On the same evening, as a preparatory measure, a strong force of . f." drew up in line across the entrance of the harbour; and on the 19th, at 7 A. M., the francospanish fleet, by o from the commander in chief, began getting under way, with a light breeze at north by east.

* See p. 29. t See vol. i. p. 443. # See p.32.


This and every other movement of the franco-isos. spanish fleet was seen and reported by the british Go." reconnoitring frigates. Owing to the lightness of the wind, 12 ships only succeeded in getting out, and these lay becalmed till early in the afternoon; when, a breeze springing up from the west-north-west, the whole 12 stood to the northward on the larboard tack, accompanied, at the distance of not more than two or three miles to-windward, by the british frigates Euryalus and Sirius. At 8 A. M. the wind, still very light, shifted to south-west, and the course of the ships became north-west by west; the point of San

Sebastian at this time bearing from the Euryalus east

half south distant about four miles. At daylight on strength the morning of the 20th the remainder of the com-o.

bined fleet in Cadiz harbour, consisting, with the ."

ships already outside, of 33 sail of the line, five so

frigates, and two brigs, weighed and put to sea with .
3. i. breeze at south-east, while the ships in the
offing, as was frequently the case on this coast, had
the wind from south-south-west. The french and
spanish ships composing this fleet were as follows:

gun-ship FRENCH.
vice-ad.P.-Ch.-J.-B.-S. Villeneuve.
captain Jean-Jacques Magendie.
- ," rear-ad. P.-R.-M.-E. Dumanoir-le-Pelley.

80& Formidable.... captain Jean-Marie Letellier. y
Neptune . . . . . . comm. Esprit-Tranquille Maistral.
LIndomptable . . ,, Jean-Joseph Hubert.
sAlgés {. Charles Magon.

gesiras . . . . . . captain Gabriel-Auguste Brouard.
Pluton . . . . . . . . comm. Julien-Marie Cosmao-Kerjulien.
Mont-Blanc. . . . ,, Guill.-Jean-Noël La Villegris.
Intrépide . . . . . . ,, Louis-Antoine-Cyprien Infernet.
Swiftsure . . . . . . captain C.-E.-L'Hospitalier-Villemadrin.

Bucentaure . . . .

Aigle . . . . . . . . ,, Pierre-Paul Gourrège.
74& Scipion. . . . . . . . ,, Charles Berenger.
Duguay-Trouin ,, Claude Touffet.
Berwick ..., , , ,, Jean-Gilles Filhol-Camas.
Argonaute . . . . ,, Jacques Epron.
Achille . . . . . . . . , Gabriel Denieport.
Redoutable . . . . ,, Jean-Jacques-Etienne Lucas.
Fougueux. . . . . . ,, Louis-Alexis Beaudouin.

LHéroe . . . . . . . . . as Jean-Bap-Jos-Remi Poulain. ..

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*{.e-de-Asturias { rear-adm. don Antonio Escano.

Santa-A {...". Ign. Maria de Alava. anta-Ana . . . . . . . . captain don Josef Gardoqui.

100 Rayo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . commod. don Enrique Macdonel.
80 Neptuno . . . . . . . . . - >> doń Cayetano Valdés.
Argonauta . . . . . . . . 3x don Antonio Parejas.
.s Hahama . . . . . . . . . . captain don Dionisio Galiano.
|: - e - - - - - - - - » don Josef Salzedo. .
San-Augustin-...... , don Felipe Xado Cagigal.
7.48 San-Ildefonso ..... - ,, don Josef Bargas.
S.-Juan-Nepomuceno ,, don Cosme Churruca.
Monarca . . . . . . . . . . ,, don Teodoro Argumosa.
S.-Francisco-de-Asis .33 don Luis de Flores.
San-Justo. . . . . . . . * >> don Miguel Gaston.
64 San-Leandro . . . . . . >> don Josef Quevedo.

Frigates, (all french) Cornélie, Hermione, Hortense, Rhin, Thémis; brigs Argus and Furet.

harbour, than the south-south-west wind, attended by thick weather, began to baffle the ships in their progress. Meanwhile the Euryalus and Sirius kept their stations, watching every manoeuvre. At :8h30 m.A.M. the Agamemnon, with a heavy merchant memo brig in tow, was unconsciously running into the midst * of the enemy's ships; when, at length, after repeated signals, enforced by guns from the Euryalus, the british 64 (but still without casting off her deeplyladen prize) hauled to the wind on the starboard tack and got clear. Although ordered by telegraph from the Euryalus, whose captain was senior to sir Edward Berry, to hasten to the british fleet, then to the southward of the former, with intelligence of the number and position of the enemy, the Agamemnon continued standing to the north-west with her prize in tow. This seemed an unaccountable remissness on the part of lord Nelson's favourite ship. The Sirius was also in some danger. She had waited so long for the return of her boat from an

american vessel, that the enemy's advanced ships


Scarcely had the franco-spanish fleet cleared the

found themselves near enough to chase and fire at 1805. her; but the frigate, crowding sail, effected her escape. o.o. Between 2 and 3 P.M. the horizon cleared, and the M. wind shifted to west-north-west. Whereupon vice-villeadmiral Willeneuve ordered his fleet to form in five .

columns, agreeably to a plan which he had pre-ign of viously communicated to his flag-officers and captains. ... The fleet accordingly divided itself into two parts. The first part, consisting of 21 sail of the line, and denominated the line of battle, then subdivided itself into three squadrons of seven ships each; of which the centre was commanded by M. Villeneuve himself, the van by vice-admiral Alava, and the rear by rearadmiral Dumanoir. The second part, or corps de réserve, divided itself into two squadrons of six ships each ; the first was under the orders of admiral Gravina, and the second of rear-admiral Magon. At the time of communicating the foregoing plan M. of formation, admiral Villeneuve reminded his officers. of the instructions he had given to them previously into his quitting Toulon at the commencement of the ..., year.” In case of being to-windward, M.Villeneuve's hiscapdirections then were, for the line to bear down to- * gether, and each ship to take her opponent in the enemy's line, whom she was to engage closely even to boarding. If, on the contrary, the opposite fleet lay to-windward, his fleet was to wait the attack in close line of battle. “The enemy,” says the french admiral, “will not confine himself to forming a line of battle parallel to ours and engaging us with his cannon, where success often attends the most skilful, and always the most fortunate: he will endeavour to turn our rear, to pass through our line, and, such of our ships as he may succeed in cutting off, will endeavour to surround and reduce with clusters (pelotons) of his own. In this case a captain would do better to trust to his courage and ardour for glory, than to the signals of the commander in chief; who, himself engaged and covered with smoke, would

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1805, perhaps be unable to make them.” “There is

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nothing to alarm us,” adds M. Willeneuve, “ in the
sight of an english fleet; their 74-gun ships have not
500 men on board; the seamen are harassed by a
two years' cruise;” (alluding to the state of lord
Nelson's ships in January, 1805;) “ they are not more
brave than we are, they have infinitely fewer motives
to fight well, and possess less love of country. They
are skilful at manoeuvring. In a month, we shall be
as much so as they are. In fine, every thing unites
to inspire us with hopes of the most glorious success
and of a new era for the imperial marine.”H The
most remarkable feature in this plan is, that it per-
sists in ordering the movements to be conducted in
close line of battle, even while it admits that the
enemy, in all likelihood, will adopt a different mode
of attack, that of cutting off the rear of the line and

making of it an easy conquest. Such, however, were

The fleets

in sight

the ancient rules of naval tactics; and France did
not yet possess a Rodney or a Nelson to be the first
to break through them.
Shortly after the franco-spanish fleet had formed,
as already mentioned, in five columns, one of the ad.

of each vanced frigates made the signal of 18 sail of british


ships in sight. On this the combined fleet, still on
the larboard tack, cleared for action, and at about
5 P.M. tacked and stood towards the mouth of the
Straits. Shortly afterwards the four british frigates
approached, and were chased by the Argonauta,
Achille, and a few other ships; to which, as a rein.
forcement, and to serve also as a squadron of
observation, were added the Principe-de-Asturias,
Aigle, Algésiras, and San-Juan-Nepomuceno, under
the command of admiral Gravina, with orders to re-
unite with the main body before nightfall. At
7 h. 30 m. P.M. the Aigle made the signal of 18 british
ships, in line of battle to the southward; and shortly

* Victoires et Conquêtes, tome xvi. p. 109. t For the original passages, see Appendix, No. 6.

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