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1905. at about 11 h. 40 m. A. M., up went to the Victory's
Oct. mizen topgallantmast-head, the first flag of the ce-

lebrated telegraphic message,—“ ENGLAND EXPECTS
THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY ;** a signal which,
the instant its signification became fully known, was
greeted with three cheers on board of every ship in
the fleet, and excited among both officers and men
the most lively enthusiasm.

The general formation of the franco-spanish line, the two and the manner in which the british fleet, by its two fleets columns, bore down to the attack, will appear with

sufficient and, we believe, all attainable accuracy,

by the following diagram. As the ships of the comof the bined feet were constantly varying their positions,

we shall not attempt to point out the stations of any
others than the ships of the four principal flag-
officers. The commander in chief in the Bucen-
taure, with the Santisima-Trinidad as his second
ahead, was directly in front of the Victory, the
leader of the weather column; and the Santa Ana,
the flag-ship of vice-admiral Alava, was in the same
direction from the Royal-Sovereign, the leader of
the lee column. The spanish commander in chief,
admiral Gravina, in the Principe-de-Asturias, was
the rearmost ship of the fleet. Of the frigates it
may suffice to state, that they were ranged in an inner
line considerably to leeward of the fighting line.
One, however, in the centre, believed to have been
the Rhin, was so near as to be seen by the Royal-
Sovereign repeating signals; a circumstance that
induced vice-admiral Collingwood, a few minutes
before the action commenced, to telegraph lord

* There is not, that we are aware of a single publication which
gives this message precisely as it was delivered. The following
is a minute of the several flags, as noted down on board of more
than one ship in the fleet:

863 261 471 958 220 370 4 21 19 24
“England expects that every man will do his du t y.”
The french translation, as given in one or two historical works,
is equally short and expressive; "L'Angleterre compte que chacun
fera son devoir"

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Nelson, that the enemy's commander in chief was 1805. on board a frigate.


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According to the average time noted down on Fouboard the different ships of the british fleet, it was gueux just at noon, the wind very light, the sea smooth Royalwith a great ground swell setting from the westward, Sove

, and the sun shining, in a beautiful manner, upon the fresh painted sides of the long line of french and spanish ships, that the Fougueux, the second astern of the Santa-Ana, whose station was a little in the rear of the centre of the combined line, opened by signal a fire

upon the Royal-Sovereign, then bearing on the french ship's larboard bow, and considerably within gun-shot; also bearing from the Victory north-west, distant about two miles, and from her own second astern, the Belleisle, about west by south three quarters of a mile. Immediately the three british admirals hoisted their respective flags, and the ships of both divisions of the fleet, the white or St.-George's ensign;



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1805, a measure adopted to prevent any confusion in the

heat of battle, from a variety of national flags. As an
additional mark of distinction, each british ship car-
ried, or was ordered to carry, a union-jack at her
main topmast-stay, and another at her fore topgallant-
stay. At the Victory's main topgallantmast-head,
also, was fast belayed lord Nelson's customary signal
on going into action, No. 16, “Engage the enemy
more closely;" consisting of two flags, quarter red
and white over blue, white, and red, or the dutch
republican ensign reversed. At about the same time
that the firing commenced, the ships of the combined
fleet hoisted their ensigns, and the admirals, (with the
exception, to which we shall presently advert, of the
french commander in chief,) their flags. In addition
to her ensign, every spanish ship also hung to the end
of the spanker-boom a large wooden cross.

At about 10 minutes past noon, having reached a mentof position close astern of the Santa-Ana, the Royalbattle. Sovereign fired into her, with guns double-shotted; alsove- and with such precision as, by the subsequent acreign. knowledgment of the spanish officers, to kill or

wound (incredible as it may appear) nearly 400 of
her crew, and to disable 14 of her guns. With her
starboard broadside, similarly charged, the Royal-
Sovereign raked the Fougueux, but, owing to the
distance and the smoke, with little if any effect. It
was just as the Royal-Sovereign was passing be-
tween these two enemy's ships, that vice-admiral
Collingwood called out to his captain: “Rotheram,
what would Nelson give to be here." And, by a
singular coincidence, lord Nelson, the moment he
saw his friend in his enviable position, exclaimed:
“See how that noble fellow Collingwood carries his
ship into action.”

Having, in the most gallant manner, passed under

the stern of and saluted the Santa Ana in the way Ana. already mentioned, the Royal-Sovereign put her helm

a-starboard, and, without any difficulty, ranged close
alongside of her; so close that the guns were nearly

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Closes with Santa

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muzzle to muzzle. Between the two three-deckers 1805. à tremendous cannonade ensued. But the Royal- Oct. Sovereign soon found that she had more than one opponent to contend with. The Fougueux, having bore up, raked her astern; and, ahead of the english ship, at the distance of about 400 yards, lay the San-Leandro, who, wearing, raked her in that di- Critirection; while, upon the Royal-Sovereign's star- tuation board bow and quarter, within less than 300 yards, of were the San-Justo and Indomptable; as will better Soveappear by the following diagram:


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So incessant was the fire kept up by all these ships, that the people of the Royal-Sovereign frequently saw the shots come in contact with each other. Aware, at length, of the injury which they were thus sustaining by their own cross fire, and observing that three or four british ships were fast approaching to the support of their gallant leader, the four two-deckers, one by one, drew off from the Royal-Sovereign, and left her to combat solely with the Santa-Ana; who, although in force rather more than a match for her antagonist, began already to exhibit proofs that, in practical gunnery, she was decidedly her inferior.

For upwards of 15 minutes the Royal-Sovereign was the only british ship in close action. At the

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1805. end of that time, when the former had taken a póbet sition upon her opponent's lee bow, and was making Belle- the best possible use of it, the Belleisle, hauling up, isle ad- fired a broadside into the lee quarter of the Santa

Ana, and then bore away towards the Indomptable. Sovel - Owing to some of the ships astern of the Fougueux reign's pressing forward to support the centre, while others relief. remained with their sails aback or shivering, the

franco-spanish line (if line we must call it) was be-
coming even more irregular than it had been. The
slanting direction in which, on account of this move-
ment, the british lee column was obliged to advance,
enabled the ships to discharge their starboard guns
at the enemy's rear; and an interchange of animated
firing ensued, the smoke from which, for the want
of a breeze to carry it off, spread its murky mantle
over the combatants, and increased the confusion
into which the rear of the combined Aeet had already
been thrown by the crash at its centre.

Lord Nelson had already, in a two-decker, evinced french how little he dreaded coming in contact with a sparal lord nish first-rate; and even the towering and formidable son's looking four-decker at present in front of him had, object on that very occasion, been driven from her purpose tack. by his well-known prowess. But, although he di

rected the Victory to be steered towards the bow
of his old opponent, it was not with the intention of
attacking her: a spanish rear-admiral, whatever the
force of his ship, was considered an unworthy object
while a french vice-admiral commanded the fleet.
Lord Nelson did not feel a doubt, and the sequel
proved he was correct, that M. Villeneuve was in one
of the two or three ships next astern of the four-
decker; and, knowing that, to fetch a ship lying to at
a distance ahead, he must keep her on his lee bow,
he ordered the Victory to be steered in the manner
just related.

Although every glass on board the Victory was
put in requisition to discover the fag of the french
commander in chief, all the answers to the repeated


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