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CONTENTS.

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Introduction ..................................

The Railways of Great Britain .............

Early History of Transit........................

The Old Mail Coach.......................... ................

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Cost of Carriage in the last century ........

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Canal Navigation ................

14

Invention of the Locomotive ...............

Increase of Power and Speed.

16

Working of Railways .....................

Opening of the principal Railways

Railway Employés ......................

Railway Traffic in 1859 .................

Railway Capital and Receipts ..............

General Statistics of Railways

Table of Railway Acts, passed 1860 ...........

Railway Officials' Directory ..........

Railway Clearing House, (London.) ...........

Do. do. (Ireland.) ............................................

Irish Railway Clearing House Act, 1860....

The Railway Press ..........

Electric Telegraph ..............

Miscellanea

The Coal Measures of Great Britain....

Importance of Geology ............

Table of Stratified Rocks....................

Value of Organic remains ..............

Carboniferous Limestone................

Characteristic Fossils (Illustrated) .........

Millstone Grit ..........

105

Mode of Coal Formation ....

Fossils of the Coal Bed (Illustrated)

.... 112

Different varieties of Coal found .........

..... 117

Faults in the Coal Measures (Illustrated) ....

... 119

History of Coal Mining ...........

Coal Fields of Great Britain ..............

133

Northern Coal District .....................

134

Central Coal District ..................

139

West rn Coal District..................

South Weste: a Ce District ............

........ 144

Coal Fields of Ireland.

Ditto dittu Scotland ..........

Duration of our Coal Supplies ............

Act for the Regulation and Inspection of Mines, passed in 1860 ............. w 153

Inspectors of Coal Mines .............

.. 163

Ventilation of Coal Mines ..........

Accidents in Coal Mines ............................

Prices of Metals from 1782 to 1859 .........

168

French Treaty ............

Learned Societies, &C.......................................... ....................

The Barometer and its connection with Mining. ...........

w 183

Latest Mineral Statistics..

List of London Bankers .................

.......... 193

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commerce and trade began to spread that the social and political liberties of Englishmen were increased. Tradesmen and artificers, for mutual protection, grouped themselves into small towns, generally in the neighbourhood of the sea; and besought charters from the king, who, to counteract the dominating power of his lords, in many cases granted them. As these burghs or trading towns increased in number, they also increased in influence, and thus became of great importance from the taxes which they paid to the country. Properly to represent their interests and protect their liberties, deputies were often appointed to wait upon the king. The king, either from policy or want of funds, encouraged them, and in time of war began to call them together; thus were formed the first parliaments. This third estate of the realm grew daily in importance, counteracted the military power of the barons, protected the liberties of the people, and encouraged traffic and commerce. Thus it is that England has gradually arisen from the trammels of serfdom by the omnipotent power of her industry.

As a means of raising England in the scale of nations also, her commerce has been very powerful. Those who have read the history of Britain down to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries will have remarked how she was often torn by intestine divisions, or conquered by many of the northern nations of Europe. But when her internal resources began to be understood, from then do we find that she shook off the yoke. Ever since the defeat of the Spanish Armada, Englishmen have felt that their national security lay chiefly in their navy, and consequently have done all in their power to increase and strengthen it. But let us see how this was affected by our internal resources. In 1400, coals became in general use in London, and their consumption increased almost daily from that time. Situated as London is, far from any mining district, the fuel had to be imported, and owing to the bad state of the roads in the interior, the most common as well as cheapest method was to bring them by sea. In 1790, 4,956 vessels (including repeated voyages) were engaged in the coal traffic between Newcastle and London. It has been in this sea traffic that England's best seamen have been reared, and from it, great numbers, during the time of our naval wars, were transferred to our country's navy, Thus has the coal traffic proved a nursery for our best seamen ; men, who by their bravery and nautical knowledge, have invested England's name with no little renown. In this manner, from the action and re-action of industry upon the liberties of the people, has our country, a little island open upon every side to foreign attack, attained to the position of a first-class power.

The mineral and other resources of Great Britain have also furnished numerous means of employment for workmen of all ages, and of all trades. In this manner, with increased trade, we have decreased pauperism ; and thus the social standing of the population has been considerably raised. Of late years, educational institutions have become more common where labour has been most abundant, and knowledge of every sort has been disseminated throughout the country; consequently the intellectual position of the people has been generally elevated. The students of science are no longer abstract philosophers, but are practically engaged in almost every department of industry; every science, like a hand-maid to humanity, is doing all she can to further its interests, and to perfect the species.

Of late years geology has considerably increased in its practical application; thousands of pounds have been saved by intelligent men, through attending to the teachings of that noble science. One of the most striking facts that comes under our notice is the following :- Whenever a country is rich in mineral wealth below, it is generally poor in agricultural wealth above, and vice versa. Now in England we have both these phenomena on an extensive scale. The miners of the North of England who descend into the bowels of the earth to extract the mineral riches there hidden for the use of their Southern brethren, would have no time to attend to agricultural labours above: whilst the inhabitants of the South, who reside upon a tract of country removed thousands of feet in vertical thickness from the coal measures beneath, are enabled to turn all, or nearly all their attention to agricultural labour above, and thus obtain food for themselves and their mining brethren. Again, these secondary and tertiary rocks, upon which the agricultural labours are followed, are extremely rich in phosphate of lime and other mineral ingredients, from the abundance of the organic remains which they contain; and these, as is well known, greatly favour the processes of agriculture. These facts confirm us in the opinion, that they have not happened by chance; but have been among the forensic plans of the Creator.

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