Page images

Fåte, får, fåll, fât; mė, mėt; pine or pīne, pin; no, not; öð as in good ;

BE -ĦRING'S STRAIT, a strait which connects the Pacific with the Polar Ocean, situated between Asia and America. In the narrowest part it is about 50 m. wide. Lat. between 65° 30' and 66° 30' N., Lon. between 168o and 170° W.


Beja, ba-zhả, an ancient t. of Portugal, in Alentejo; cap. of a dist. of the same name. Lat. 38° 5' N., Lon. 7° 40' W. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

Bel-JA-POOR!, formerly written VISIAPOUR, a considerable prov. of Hindostan, lying between 15° and 18° N. Lat., and 73° and 76° E. Lon.—Also, a t., the former cap. of the above prov., now in ruins.

Beith, beeth, a small t. of Ayrshire, Scotland, 8 m. N. of Irvine.

BEL-EDI-EL-JER-EED (often written Beled-el-Jerid, or -Djeryd), usually pronounced bel-ed'-ool-jer-eed!," the country of dates," a name given to a region of N. Africa, lying S. and E. of the Atlas Mountails.

BEL-FASTI, a seaport, the principal t. of the N. of Ireland, on the bay of Carrickfergus, about 88 m. N. by E. of Dublin. It has a college and several other institutions for the promotion of learning. Belfast has increased very rapidly during the last half century. The census of 1831 gave a pop. greater than that of 1821 by more than 16,000. Lat. 54° 36' N., Lon. 5° 56' W. Pop. in 1851 96,660.

BELFAST, a port of entry; cap. of Waldo co., Me., at the mouth of the Penobscot.

BELFORT, bel'-for), more usually BEFORT, ba`-for!, a t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Rhine. Lat. 47° 39' N., Lon. 6° 50' E. Pop. in 1832, 4,537. (P. C.)

Belgium, bell-je-um, (Fr. La Belgique, là bêl-zheek!,*) a kingdom of Europe, situated between 49° 32' and 51° 28' N. Lat., and between 2° 36' and 6° 6' E. Lon., bounded on the N. by the prov. of Limburg, North Brabant, and Zealand, E. by the grand-duchy of Luxemburg and that of the Lower Rhine, S. and S. W. by France, and N. W. by the North Sea. Its length is 170 m.; its greatest breadth 110 m. Area estimated at 11,000 sq. m. Population in 1846 4,335,319. The territory which forms the present kingdom of Belgium, previously to 1830, belonged to the crown of Holland. In the month of August of that year, a revolution began at Brussels, which resulted in establishing the independence of Belgium as a limited monarchy. The choice of the national representatives fell upon prince Leopold, of Saxe Coburg, who ascended the throne in July, 1831.—Belgium is divided into 9 provinces; viz., Antwerp, Brabant (South), East and West Flanders, Hainault, Liege, Limburg, Luxemburg, and Namur.--Adj. and inhab. BEL/-G!-AN.

• It may be proper to observe, that French is spoken by the educated Belgiang generally. The language of the lower classes is, for the most part, either Flemish, or a corrupt dialect of the French.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng.

BEL'-GRADE/* (Lat. Singidu'num, Turk. Bil-gråảd), an ancient, fortified 1. of European Turkey, cap. of the principality of Servia, at the junction of the Save and Danube, on the right bank of both of these rivers, It is one of the strongest places in Europe, and has long been renowned in the military annals of Turkey. Belgrade is the principal entrepôt between Constantinople and Salonica on the one side, and Vienna and Pesth on the other. Lat. 44° 50' N., Lon. 20° 32' E. Pop. estimated at about 30,000. (B.)

BEL/-KNAP, a co. in the S. central part of N. H., on L. Winnipisscogee. Pop. 17,721. Co. t. Guilford.

BET-LIN-Zol-NẠ, a small t. of Switzerland, cap. of the Canton of Ticing, on the r. Ticino, 14 m. N. of Lugano. Pop. 13,000. _(B.)

BELLUNO, běl-lool-no, a t. of Austrian Italy, 55 m. N. N. E. of Padua. Lat. 46° 10' N., Lon. 12° 20' E. Pop. about 8,000. (P. C.)

BEL-MONT', a co. in the E. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 34,600. Co. t. St. Clairsville.

BELOOCHISTAN, bel-o'-chis-tản', t a country in the S. of Asia, borderon the Indian Ocean, between 24° 50' and 30° 40' N. Lat., and 47° 50 and 69° 10' E. Lon. Area estimated at 150,000 sq. m. Pop. 2,000,000. (B.) A large portion of this country is mountainous or desert. It is estimated that less than one-tenth of the whole is fit for pasture, and that not one-hundredth part is actually under cultivation. Few portions of it can be said to be well watered, as nearly all the streams, none of which are very large, become dry during the heat of summer. The Beloochees are for the most part pastoral in their mode of life, though some of them are engaged in agriculture. In character, they are hospitable, and generally faithful to their promises, but avaricious, rapacious, and revengeful. The prevailing religion is Mahometanism. The government is a confederacy of several small territories, each having its own chief. All the others recognise the supremacy of him who resides at Kelat. --Adj. and inhab. Bel-001-CHEE.

BENARES, ben-ål-réz, a large city of Hindostan, cap. of a dist. of the same name, on the N. bank of the Ganges. It is celebrated as having been in ancient times the seat of Brahminical learning, and hence has been styled the Athens of India. It may also be regarded as the Hindoo Rome, or the ecclesiastical metropolis of this vast country. The fame for sanctity which it possesses, draws hither annually a anul. titude of pilgrims from different parts of India. Lat. 25° 18' N., Lon. 83° 1' E. Pop. estimated at above 630,000. (B.)

* “In that day of desolation,

Lady, I was captive made,
Bleeding for my Christian nation,

By the walls of high BELGRADE.”—CAMPBELL. + We are informed, on good authority, that the native pronunciation of this name is bel-o'-khis-tan', but general usage appears to have affixed to the ch its som sound: even the French pronounce the name in this manner. Balbi writev it Be. loutchistan.

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, not; 7ð as in good ;

BENEVENTO, ben-à-ven/-to (Lat. Beneven/tum), an archiepiscopal t, of Italy, belonging to the Papal State, though situated within the limits of the kingdom of Naples. This town held an important rank in the middle ages, when it was the seat of a dukedom. After the time of Charlemagne, the duchy of Benevento maintained itself, for a considerable period, as an independent state, and its dukes assumed the title of princes. Lat. 41° 7' N., Lon. 14° 43' E. Pop. about 14,000. (B.)

BEN-GÅL), a large prov. of Hindostan, between 21° and 27° N. Lat. and 86° and 93° E. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Nepaul and Bootan, E. by the Burmese empire, S. by the Bay of Bengal and Orissa, and W. by Bahar. Its length, from Ě. to W., may be estimated at 350 m., its average breadth at near 300 m. Area estimated at 97,244 sq. m. The soil of Bengal is very fertile, and the country is intersected in every direction by navigable streams; among others, the Ganges and Brahmapootra. The annual inundations occasioned by the swelling of the rivers in the rainy season, leave a deposit of decayed vegetable matter, and thus renew the productiveness of the soil. This province is the seat of the supreme government in British India. Pop. in 1822, estimated at 23,358,750. (P.C.) Capital, Calcutta.-Adj. Ben -GÅ-LEŞE/ and BEN-GÅL/-EE. Inhab. BENGALESE.

BENGUELA, ben-gå-lå, a district on the W. coast of Africa, S. of Angola.

Benin, bén-een, a kingdom on the W. coast of Africa, in Nigritia. – A r. of this country, flowing into a gulf of the same name.--Also, a t.; the cap. of the kingdom of Benin. Pop. estimated at 15,000. (B.)

BEN-NING-TỌN, à co. forming the S. W. extremity of Vt. Pop. 18,589. Co. towns, Bennington and Manchester.

BENSHEIM, bens/-hime, a small t. of Hesse Darmstadt, 8 m. S. of Darmstadt. Pop. 4,000. (B.),

BENTHEIM, bent/-hime, a small district of Germany, comprised within the limits of Hanover, with a t. of the same name.

Ben-ton, a co. in the N. E. part of Alabama, bordering on Ga. Pop. 17,163. Co. t. Jacksonville.

BENTON, a co. forming the N. W. extremity of Ark. Pop. 3,710. Co. t. Osage.

Benton, a co. in the N. W. part of Tenn., W. of, and bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 6,315.

Benton, a co. in the W. N. W. part of Ind., bordering on Ill. Pop. 1,144.

BENTON, a co. in the S. W. central part of Mo., intersected by the Osage r. Pop. 5,015. Seat of justice, Benton c. h.

BERAR, bà-rar', a prov. in the S. of Hindostan, between 17o and 23° N. Lat., and 75° and 81° E. Lon.

Berat, ber-åt', an important t. of European Turkey, in Albania. Lat. 40° 48' N., Lon. 19° 52' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

BERESINA or BEREZINA, bér-ez-eel-nạ, a r. of Russia, flowing into the Dnieper.

BEK-Ez-or! (Berezow), a small t. of Siberia; cap. of a circle of the same name. Lat. 63° 56'N., Lon. about 67° E. Pop. about 1,500. (P. C.)

a prov:

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin : TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. BERGAMO, birl-gå-mo, (Anc. Bergomum,) a t. of Austrian Italy, in

of the same name, 27 m. N. E. of Milan. It possesses several scientific and literary institutions; among others, a public library of 45,000 vols. Lat. 45° 42' N., Lon. 9° 40' E. Pop. 32,000. (B.)

BERGEN, bérg/-en, an ancient and commercial t. of Norway, situated on a bay of the North Sea. Lat. 60° 24' N., Lon. 5° 21' E. Pop 21,000. (B.)

BERGI-EN, a co. in the N. E. part of N. J., bordering on the Hudson r. Pop. 14,725. Co. t. Hackensack.

BERG-OP-Zoom, bērg/ op zomel, (Berg on the Zoom,) sometimes incorrectly written Bergen-op-Zoom, a fortified t. of Holland, in N. Brabant, on the little river Zoom, and near the E. branch of the Scheldt, 19 m. N. by W. of Antwerp. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)

BERGUES, bérg, a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, about 5 m. S. E. of Dunkerque. Lat. 50° 58' N., Lon. 2° 24' E. Pop. in 1832, 5,962. (P. C.)

BERK'-LEY, a co. in the N. E. part of Va., on the Potomac r. Pop. 11,771. Co. t. Martinsburg.

BERKS, a co. in the S. E. part of Pa., intersected by the Schuylkill. Pop. 77,129. Co. t. Reading.

BęRK-SHỊRE, formerly written, and still often pronounced Barkshire, an inland co. of England, S. of, and bordering on the Thames. Pop. 161,147.

BERKSHIRE, a co. forming the western extremity of Mass. Pop. 49,591. Co. t. Lennox.

BERI-LIN (Ger. pron. bér-leen'), the cap. of the Prussian dominions, and, next to Vienna, the largest and finest city of Germany, situated on the banks of the Spree, in the prov. of Brandenburg. The part called New Town (Neu Stadt, noil stått), is built with great regularity. The streets are wide, and adorned with a multitude of magnificent buildings, both public and private. The royal palace is one of the finest in Europe. Berlin is celebrated as a seat of literature, science, and the arts; among the multitude of institutions for the promotion of which, may be named—the University, founded in 1810, which is one of the first in Europe; it has 120 professors, and about 1,700 students : the Royal Library, containing more than 400,000 vols., besides manuscripts: and the new Museum, with a superb collection of paintings, coins, and other works of art. In trade, extent, and population, it surpasses every other city of the Prussian dominions. The old Observatory is in 52° 31' 13' N. Lat., and 13° 23' 52" E. Lon. P. in 1846 including the garrison 408,500.

Berlin, a t. of Conn., in Hartford co., 11 m. S. of Hartford, remarkable for its tin manufactures. Pop. of the township, 3,411.

Bermudas, ber-mool-dạz,* or SOMMERS' ISLANDS, are situated in the

* This name, in Shakspeare's time, appears to have been pronounced after the Spanish mode, BERMOOTHES, as we find it thus written in the Tempesl, Act I Scene 2 (See Int. XXVII., 7.)

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, nốt; čð as in good ; N. Atlantic, 645 m. N. E. of Atwood's Keys, the nearest of the W. India Islands, and 580 m. from Cape Hatteras, in North Carolina. These islands are very numerous: the principal are St. George's, St. David's, Long Island (or Bermuda), Somerset, and Ireland. They belong to Great Britain. The climate of the Bermudas is that of perpetual spring. The name is derived from the supposed discoverer, Bermudez, & Spaniard who is said to have touched here in 1522. Wreck Hill, the western part of the group, is in 32° 15' N. Lat., and 64° 50' W. Lon. Total pop. in 1832, 12,228. (P. C.)—Inhab. BERMUDIAN, ber-mool. de-an.

Bưrn or BERNE (Ger. and Fr. pron. bérn), the most populous and next to the largest canton of Switzerland, is situated in the central part of this country. Area 2,577 sq. m. Pop. in 1831, 380,000. (P. C.) -Adj. and inhab. BÆR-NEŞE'.

Bern, the cap. of the above, on a peninsula formed by the r. Aar. Its trade is considerable, and it possesses several good establishments for education, with a richly endowed museum of natural history, and a public library of 30,000 volumes. Lat. 46° 57' N., Lon. 7° 25' E. Pop. of the town, with its environs, 20,000. (B.)

BERN/-ẠRD, Sr., a mountain pass between Switzerland and Italy, on which the celebrated Hospice or monastery of St. Bernard stands, at the height of about 7,963 feet, being the most elevated fixed habitation in Europe, and close upon the limits of perpetual snow. Above it, tremendous rocks rise to the height of 4,240 feet, or about 12,200 feet above the level of the sea.

BERNARD, Sr., a parish in the S. E. part of La., bordering on Lake Borgne. Pop. 3,802.

BER/-RI-EN, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of the state of Mich., lying on L. Michigan. Pop. 11,417. Co. t. St. Joseph.

BER-TIE', a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on the Roanoke. Pop. 12,851. Co. t. Windsor.

BERWICK, usually pronounced bérl-rick,a seaport and garrison t. of the co. of Northumberland, Eng., on the road from London to Edinburgh, on the N. bank of the Tweed, about half a mile from its mouth, and 48 m. E. by S. from Edinburgh. Lat. 55° 46' N., Lon. about 20 W. Pop. of the parish, including an area of 8 sq. m., 8,484.

BERWICKSHIRE, bérl-rik-shịr, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Scotland. Pop. 34,438.

BESANÇON, bęz-ån'-són' or b’zån“-SÓN!, (the Vesan/tii of the Romans,) a very ancient fortified t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Doubs, on the r. Doubs, 205 m. S. E. of Paris. Its trade and manufactures are considerable; it possesses a number of establishments for education, and is the seat of an archbishopric. Lat. 47° 14' N., Lon. 6° 3' E. Pop, 29,000. (B.)

Bes'-SA-RA'-ep-a, or bes'-så-rål-be-å, a prov. forming the S. W. extremity of the Russian empire, lying between the Pruth and Dniester, between 44° 45 and 48° 40' Ñ. Lat., and 26° 10' and 30° 25' E. Lon.

Bevl-EL-AND (Dutch pron. bà/vęlånt,) a dist. of Holland, including

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »