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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good ; commercial t. of Central Asia, is situated in a rich plain, surronnded by gardens and trees. It is the centre of communication between several countries, and carries on, by means of caravans, an active trade with Russia, Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, India, and China. Bokhara is a celebrated seat of Mahometan learning. It is computed that about 10,000 persons attend the different schools and colleges of this city at one time. Lat. 39° 48' N., Lon. 64° 26' E. Pop. estimated at above 100,000. (B.)
Bol'-BEC', a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Lower Seine, 110 m. N. W. of Paris. It has increased astonishingly within the last
Lat. 49° 35' N., Lon. 0° 28' E. Pop. above 8,000. (B.) Boli or Bo'-LEE, a flourishing manufacturing t. of Asiatic Turkey. Lat. 40° 42' N., Lon. 31° 44' E. Pop. estimated at 50,000. (B.)
Bol/-1-VAR, a co. in the W. part of Miss., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 2,577. Co. t. Bolivar.
Bo-Liv/-1-9, or bo-leel-ve-ắ, a republic of S. America, situated between about 109 and 25° 40'S. Lat., and 57° and 70° 44' W. Lon., bounded on the N. E. and E. by Brazil and Paraguay, S. by Buenos Ayres and Chili, W. and N. W. by the Pacific and by Peru. Length about 1,100 m.; greatest breadth, 800 m. Area estimated at about 400,000 sq.m. No recent census of Bolivia having been taken, the pop. is variously estimated from 630,000 to 1,300,000. Balbi gives the latter number. This republic dates from the battle of Ayacucho (i-yåkool-cho), 1824, in which the patriots, under Sucre, completely defeated the royalists. The new republic was named Bolivia, in honour of General Bolivar. The seat of government is Chuquisaca, formerly called La Plata,--Adj. and inhab. Bo-livl-:-ẠN.
BOLOGNA, bo-lonel-yå, (Lat. Bono'nia,) a city of Italy, in the Papal State, next to Rome in population and importance, 26 m. S. S. W. of Ferrara, with which it is connected by a canal (Naviglio, nå-veell-yo), navigable for large boats. From Ferrara, by means of the Po, Adige, and intermediate canals, the water communication extends to Venice. This town is one of great antiquity. It was the principal city of the Etruscans north of the Appenines, and was then called Felsina. Afterwards the Romans changed its name to Bononia. Bologna abounds in churches, most of which are rich in paintings. It is also remarkable for its public institutions for the promotion of literature, science, and the fine arts. The university of Bologna is the oldest, and still one of the principal in Italy. There is a public library, containing 83,000 vols. Lat. 44° 30' N., Lon. 11° 21' E. Pop. above 71,000. (B.)Adj. BOLOGNESE, bo'-lo-nezel, and BOLOGNIAN, bo-lol-ne-ạn.-Inhab. BOLOGNESE.
BOLSENA, bol-sal-nå, a lake of Italy, in the Papal State, about 50 m. N. N. W. of Rome. Its form is nearly oval, and it covers an area of about 70 sq. m. Near the northern bank stands the t. of Bolsena, with about 1,500 inhabitants.
BÖLl-TỌN-LE-MOORSI, a manufacturing and commercial t. of England, in Lancashire, 11 m. N. W. of Manchester. This town has increased
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. very rapidly in population and importance within the last half century. By means of canals and railways, it is connected with all the more important places of the kingdom. The weavers of Bolton probably produce a greater variety of fabrics, than those of any other single town in England. The institutions for education are numerous. Lat. 530 33' N., Lon. 3° 34' W. Pop., including Great and Little Bolton, with an area of above 3 sq. m., 49,763.
BOM-BAYI, an i. on the W. coast of Hindostan a little more than 8 m. long, from N. to S., and about 3 m. in its greatest breadth. Its harbour is unequalled for safety, throughout the British empire in India, and hence the name Bom Bahia* (good_barbour), given to it by the Portuguese, which is now corrupted into Bombay. (P. C.) The town of Bombay is situated at the S. E. extremity of the island, and is tolerably well built. It is second only to Calcutta in commercial impor. tance. Bombay possesses several institutions for the promotion of knowledge, among which is a fine observatory. Lat. 18° 57' N., Lon. 70° 40' E. The permanent pop. in 1816 amounted to about 162,000. (B.) Bombay is the seat of one of the three presidencies into which the British empire in India is divided. Together with the presidency of Madras, it is subordinate to the governor-general of India, whose residence is at Calcutta. The territory under the immediate jurisdiction of the governor and council of Bombay, is situated between the 14th and 24th degrees of N. Lat., and the 71st and 77th degrees of E. Lon.
Bol-NĄ (Anc. Hippo Regius), a seaport t. of Algiers. Lat. 36° 53' N., Lon. 7° 47' E.
Bol-na Visl-tẠ, or Boa Vista, bolå vis/-tả, the most easterly of the Cape de Verde Islands, about 16 m. in length. There is a little town of the same name on the W. side of the island, in 16° 9' N. Lat. and 22° 58' E. Lon.
Bond, a co. in the S. central part of 111., W. of Vandalia. Pop. 6,144.
BONIFACIO, bo-ne-fål-cho, a fortified t. on the S. extremity of the island of Corsica, with a good harbour. Lat. 41° 23' N., Lon. 9° 9' E. Pop. about 3,000. (P. C.)
BONN (the Bonna of the Romans), a t. belonging to Prussia, in the circle of the Lower Rhine, on the left bank of the Rhine. At the head of its numerous literary institutions, stands the University, one of the most celebrated in Germany. Lat. 50° 42' N., Lon. 7° 4' E. Pop abuve 12,000. (B.)
Boom, bome, a t. of Belgium, 10 m. S. of Antwerp. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
Boone, a co. in the N. of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 11,185. Co. t. Burlington.
Boone, a co. in the central part of Ind. Pop. 11,631. Co. t. Lebanon.
BOONE, a co. in the N. part of Ill., bordering on Wisconsin. Pop. 7,626.
* More correctly Boa Bahia, pronounced bo-a bah-ee'-a. It should be remarked that bahia, being a feminine noun, cannot properly have the masculine adjectivo bom prefixed to it.-Bahia signifies strictly a "bay,” or “natural harbour”
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo as in good;
Boone, a co. in the central part of Mo., bordering on the r. Missouri. Pop. 14,979. Co. t. Columbia.
Bootan, boo-tản', or BHOOTAN, the name of a tract of country lying N. E. of Hindostan. Its exact limits do not appear to be ascertained. On the N. it is bounded by Thibet, on the S. by Bengal and Bahar. Inhab. Boo-TEC/-4, sometimes written Botiva.
BO-PAUL', written also BHOPAL, a small independent principality in the central part of India, between 22° 32' and 23° 45' N. Lat., and 76° 2' and 78° 52' E. Lon.--Also, the cap. of the above. Lat. 23° 17° N., Lon. 77° 27' E.
BORCETTE. See BURSCHEID.
BORDEAUX, bor'-dol,* or bor/-do, formerly written BOURDEAUX, boor'dol, (Gr. Boup duyara, Lat. Burdig'ala,) an ancient and celebrated city of France; cap. of the dep. of Gironde, and one of the finest, most commercial, and most populous towns in the kingdom, on the W. bank of the Garonne, 310 m. S. W. of Paris. The city is connected with its suburb La Bastide (lå bảs'-teed'), on the other side of the river, by a bridge 532 yards in length, resting on 17 arches, and constituting one of the noblest structures of the kind that exist. Burdigala was an important place as far back as the middle or latter end of the fourth century, when it was made the capital of the Gallic province Aquitania Secunda. Even at that time had a great reputation as a seat of learning. At present it is distinguished among the towns of France, not only by the extent and variety of its manufactures, and its active commerce, but also by its literary and scientific institutions, and its numerous and important establishments for public instruction, among which there is an académie universitaire, and a public library of 110,000 vols. Bordeaux is the seat of an archbishopric. Lat. 44° 50' N., Lon. 0° 33' W. Pop. in 1846 120,203. Adj. and inhab. BORDELAIS or BORDELOIS, bor-d'ldi; feminine, BORDELAISE, bor'-d’lazel.
BORGNE, a lake or rather bay in the S. E. part of La., connected with L. Pontchartrain by the Rigolets, and communicating on the E. with the Gulf of Mexico. Length about 60 m. ; greatest breadth 26 m.
BOR/-NE-o, the largest island of the globe, with the exception of New Holland, situated between about 4° S. and 7° N. Lat., and 119° 30'and109° 30' E. Lon. Its greatest length is about 850 m.; its breadth about 680 m.
* The accent is usually placed on the last syllable of this name, in ordinary discourse. But the poets, we believe, almost invariably accentuate the penultima. This is evidently the mode in which Shakspeare pronounced Bordeaux. Scott, whose authority may have more weight, as being more modern, follows his example.
“— England's hope and France's fear,
Lines on the Black Prince. Rob Roy.
Lady of the Lake, Canto V.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. The area is estimated at 286,000 sq. m. Our knowledge of this island is limited, for the most part, to the shores. The climate, as far as it is known, is very hot and moist, and is particularly destructive to Europeans. Borneo is divided into a great number of small states. Some of these are subject to the sultan of the Tooloo Islands; others to the Dutch, who have possessions on the western, southern, and eastern coasts. Most of them, however, appear to be independent. The commercial intercourse of Borneo with China, is much more extensive than with Europe. Among European nations, the Dutch, who exercise authority over one-third of the coast, carry on the most active commerce, exporting pepper, gold, and other products. Borneo produces a great variety of vegetables and trees common to tropical countries. It also contains rich gold and diamond mines.
BORN-HOLM, an i. in the Baltic, belonging to Denmark, 90 m. E. of Zealand. It is about 26 m. long, and 12 wide. Area estimated at 216 sq. m.
BOR-NOO', (Bornou,) a kingdom in the N. central part of Africa, between 10° and 15° N. Lat., and 12o and 18° E. Lon.-Adj. and inhab. Bor'-NOO-EŞEl.
BORODINO, bor-o-deel-no, a village of Russia, about 70 m. W. of Moscow, the scene of a desperate battle between the French and Russians, in 1812. Lat. 55° 33' N., Lon. 35° 40' E.
BOSNA-SERAY, bos/-nå-ser-il, or SERAJEVO, ser-i-yal-vo, a manufacturing and commercial city of European Turkey, on the Migliazza (meel-yåt/-så) or Miliaska, near its junction with the Bosna. It is considered the cap. of Bosnia, although the pasha has for the last few years resided at Trawnik. Lat. 43° 54' N., Lon. 18° 26' E. Pop. about 70,000. (B.)
Bosl-N!--4, (called Bos/-nå by the Turks,) the most westerly eyalet or prov. of European Turkey, derives its name from the r. Bosna, an affluent of the Save, by which it is intersected. It is bounded on the N. W. and N. by Croatia and Slavonia, E. by Servia, and S. and W. by Albania and Dalmatia. Area variously estimated from 16,000 to 22,000 sq. m. :-Adj. and inhab. Bos/-N!-an and Bos'-NJ-AK: the latter is more properly applied to that portion of the inhabitants of Bosnia who are descended froin the orginal Slavonic nation that established itself here during the decline of the Roman empire.
Bosl-POR-Us, commonly but incorrectly written BOSPHORUS, the strait between the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora, called also the Channel of Constantinople. It is about 1m. or 14 m. wide, and 20 m. long.
BOSRAH. See BASSORA.
Bosl-ton, a port of entry, cap. of Mass., and the largest city in New England, is situated in Suffolk co., on a peninsula 2 m. long and about 1m. wide, at the W. side of Massachusetts Bay. Its harbour is one of the best in the United States. It has always a sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels, and is accessible at all seasons of the year The Middlesex canal, 30 m. in length, connects this harbour with the Merrimack. Besides the advantages which Boston possesses for
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine, or pine, pin; nd, not; 7ð as in good; maritime trade, it communicates, by means of railroads, with all the principal places in Mass., and with most of the important towns in the adjoining states. It is the second commercial city of the United States. The tonnage of this port, in 1850, amounted to 313,190. The total value of the imports, for the same year, was $27,969,922, and of the exports $9,142,649. It is probable that the amount of imports and exports, during the present year, will be much greater. The number and excellence of her institutions for education, and the zeal and success with which literature and science are cultivated by her citizens, appear fully to justify the distinguished reputation which Boston enjoys as a seat of learning. Among the numerous literary establishments of this city, may be mentioned the Athenæum, with a library of 50,000 vols. Lat. of the State House, 42° 21' 22' N., Lon. 71° 4' 9'' W. The pop. by the census of 1850, was 136,871: if we add the suburbs, which are closely united with the city, it will exceed 200,000.-Inhab. Bos-to'-N!-AN.
Boston, a seaport t. of England, in Lincolnshire, about 100 m. N. of London. Lat. 53° N., Lon. Õ° 2' W. Pop. of the town and parish, with an area of above 8 sq. m., 12,942.*
BOT-A-NY BAY, situated on the E. coast of New Holland, was named by Cook, from the great quantity of plants found there. Near it is Sydney, the chief town of the colony of convicts from Great Britain. See SYDNEY.
BOTETOURT, bot/-e-tort, a co. in the S. central part of Virginia, W. of the Blue Ridge. Pop. 14,908. Co. t. Fincastle.
BOTH-N/-A, a country in the N. of Europe, formerly divided into E. and W. Bothnia ; but the prov. called E. Bothnia has been ceded to Russia, and now forms a part of the government of Uleåborg. S. Bothnia extends from about 63° 30' to 68° N. Lat. On the S. E. it borders on the Gulf of Bothnia.—Adj. Both/-NI-ẠN and BOTH'-NIC.
BOTHNIA, GULF OF, the most northern part of the Baltic Sea, extends from 60° to near 66° N. Lat. Its whole length is perhaps 450 m.
Botz-EN, (It. Bolzano, bol-sål -no,) a t. of Tyrol, 32 m. N. by E. of Trent. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
BOUCHES DU RHÔNE. See MOUTHS OF THE RHONE.
BOULOGNE, boo-lonel,(Fr. pron. booʻ-loñ: Anc. Gesoriacum, afterwards Bononia or Bolonia,) a seaport t. of France, in the dep. of Pas de Calais, 138 m. N. by W. of Paris. It contains, among other institutions, a public library of above 22,000 vols. Lat. 50° 44' N., Lon. 1° 35' E. Pop. 26,000. (B.)
BOURBON, boor/-bọn, (Fr. pron. boor'-DON',) an i. belonging to France, situated in the Indian Ocean, E. of Madagascar. The t. of St. Denis, at the N. W. extremity, is in 20° 51' S. Lat., and 55° 30' E. Lon. This island is nearly 50 m. long, from S. E. to N. W., and about 35 m. wide. The soil is very fertile in the vicinity of the coast, but the interior is decidedly sterile. A large portion of the island is mountainous; one
• McCulloch gives the population of this town, without mentioning the area included.