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1802, it remained below 2,100,000 marcs. * But we cannot by any means infer from these data, that the mining operations in Mexico have not been so flourishing latterly. In 1801, the gold and silver obtained amounted only to 16,568,000 piastres t; while in 1803, the coinage again amounted, on account of the abundance of mercury, to 23,166,906 piastres.I

Abstracting the influence of accidental causes, we find that the mines and stream works of New Spain, actually produce on an average 7000 marcs of gold S, and 2,500,000 marcs of silver ll, of which the mean value amounts altogether to 22 millions of double piastres.

About twenty years ago, this produce was only from ten to sixteen, and thirty years ago, from eleven to twelve millions of piastres. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the quantity of gold and silver coined at Mexico was only from five to six millions. The enormous increase in the produce of the mines - observable in latter years is to be attributed to a great number of causes, all acting at the same time, and among which the first place assigned

* 1,378,264 lb. troy. Trans.
† 3,479,2801. Sterling. Trans.
14,865,0501. Sterling. Trans.
§ 4593 lb. troy. Trans.
Il 1,640,000 lb. troy. Trans.

4,620,000 Sterling. Trans
VOL. III.

U

1

must be to the increase of population on the table land of Mexico, the progress of knowledge and national industry, the freedom of trade conceded to America in 1778, the facility of procuring at a cheaper rate the iron and steel necessary for the mines, the fall in the price of mercury, the discovery of the mines of Catorce and Valenciana, and the establishment of the Tribunal de Mineria.

The two years in which the produce of gold and silver attained its maximum, were 1796 and 1797. In the former, there was coined at the mint of Mexico, 25,644,000 piastres ; and in the latter, 25,080,000 piastres. To judge of the effect produced by the freedom of trade, or rather from the cessation of the monopoly of the galleons, we have merely to remember that the value of the gold and silver coined at Mexico, was, from 1766 to 1778, 191,589,179 piastres, and from 1779 to 1791, 252,525,412 . piastres ; so that from 1778, the increase has been more than a fourth part of the total produce.

We find in the archives of the mint of Mexico, very accurate accounts of the quantity of gold and silver coined since 1690, from which I have framed the two following tables: the first indicates the value of the gold and silver expressed in double piastres, and the second exhibits the quantity of marcs of silver, given in to the mint, and converted into piastres.

15

TABLE I. Gold and silver extracted from the mines of Mexico,

and coined at Mexico, from 1690 to 1803.

[blocks in formation]

1690 5,285,580 1720 7,874,323 175013,209,000 1780 17,514,263 1691 6,213,709 1721 9,460,734 1751 12,631,000 1781 20,335,842 1692 5,252,729 1722 8,824,432 1752 13,627,5001782 17,581,490 1693 2,802,378 1723 8,107,348 175311,594,000 1783 23,716,657 16945,840,529 1724 7,872,822 1754 11,594,000 1784 21,037,374 1695 4,001,293 1725 7,370,815 1755 12,486,500 1785 18,575,208 116963,190,618 1726 8,466,1461756 12,299,500 1786 17,257,104 1697 4,459,947 1727 8,133,088 1757 12,529,000 1787 16,110,340 1698 3,319,765 1728 9,228,545 1758 12,757,594 1788 20,146,365 1699|3,504,787 1729 8,814,970 1759 13,022,000 1789 21,229,911

1700 3,379,122 1730 9,745,870 1760 11,968,000 1790 18,063,688 1701 4,019,093 1731 8,439,871|1761 11,731,000 179121,121,713 17025,022,550 1732 8,726,465 176210,114,492 1792 24,195,041 1703 6,079,254 1733 10,009,795 1763 11,775,041 1793 24,312,942 17045,627,027 1734 8,506,5531764 9,792,575 1794 22,011,031 1705 4,747,175 1735 7,922,001 1765 11,604,845 1795 24,593,481 1706 6,172,037 1736 11,016,000 1766 11,210,050 179625,644,566 17075,735,032 1737 8,122,140 1767 10,415,116 1797 25,080,038 1708 5,735,601 1738 9,490,250 1768 12,278,957 1798 24,004,589 17095,214,143 1739 8,550,785 1769 11,938,784 179922,053,125

17106,710,587 17409,556,040 1770 13,926,320 1800 18,685,674 17115,666,085 1741 8,663,000 1771 13,803,196 1801 16,568,000 1712 6,613,425 1742 16,677,000 1772 16,971,857 1802 18,798,600 1713 6,487,872 1743 9,384,000 1773 18,932,766 1803 23,166,906 1714 6,220,822 1744 10,285,000 1774 12,892,074 17156,368,918 1745 10,327,500 1775 14,245,286 1716 6,496,288 i 746 11,509,000177616,463,282 171716,750,734 1747 12,002,000 1777 21,600,020 17187,173,590 1748 11,628,000 1778 16,911,462 171917,258,706 1749 11,823,500 1779 19,435,4571

Total of gold and silver from 1690 to 1803 1,353,452,020 piastres.*

* £284,224,924 Sterling. Trans.

TABLE II.-Silver drawn from the mines of Mexico from 1690 to 1800.

292

Years.

Ounces. Ochavas.

Years.

Ounces.

Ochavas.

Years.

Ounces.

Ochavas.

Years.

Ounces.

Ochavas.

Years.

Ounces.

Ochavas.

Years.

Ounces.
Ochavas.

Marcs of
Marcs of
Marcs of
Marcs of
Marcs of

Marcs of
silver.
silver.
silver.
silver.
silver.

silver.
1690 621,835 4 011710 789,480 7 3 1730 1,146,573 0 0 1750 1,554,000 01 01770 1,638,391 5 6 1790/2,045,951 66

1 731,024 52 11 666,59824 1 992,92600 11,486,00000 11,506,255 2 2 1/2,363,867 53
2 629,732 67 2 783,932 3 2

21,026,643 00 21,603,000.00 21,996,689 1 / 1 22,724,105 3 6
3 329,691 416 3 763,279 05 31,177,623 00 31,364,000/00 32,227,442 61 32,747,746 413
4687,12110 4 731,861141 4 1,000,771|0|0 41,364,00000 41,516,714 55 42,488,304 1 0
5| 470,740 3 2 5 749,28441 5 932,00116 5 1,469,00000 5 1,675,916 0 7 52,808,380 1 0
6 375,366 73 6 767,969 1 | 6 6 1,296,00000 61,447,00000 61,936,856 62 62,854,072 614
7 524,699/
56

7 794,204 05 7 955,545 712 71,474,000 0 0 7 2,428,613 4 1 7 2,818,24844
8 390,5605 4 81 843,951 63 8|1,116,500 0 0 8 1,500,89334 8/2,334,765 72 82,697,038 2 2

9412,327 71 9 853,963 40 91,005,963 00 9/1,532,000100 92,199,548 66 92,473,542 2 7
1700 397,543 6 2 1720 926,390 7 6 1740 1,124,240 00 1760 1,408,0000|0 1780 1,994,0734 7 1800 2,098,7 12 5

1 472,83445 11,113,027 47 1|1,016,962 00 11,386,00000 112,311,062 310
2 590,90001 2 1,038,109 5 7 2 962,000 010 2 1,189,940 2/3 22,014,545 11
3 715,20630 3 953,805 5 5 31,014,000 0 0 3|1,385,298 74 32,709,16703
4 685,532 51 4926,214 33 41,210,000 0 0 4 1,152,063 5 6 42,402,965 77
5 558,491 2 2 5 867,037 1 2 5 1,215,000 0 0 51,365,275 717 52,111,263 7 0
6 726,122 05 6 996,017 1 6 61,354,000 00 61,318,8294 1 6 1,978,844 5 6
7 674,709) 25 71 956,833 77 71,412,000 0 0 71,225,307 62 7 1,819,14113
8 675,012 7 6 8 1,085,711 17 8|1,368,000 0 0 81,444,583 16 8|2,293,555 513
91 613,428 47 9|1,037,055) 715

9|1,391,000 0 0 91,404,564 014 92,415,821 21 Total in silver alone, from 1690 to 1800, 149,350,721 marcs.

* 98,008,212 lb, Troy. Trans.

POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE

[BOOK IV.

It appears from these tables that the mines of New Spain have produced from 1690 to 1800, the enormous sum of 149,350,721 marcs of silver *; and from 1690 to 1803, gold and silver to the value of 1,353,452,020 double piastres t, or 7,105,623,105 livres tournois, estimating the piastres at 105 sous, French money.

For a hundred and thirteen years, the produce of the mines has been constantly on the increase, if we except the single period from 1760 to 1767. This increase becomes mani. fest, when we compare, every ten years, the quantity of the precious metals given in to the mint of Mexico, as is done in the following tables, of which the one indicates the value of the gold and silver in piastres, and the other, the quantity of silver in marcs.

98,008,212 lb. troy. Trans.
+ 284,224,9241. Sterling. Trans.

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