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robas or 200 kilogrammes. Those who have not seen with their own eyes the enormous quantity of sugar consumed in Spanish Ames rica, even in the poorest families, will be astonished to hear, that the whole of France demands for its own wants only three or four times as much sugar as the island of Cuba, of which the free population does not exceed the number of 340,000 inhabitants.
I have endeavoured to bring together in one view, the exportation of sugar from New Spain, and that from the West India Islands. It was impossible for me to reduce all its data to the same period. I could not procure certain information, as to the actual produce of the English islands, which has prodi. giously increased. The island of Cuba exported in 1803, from the port of the Havannah, 158,000 caras, and from the port of the Trinity and Santiago de Cuba, including the contraband 3000 caxas : Hence
Total exportation of Sugar from the Island Kilogr. of Cuba
37,600,000 Exportation of Sugar from New Spain, 500,000 arrobas, in 1803
6,250,000 Exportation from Jamaica, in 1788
42,000,000 Exportation from the English Virgin Islands and Antigua, in 1788
49,610,000 Exportation from St. Domingo, in 1788
82,000,000 in 1799
20,400,000 I believe we may admit, that the whole of the American islands actually supply Europe
with more than 200 millions of kilogrammes of raw sugar, of which the value even in the colonies, is 40 millions of piastres, or more than 200 millions of livres tournois *, estimat. ing the caxa at 40 double piastres. Three causes have concurred to prevent the rise of this colonial commodity, since the destruction of the plantations of St. Domingo ; namely the introduction of the sugar-cane of Otaheite, which on the same extent of ground yield: a third more vezou than the common cane; the progress of agriculture on the coast of Mexico, Louisiana, Caracas, Dutch Guyana, and Brazil; and lastly the importation of sugar from the East Indies into Europe.
This importation especially ought to fix the attention of those who reflect on the future direction of commerce. Ten years ago, the Bengal sugar was as little known in the great market of Europe, as the sugar of New Spain, and now both of them compete with the sugar of the West India Islands, The United States have received
from Asia, as follows
The great fertility of the soil, and the im mense population, gives such great advantages to Bengal over every other country of the globe, that the sugar exported from Calcutta, after a passage of 5200 leagues, is still lower at New York than the Jamaica sugar, which comes only from a distance of 860 leagues. This phenomenon will not appear so astonishing, to whoever casts his eye over the table given by me in a former part of the work, of the wages of labour * in the different countries of the world, and who reflects that the sugar of Hin_ dostan, which is not however of the greatest purity, is manufactured by free hands, while in the West India islands (in the island of Cuba for example) to produce 250,000 kilogrammes of raw sugar, requires 200 negroes,
purchase amounts to more than 300,000 francs.t In the same island the maintenance of a slave costs more than 20 francs
month. According to the curious information given by M. Bockford in his Indian Recreations,
* According to Mr. Playfair, (Statistical Breviary 1801, p. 60.) the price of labour in Bengal is as follows: a mere workman gains 12 shillings per month ; a porter 15; a mason 18; a blacksınith or carpenter 221; an Indian soldier 20: all in the environs of Calcutta, reckoning the English shilling at 25 French sous, and the rupee at two shillings and sixpence.
+ 12,5011. sterling. Truns.
printed at Calcutta, the sugar cane is cultivated in Bengal, principally in the districts of Peddapore, Zemindar, in the Delta of Godavery, and on the banks of the river Elyseram. The plantations are watered there, as is also customary in several parts of Mexico, and in the valley of Guines, to the south-east of the Havannah. . To prevent the soil from being ex-hausted, they cultivate alternately leguminous plants with the sugar cane, which attains in general three metres of elevation, and from three to four centimetres in thickness.* In Bengal, an acre (of 5368 square metres) yields 2500 kilogrammes of sugart, amounting to 4650 kilogrammes per hectare: consequently the produce of the soil is twice as great as that of the West Indies, while the price of the labour of a free Indian, is almost three times less than that of a negro slave of the Island of Cuba. In Bengal, six pounds of the juice of the cane yield a pound of crystallized sugar, while in Jamaica eight pounds are requisite to produce the same quantity of sugar. Considering the vezou as a liquid charged with salt, we find that in Bengal this liquid contains 16, and in Jamaica 12 per cent. of saccharine matter. Hence the sugar of the East Indies is so low priced, that the cultivator
* 9 feet 10 inches, by from 11 to 15 inches.
sells it at 4 roupees the quintal, or at 26 centimes the kilogramme, which is nearly the third of the value of that commodity in the Havannah market. Although the cultivation of the sugar cane is spreading with astonishing rapidity in Bengal, the total produce is still much less than that of Mexico. Mr. Bockford supposes the produce of Jamaica to be the quadruple of that of Bengal.
Cotton is one of those plants of which the cultivation was as antient among the Aztec tribes, as that of the pite, the maize, and the quinoa. There is some of the finest quality on the western coast, from Acapulco to Colima, and at the port of Guautlan, particularly to the south of the Volcan de Jorullo, between the villages of Petatlan, Teipa, and Atoyaque. As they are yet unacquainted with machines for separating the cotton from the seed, the price of carriage is a great obstacle in the way of this branch of Mexican agriculture. An arroba of cotton (Algodon con peppa) which sells for 8 francs at Teipa, costs 15 at Valladolid, on account of the mule carriage. That part of the eastern coast extending from the mouths of the rivers Guasacualco and d'Alvarado, to Panuco, might supply the commerce of Vera Cruz with an enormous quantity of cotton; but the coast is almost uninhabited, and the want of hands occasions a dearth of provisions,