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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. of the peaks rises to the height of near 9,600 ft. above the level of the sea. Pop. in 1822, about 68,000. (P. C.) See Mauritius.
BọUR-RỌN, a co. in the N. part of Ky, N. E. of Lexington. Pop. 14,466. Co. t. Paris.
BOURBON LANCY, boor'-bon lản -sel, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Saône and Loire, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. This place was known to the Romans under the name of Aquæ Nisinei. Lat. 46° 37' N., Lon. 3° 46' E.
BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAULT, boor -BÒNl-lar'-shảm'-ból, a t. of France, in the dep. of Allier, which appears to have been known for its warm mineral waters, to the Romans, under the name of Aquæ Bormonis. It is a place of considerable resort during the months of summer. Lat. 46° 36' N., Lon. 3° 1' E. Pop. about 3,000. (P. C.)
BOURBON VENDÉE, boor'-bÒN/vảN'-da), a t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Vendée. Lat. 46° 41' N., Lon. 1° 29' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
BOURDEAUX. See BORDEAUX.
BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, boor'-bonn' la'-bån', a t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Marne, rernarkable for its hot mineral springs and for the military hospital established here. Lat. 47° 57' N., Lon. 5° 46' E. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
BOURG, boor, a t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Ain, 50 m. by the road N. N. E. of Lyons. Lat. 46° 13' N., Lon. 5° 12' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)
BOURGES, boorzh, (Anc. Avarlicum, afterwards Bitur/iges,) an archiepiscopal t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Cher, 125 m. due S. from Paris. This city may vie, in antiquity and ancient importance, with almost any in France. It was, in the time of Cæsar, the capital of the Bituriges, and one of the finest cities in Gaul. At present, it is chiefly remarkable as a seat of learning. Besides other institutions for educa tion, of less importance, it possesses an académie universitaire and al royal college. Lat. 47° 5' N., Lon. 2° 23' E. Pop. 20,000. (B.) BOURGOGNE. See BURGUNDY.
BOYLE, a co. in the E. central part of Ky., a little S. W. of Ken. tucky r. Pop. 9,116.
BRABANT, brål-bant,* (Dutch pron. brål-bảnt.) The duchy of this name was formerly one of the most important provinces in the Netherlands. It was divided into Dutch (now North) and Spanish or Austrian (South) Brabant. In the revolution of 1830, the S. portion joined in the revolt, and has since formed a part of the kingdom of Belgium; while N. Brabant still continues a province of Holland. Brussels is the capital of South, and Bois-le-Duc, of North Brabant.
BRACK-EN, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio, and E. of Licking r. Pop. 8,903. Co. t. Augusta.
* We sometimes hear this name accentuated on the latter syllable, by respecta : ble speakers; but the authority of the poets, as well as the native pronunciation, is against this practice.
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, nðt; öð as in good;
BRAD/-FORD, a co. in the N. part of Pa., bordering on N. Y., and intersected by the Susquehanna. Pop. 42,831. Co. t. Towanda.
BRADFORD, a manufacturing t. of England, in the W. riding of York. shire, 10 m. nearly W. from Leeds. Pop. 34,560.
BRADFORD, Great, a t. of Wiltshire, England, near the Kennet and Avon canal, about 90 m. W. of London. Total pop. of the parish, 10,563; that of the town is about one-third of the whole.
BRAD/-LEY, a co. in the S. E. part of Ark., bordering on La. p. 3,829. BRADLEY, a co. in the S. E. part of Tenn., bordering on Ga. Pop. 12,259.
BRAGA, brål-gå, (the Braclara Augus/ta of the Romans,) a t. of Portugal, in the prov. of Minho, about 15 m. from the sea. Lát. 41° 33' N. Lon. 8° 23' W. Pop. above 14,000. (B.)
BRAH-MA-POOT/-RẠ, one of the largest rivers of Asia, rises in the mountains N. of the Birman empire, and E. of Assam, and, after having traversed the kingdom of Assam and eastern Bengal, and received several tributaries, among them a branch of the Ganges, it takes the name of Megna, and finally joins the Ganges a little below Luckipoor, in Lat. 22° 45' N., Lon. 90° 40'E. Yet, though their streams appear to unite, the great body of their waters continues separate, and forms two currents, even after they have reached the sea. The whole length of the Brahmapootra is estimated at 1,500 r.
BRAN/-DEN-BURG, (Ger. pron. brản/-den-boord') a prov. of the kingdom of Prussia, extending from 51° 48' to 53° 37' N. Lat., and 10° 50 to 16° 12' E. Lon. The area is about 15,330 sq. m.
BRANCH, a co. in the S. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. p. 12,472. Co. t. Branch.
BRAN-DY-WINE CREEK, a stream in the S. E. part of Pa., flowing into the Christiana, below Wilmington. A noted battle was fought on its banks, between the British and Americans, in 1777.
BRAUNSBERG, brouns-béry, a t. of Prussia, 36 m. S. W. of Königsberg, It contains a college, a lyceum with the faculties of theology and philosophy, and several other institutions. Pop. 7,300. (B.)
BRAXI-TON, a co. in the N. W., or N. W. central part of Va., a little N. E. of the Kanawha r. Pop. 4,212. Seat of justice, Braxton c. h.
BRAZIL, or brạz-ill, or brå-zeel', a vast empire in the E. part of S. America, extending from about 5° N. to 340 S. Lat., and from about 35° to 73° W. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Ecuador, Venezuela, Guiana; N. E., E., and S. E. by the Atlantic, and S. W. and W. by Monte Video, La Plata, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Its vast extent brings it in contact with all the countries of S. America, except Patagonia, Chili, and New Granada. The area has been estimated at 3,000,000 sq. m. Pop. 5,000,000. (B.) As might be supposed, the vegetable productions of a country of so great extent, lying within such latitudes, and, for the most part, plentifully supplied with water, are extremely abundant and various. Nor does anirnal life appear in less variety and luxuriance. Many of the Brazilian birds are remarkable for the brilijancy of their plumage: the insects, for their size and the
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Tu, as in this : n, nearly like ng. beauty of their colours, especially the butterflies. The mineral wealth of this country is considerable, but limited to a few articles, of which the chief are gold, diamonds, topazes, iron, and salt. Brazil was formerly a colony belonging to the crown of Portugal. But, on the 12th of October, 1822, it was declared an independent state, and Pedro, the son of the king of Portugal, whom his father had appointed regent of Brazil, yielding to the torrent of public opinion, adopted the title of emperor, and, on the 1st of December, was crowned. Soon after, the Portuguese troops, who had been stationed in the towns of Bahia, Mam ranham and Para, were compelled to sail for Europe, and the independence of the new empire was established, with scarcely any loss of blood. The government of Brazil is a limited inenarchy. The cap. is Rio Janeiro. — Adj. and inhab. Brazilian, brå-zil/-yun.
BRAZ-os, a r. of Texas, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, in about 28° 50' N. Lat., ard 95° 20' W. Lon. The entire length, following its windings, is estimated at near 1,000 m.
Brazza, bråt/-så, an i. in the Adriatic, belenging to Austria, intersected by the parallel of 43° 15' N. Latr, and the meridian of 16° 30 E. Lon. It is nearly 30 m. long, and from 6 to 9 broad. Pop. 1.5,000. (E. G.)
BREATHITT, brethl-it, a co. in the E. part of Kyu, on the head waters of the Kentucky r.
Pop. 3,785. BRECHIN, brekl-in, a t. of Scotland, in Forfarshire, about 34 m. S.W. of Aberdeen. Pop. 3,951.
BRECK/-EN-RIDGE, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 10,593, Co. t. Hardinsburg.
BrEcl-on or BRECKI-NOCK-SHỊRE, an inland co. in the S. of Wales. Pop. 55,603.
BRECON or BRECKNOCK, a t. of Wales; cap. of Brecknockshire, sitnated on the r. Usk, 167 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,701.
BREDA, brł-dål, a fortified t. of Holland, in N. Brabant, on the Aa, with a royal military academy. Lat. 51° 35' N., Lon. 4° 47' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)
BRETSACH, bril-zåk, (Fr. Brisach, bre'-råk/,) an ancient and important fortress of Germany, belonging at present to the grand-duclıy of Baden, on the Rhine, 12 m. W. of Freiburg. Lat. 48° 2' N., Lon. 70 35' E. Pop. above 3,000. (B.)
BREM-EN (Ger. pron. brål-men), THE FREE HANSEATIC STATE OF, in the N. W. of Germany, intersected by the Weser, is situated between 53° l'and 53° 11' N. Lat., and 8° 35' and 9o E. Lon. Area about 67 sq.m. As an independent power it forms one of the 38 constituent members of the German confederation. Pop. in 1823, 55,453. (P.C.) The city of Bremen, the cap. of the above state, is situated on the Weser, and divided by it into two unequal parts, the larger, called the Old Town (Alt-stadt), is on the right; the other, called the New Town (Neustadt), on the left bank of the river. Its commerce is very extensive. Among the various literary and scientific institutions of Bremen, the observatory of Dr. Olbers, from which he discovered the two planets,
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pīne, pin; no, not; võ as in good ; Pallas and Vesta, deserves to be particularly mentioned. Lat. 53° 4' 36" N., Lon. 8° 48' 58" E. Pop. in 1845, 53,156.
BRENTA, bren/-tả, a r. in the N. of Italy, which rises in the mountains of Tyrol, and flows into the Adriatic, near Venice. Its whole course is nearly 100 m.
BE SCIA, bresh/ e-å, or bresh-ả, (Anc. Brixlia,) a manufacturing and commercial t. of Austrian Italy; cap. of a prov. of the same name. It is a bustling, lively, well-built town, with many fine edifices. The churches are adorned with numerous paintings by great masters, principally of the Venetian school. Next to Rome, Brescia has the greatest number of fountains of any town in Italy. Its manufactures of cutlery and fire-arms deserve particular notice. Lat. 45° 32' N., Lon. 10° 13' E. Pop. 34,000. (B.)
BRESS-LAU or bres/-lou, a large manufacturing and commercial t. of Prussia; cap. of the prov. of Silesia, at the confluence of the Ohlau (ol-lou), with the Oder. It has, among many other literary and scientific institutions, a fine university, founded in 1702, containing a library of abo 100,000 vols. Lat. 51° 7' N., Lon. 17° 5' E. Pop. upwards of 90,000. (B.)
BREST (Fr. pron. the same as the English), the most important naval port of France, in the dep. of Finistère, situated on a bay called the Road of Brest. Lat. 48° 23' N., Lon. 4° 29' W. Pop. 35,163.
BRETAGNE, brę-tåñ, (usually named by the English, Brit/tạny,) an old prov. in the W. part of France, now divided into the five deps. of Ille and Vilaine, Lower Loire, Côtes du Nord, Morbihan, and Finistère.-. Adj. and inhab. BRETON, brit-on.
BRETON, CAPE. See CAPE BRETON.
BRIANGON, bre'-ÅN'-SÓN', a small t. of France, in the dep. of the Upper Alps, situated on the Durance, near its source. Fortified as it is, both by nature and art, Briançon may be regarded as one of the strongest fortresses in the world." One of the forts, comprised within its system of fortifications, is situated 1,229 toises, or 7,860 English ft., above the level of the sea, and, next to the Hospice of St. Bernard, is probably the most elevated habitation in Europe. Lat. 44° 54' N., Lon. 6° 38' E.
BRIDGE/-NORTH, a t. of England, in Shropshire, situated on the Severn, 118 m. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,770.
BRIDGE/-PORT, a city and seaport of Conn., in Fairfield co., situated on Long Island Sound, 171 m. S. W. of New Haven. It is a neatlybuilt, flourishing town, with a good harbour. Pop. 7,558.
Bridge-Town, a small t. and port of entry; cap. of Cumberland co., N. J., on Cohansey creek, about 10 m., in a straight line, from the light. house at its mouth, and 35 m. S. from Philadelphia.
BRIDGETOWN. See BARBADOES. BRIDGE-WÅ-TER, a t. of England, in Somersetshire, on the r. Parret, 29 m. S. W. of Bristol. It is remarkable as the birth-place of Admiral Blake. Pop. 9,899.
BRIDLINGTON or BRELLINGTON, commonly pronounced Burl-ling-ton, a t. of England, in the E. Riding of Yorkshire, situated about a toile
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. from the sea-coast, and 32 m. N. of Hull. Lat. 54° 7' N., Lon. 0° 13' W. Pop. of the township, including Bridlington-Quay, with an area of above 4 sq. m., 5,162.
BRID-PORT, a t. of England, in Dorsetshire, about 135 m. nearly W.S. W. from London. Pep. 4,787.
BRIEG, breed, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Prussian Silesia, about 26 m. S. E. of Breslau. Pop. 11,000. (B.)
BRIEL, breel, a fortified seaport t. of Holland, with a commodious harbour. It was the birth-place of the Admirals Van Tromp and Dewit. Lat. 51° 54' N., Lon. 4° 10' E. Pop. 4,195. (P. C.)
Brieux or BRIEUC (SAINT), sản'-bre'-uh', a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Côtes du Nord, situated near the coast of the Channel, on a small bay of the same name. It possesses several public institutions, and a library of 24,000 vols. Lat. 48° 31' N., Lon. 2° 43' W. Pop. 11,382. (B.)
BRIGHTHELMSTONE, commonly written and pronounced Brion-Ton, a seaport t. and fashionable watering-place of England, in the co. of Sussex, 46 m. S. of London. This town contains many fine, and some magnificent edifices. Its suspension, or chain-pier, which extends into the sea to the distance of 1,136 ft, is justly an object of general admin ration. The pop. of Brighton has increased with astonishing rapidity during the present century. In 1801 it was 7,339; in 1841, 46,661; but during summer the residents amount sometimes to near double that number.
BRINDISI, brin-de-se, (Gr. Bpevtrovov, Lat. Brundilsium or Brundulsium,) a commercial t. of Naples, in the prov. of Terra d'Otranto, well known in Roman history for its capacious and safe harbour, which was the chief port of embarkation from Italy to Greece. It is the seat of an archbishopric. Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 18° E. Pop. 6,000, (B.)
BRIOUDE, bre'-ood, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Loire. Near it there is a magnificent bridge, over the r. Allier, of about 180 ft. span, supposed to have been built by the Romans. Brioude was the birth-place of the illustrious La Fayette. Lat. 45° 17' N., Lon. 3° 24' E. Pop. 5,052. (P. C.)
BrisI-TQL, a manufacturing and commercial city and seaport in the W. of England, on the Avon, about 7 m. above its entrance into the Bristol Channel, and 108 m. W. of London. Together with its suburbs, Bristol forms a little county of itself, which, however, is now usually regarded as a part of Gloucestershire. In the old portion of the city, the streets are irregular and narrow, and the houses present a gloomy appearance; but the newer parts are well built, and have many fine edifices, especially the western quarter of the town, or rather of the suburbs, called Clifton, which is the principal resort of the gentry. Here is a warm mineral spring (the Hotwell), celebrated in consumptive cases. The scenery around Clifton is exquisitely beautiful. The erection of a great suspension bridge over the Avon, at Clifton, was commenced several years ago, but it is still unfinished. The span is to be 700 ft., the height 240 ft. ; so that vessels of the largest size may pass beneath with outspread sails. Of the numerous institutions for educa