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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good, tion of this city, we may mention the Bristol College, founded in 1830, and the Bristol Medical School, established on its present efficient scale in 1834. Bristol appears to have been a place of importance in the 5th century. The name seems to be derived from Bricstow, an old Saxon name of this city, which may be literally translated “ breach place;" i. e. the place or town of the breach or chasm through which the Avon finds a passage to the sea.
The ancient British name was Caer Odor, the “city of the breach.” Lat. 51° 27' N., Lon. 2° 35' W. Pop., including the hundred of Barton Regis with a total area of about 16 sq. m., 122,296.
Bristol, a co. in the S. E. part of Mass., bordering on Buzzard's Bay. Pop. 76,192. Co. towns, New Bedford and Taunton.
Bristol, a co. of R. I., bordering on Narragansett Bay. Pop. 8,514.
Bristol, a port of entry, cap. of the above co., on the E. side of Narragansett Bay, 14 m. in a straight line S. S. E. of Providence. Pop. of the township, 4,616.
BRISTOL CHANNEL. See SEVERN.
Brixl-jam, a seaport t. of England, in Devonshire, situated on the S. side of Torbay, 22 m. S. of Exeter. Lat. 50° 24' N., Lon. 3° 30° W. Pop. of parish, 5,684.
Broad River, a r. which rises in N. C., and, flowing in a southerly direction, unites with the Salada in S.C., to form the Congaree.
BROCK'-EN, one of the Hartz Mts., in Germany, near Halberstadt. Brol-Dy, an important trading t. of Galicia. Lat. 60° 7' N., Lon 25° 18' E. Pop. above 22,000, five-sixths of whom are Jews. (B.)
Broek, brõõk, a village of N. Holland, 6 m. N. of Amsterdam, famous for its neatness and cleanliness, and for the wealth of its inhabitants, the number of whom amounts to about 1,200. (P. C.)
BROMBERG, brom/-berg, a t. of Prussia, in a circle of the same name. Lat. 53° 7' N., Lon. about 18° E. Pop. 6,500. (B.)
Bromley, brum/-!e, a small t. of England, in the co. of Kent, 10 m. S. S. E. of London.
Bron/-DO-LO, a small t. of Austrian italy, at the mouth of the rivers Brenta and Bacchiglione, 16 m. S. of Venice.
BROOKE, a co. forming the N. N. W. extremity of Va., and bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 5,054. Co. t. Wellsburg.
Brookl-Lyn, a finely-built city of Kings co., Long I., opposite to New York, and separated from it by the East River, is the second town in point of population in the state of N. Y. It may properly be regarded as one of the suburbs of the metropolis, with which it has communication by means of steamboats plying constantly at four different ferries. The U. S. Navy Yard is situated in the N. part of the town. Pop. 97,838.
BROOME, a co. in the S. part of N. Y., intersected by the E. branch of the Susquehanna, and bordering on Pa. Pop. 30,000. Ca t. Bing. hamton.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng.
Brown, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 27,332. Co. t. Georgetown.
Brown, a co. in the S. central part of Ind. Pop. 4,846. Brown, a co. in the W. part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop, 7,198.
Brown, a co. forming the E. N. E. extremity of Wisconsin. Pop. 6,215.
BRUCHSAL, brook/-sål, a t. of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 12 m. N. E. of Carlsruhe. Lat. 49° 7' N., Lon. 8° 26' E. Pop. above 7,000. (B.)
Bruges, brul-jez, (Fr. pron. brüzh, Dutch, Brugge, brug'-geh,) an ancient fortified city of Belgium, the cap. of W. Flanders, situated about 6m. from the sea, and 55 m. N. W. from Brussels. Its name, Brugge, is derived from the number of bridges which cross the canals. From four to five hundred years ago, this city was the principal emporium of Europe; at present, it exhibits but the shadow of its former glory. Still, its commerce, manufactures, and public institutions, give
a distinguished rank among the towns of Belgium. Lat. 51° 12' N., Lon. 3° 13' E. Pop. 41,914. (P. C.)
BRÜNN, (native name Brno, i. e. “ford,”) an archiepiscopal t., the cap. of Moravia, situated in the centre of a circle of its own name, near the confluence of the Schwarza and Zwittawa, (which run on each side of it,) and about 70 m. N. of Vienna. Its woollen manufactures are considered the most important in the empire. Brünn has a number of literary and scientific institutions, and several handsome edifices. Lat. 49° 12' N., Lon. 16° 36' E. Pop. 40,000. (B.)
Bruns/-WICK (Ger. Braunschweig, broun/-shwig.) Two distinct sovereignties have sprung from the house of Brunswick. The possessions of the elder line are confined to the grand-duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The younger possesses Hanover, and called the Brunswick-Lüneburg, or the Hanoverian line.
The duchy of Brunswick consists principally of three large unconnected districts, lying in the N. W. part of Germany, between about 51° 35' and 52° 32' N. Lat., and go 20' and 11° 7' E. Lon. Area about 1,525 sq. m. Pop. 242,000. (B.)
BRUNSWICK, the cap. of the above, situated on both sides of the r. Ocker, a branch of the Aller. Among its instituta os for education, we may mention the Collegium Carolinum, and the College of Anatomy and Surgery. Lat. 52° 16' N., Lon. 10° 32' E. Pop. about 36,000. (B.)
BRUNSWICK, a t. of Cumberland co., Me., on the Androscoggin, about 25 m. N. E. of Portland. It is the seat of Bowdoin (bol-den) College, a flourishing institution, which was founded in 1794, and derives its name from the Hon. James Bowdoin, by whom it was munificently endowed. Lat. 43° 53' N., Lon. 69° 55' W. Pop. of the township, 4,259. (B.)
BRUNSWICK, a co. in the S. part of Va., N. E. of the Roanoke, and bordering on N. C. Pop. 13,894. Co. t. Lawrenceville.
Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pīne, pin; nở, nốt; öð as in good ;
BRUNSWICK, a co. forming the S. extremity of N. C., bordering on the sea. Pop. 7,272. Co. t. Smithville.
BRUSA. See BURSA.
BRUS-SELS, (Dutch Brus -sel, Fr. Bruxelles, brü'-sell!,) the cap. of Belgium, situated in S. Brabant, on the little r. Senne, an affluent of the Scheldt, about 23 m. S. of Antwerp. It is surrounded by a brick wall, with eight gates. The origin of Brussels dates as far back as the 7th century. In 1044, it was enclosed with walls, and has since held an important rank among the towns of the Low Countries. Previously to the revolution of 1830, Brussels was the cap. of the Austrian Netherlands; and, after the separation of Belgium from Holland, towards which this town had made the first movement, it became the seat of government of the new kingdom. Among the public edifices of Brussels, we may mention the Hôtel de Ville, one of the finest Gothic buildings in the Netherlands, the tower of which is stated to be 364 ft. high. Among the numerous literary and scientific institutions, may be cited the Academy of Science and Belles lettres, the Royal Society of Fine Arts, and the High School of Commerce and Industry. The Observatory stands in Lat. 50° 51' 11" N., Lon. 4° 22' 15" E. Pop. in 1845 117,000.
BRY/-ẠN, a co. in the S. E. part of Ga., bordering on the r. Ogeechee and the sea. Pop. 3,424. Co. t. Bryan c. h.
BRZESC or BRZESC-LITEWSKY, bzhests lit-evl-ske, a fortified commercial t. of European Russia, in the prov. of Grodno, on the Bug r., where there is a celebrated synagogue of the Jews. Lat. 52° 6' N., Lon. 23° 35' E.
Buc-HAN-ən, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo., bordering on the Missouri r.. Pop. 12,975.
BUCHANAN, one of the most north-westerly counties of Iowa. p. 517. BUCHARIA. See BOKHARA.
Bul-CHO-REST', or, more correctly, Bool-kả-resħt', i. e. " the city of enjoyment,” an important commercial t. of European Turkey, the cap. of Wallachia, on the E. bank of the Dumbovitza, in the midst of a fertile and delightful couátry. The town itself, however, does not by any means justify its name, being composed, for the most part, of miserable brick or mud goins, and withal very dirty. Buchorest is the seat of a Greek archbišñopric. Lat. 44° 26' N., Lon. 26° 8' E. Pop. estimated from 60,000 to 80,000. (M.)
BUCKI-ING-HAM, the сар. of Buckinghamshire, on the Ouse, 50 m. N.W. of London. Pop of the entire parish, 4,054.
BUCKINGHAM, a co. in the S. central part of Va., bordering on James r. Pop. 13,837. Seat of justice, Buckingham c. h.
Buck/-ING-HẠM-SHỊRE, or the co. of Bucks, a co. in the S. central part of England, N. W. of London. Pop. 155,983.
Bucks, a co. in the S. E. part of Pa., bordering on the Delaware. Pop. 56,091. Co. t. Doylestown.
BU-DẠ, (Hun. pron. boo-döh, Ger. Ol-fen, Slav. Budin, boc-deen,) an ancient city, the cap. of Hungary, situated nearly in the centre of
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. this kingdom, on the right bank of the Danube, and connected with Pesth, on the opposite side of the river, by a bridge of boats, 3,800 ft. in length. It is said to derive its name from Buda, a brother of Attila, who made this town his residence, and much enlarged it. The trade of Buda consists principally in the wines produced by the vineyards of the neighbouring country. The Royal Observatory, situated 516 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean, and 300 ft. above the waters of the Danube, at this place, is in 47° 29' 12" N. Lat., and 19° 3' E. Lon. Pop. above 33,000. (B.)
BUDUKHSHAN, bud'-uk-shản!, (Badakhshan,) one of the principalities into which Toorkistan is divided, between 36° and 38° N. Lat., and 69° and 73° E. Lon. The ruby mines, so often alluded to by the Persian poets, are in this country, at a place called Gharan (gå-rản'). The inhabitants of Budukhshan speak the Persian language. Their religion is Mahometanism.
Budweis, bood/-wice, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Bohemia; the cap. of a circle of the same name, situated on the Moldau, and connected by a railway with Linz, in Upper Austria. Lat. 48° 59' N., Lon. 14° 58' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.).
BUENOS AYRES, commonly pronounced bol-nos àl-riz (Sp. pron. bwalnoce-1/-rés,) a city of S. America; cap. of the republic of La Plata, on the S. bank of the estuary of the r. La Plata. It is one of the most important commercial towns, as well as one of the principal seats of civilization and learning on the American continent. (B.) It is, in general, regularly and handsomely built, and is defended by a castle, the walls of which are mounted with cannon. The literary and scientific institutions of Buenos Ayres are numerous and respectable; the University, in particular, enjoys a distinguished reputation, both on account of its plan of instruction, and the number and talent of its professors. It has a library of 20,000 vols. This place was founded by the Spaniards, in 1535. The name Buenos Ayres (good air), was given by its founder, Mendoza, and is justified by the healthiness of the climate. Lat. 34° 36' S., Lon. 58° 10' W. Pop. estimated at 80,000. (B.)
Burl-FA-LO', a city and port of entry of N. Y.; cap. of Erie co., situated at the E. end of L. Erie, near the commencement of the Niagara r., and at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. The growth of this town has been very rapid. In 1810 the pop. was only 1,508; in 1850 it amounted to 42,261. This increase may be attributed chiefly to its position, Situated at the termination of the Erie Canal, and of the Albany and Buffalo Railroad, it has, necessarily, become the great entrepôt for the merchandise of the east, and the agricultural productions of the west. Buffalo is the port whence persons going to the northern part of the western states ordinarily embark upon the lakes. Lat. 42° 53' N., Lon. 78° 55' W.
Bug, boog, a small r. of Poland, flowing into the Vistula.
BULGARIA, bool-gal-re-a, a large prov. of European Turkey, bounded on the N. by Wallachia, E. by the Black Sea, S. by Rumelia, and W by Servia. Length above 300 m.; greatest breadth perhaps 100 m
Fåte, får, fàll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pīne, pin; no, not; võ as in good; The Bulgarians are descended from a Slavonic horde who established themselves here in the 7th century. The present race have laid aside the military character of their ancestors, and are represented as hospitable and benevolent: the woman are said to be handsome, industrious, and neatly dressed.—Adj. and inhab. BulgARIAN, bool-gal-re-an.
BULLITT, bỏõll-it, a co. in the N. part of Ky., S. of Louisville. Pop. 6,774. Co. t. Shepherdsville.
BULLOCK, bõõll-luk, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the r. Ogeechee. Pop. 4,300. Co. t. Statesborough.
BuncomBE, bunk'-um, a co. in the W. part of N. C., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 13,425. Co. t. Ashville.
BUNKER Hill, a hill in Charlestown, a suburb of Boston, famous for the battle fought in its vicinity, June 17, 1775. A magnificent monuI ment has recently been erected here in commemoration of that event.
It consists of an obelisk of granite, 30 ft. square at the base, and 221 ft. in height. From its summit is obtained one of the finest and most extensive views in the United States.
BURD'-wÅN, a t. of Bengal; cap. of a dist. of the same name. Lat. 23° 15' N., Lon. 87° 57' E. Pop. 54,000. (B.)
BUREAU, bu'-ro, a co. in the N. part of Ill., bordering on Illinois r. Pop. 8,841.
Burg, bỏora, a manufacturing t. of Prussian Saxony, surrounded by a wall, with five gates, about 65 m. S. W. of Berlin. Pop. above 12,000. (B.)
Burgos, boor'-goce, an ancient archiepiscopal city of Spain, situated 136 m. N. of Madrid. It is nominally the cap. of Old Castile, but since the seat of royalty was transferred to Madrid, by Charles V., in the beginning of the 16th century, its prosperity has greatly declined, and the pop. has dwindled to less than one-third of its former number. Lat. 42° 21' N., Lon. 3° 43' W. Pop. 12,000. (B.)
Burl-GUN-DY, (Fr. Bourgogne, boor'-goñ',) an old prov. of France, now principally divided among the departments of Saône and Loire, Côte d'Or, and Yonne.-Inhab. BUR-GUN-DJ-AN.
BURKE, a co. in the W. part of N. C., lying on both sides of the Catawba. Pop. 7,772. Co. t. Morgantown.
BURKE, a co. in the E. part of Ga., between the rivers Ogeechee and Savannah. Pop. 16, 100.' Co. t. Waynesborough.
BURLINGTON (England). See BridlinGTON.
BURS-LING-TỌN, a port of entry, the most commercial t. of Vt., cap. of Chittenden co., on L. Champlain, a few miles S. of the mouth of the Onion r.
It is the seat of the University of Vermont, founded in 1791. Lat. 44° 27' N., Lon. 73° 10' W. Pop. of the township, 6,110.
Bur/-LING-TỌN, a co. of N. J., stretching across the state, from the Delaware to the Atlantic. Pop. 43,203. Co. t. Mount Holly.
BURLINGTON, a t. of N. J., in the above co., situated on the left bank of the Delaware, 12 m. below Trenton. Lat. 40° 5'N., Lon. 74° 52' W. Pop. about 4,536.
BURMA. See BIRMA.