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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng.

BURN/-LEY, a t. of Lancashire, England, 40 m. E. N. E. of Liverpool. Pop. 10,699.


Bursa, boor/-sả, or Brusa, brool-så, (Anc. Pru'sa,) a flourishing man!:facturing and commercial t. of Asiatic Turkey, once the cap. of Bithynia, beautifully situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, in Asia Minor. It is abundantly supplied with the purest water, so that every house has its own fountain. Most of the streets are very clean, and well paved. The most remarkable edifices in the place, are the thermal baths; the mineral waters which supply them, range in temperature from 1679 to 190° Fahrenheit. Bursa is the residence of a Greek metropolitan and an Armenian archbishop. Lat. 40° 11' N., Lon. 29° 12' E. Pop. 100,000. (B.)

BURSCHEID, bOOR/-shite, (Fr. Bor'-cettel,) a t. of the Prussian states, in the immediate vicinity of Aix-la-Chapelle, remarkable for its warm springs and baths. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

BURS'-LEM, a t. of Staffordshire, England, 2} m. N. N. E. of Newcastle, with extensive potteries. Pop. of the township, 12,631.

BURY, bểrl-re, a manufacturing t. of England, in Lancashire, 9 m. N. N. W. of Manchester. Pop. of the township, including an arca of near 4 sq. m., 20,710.

Bury St. EDMUND's, a t. of England, in the co. of Suffolk, 62 m. N. E. by N. from London. The name is derived from Edmund, king of East Anglia, who was, in 870, cruelly put to death by the Danes, then pagans. His remains were deposited in the monastery of this place. Pop. of the borough, including an area of near 5 sq. m., 12,538.


BUTE, an i. of Scotland, in the Frith of Clyde, 16 m. long and 5 wide.

BUTE/-SHỊRE, a co. in the S. W. part of Scotland, consisting of the islands of Bute, Arran, Inchmarnock, and the Cumbraes. Pop. 15,740.

BUT/-LER, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. of Pittsburg. Pop. 30,346. Co. t. Butler.

BUTLER, a co. in the S. part of Ala. Pop. 10,836. Co. t. Greenville

BUTLER, a co. in the W. part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop 5,755. Co. t. Morgantown. BUTLER, a co. in the 8. W. part of Ohio, intersected by the Great

and bordering on Ind. Pop. 30,789. Co. t. Hamilton. BUTI-TER-MERE, a beautiful lake of England, in the co. of Cumberland, about 14 m. long, and m. broad.

BUTTS, a co. in the central part of Ga., W. of and bordering on the Ocmulgee r. Pop. 6,488. Co. t. Jackson.

Buxl-TỌN, a snall t. of Derbyshire, England, 20 m. S. of Manchester, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. It is visited by from 12,000 to 14,000 persons annually. (P. C.)

Buz!-ZARD's Bay, on the S. coast of Mass., is situated between the countries of Bristol and Barnstable.

BYZANTIUM, biz-an-she-um, (Gr. Busartiov or Bvoartiovo) an ancient

Miami r.,

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pīne, pin; nò, nôt; oo as in good ; rity on the site of the modern Constantinople. (See CONSTANTINOPLE.) --Adj. and inhab. Byz-AN/-TỈNE, and BYZANTIAN, biz-an/-she-an.*

CA-BAR/-RẠs, a co. in the S. W. part of N. C., between the rivers Catawba and Yadkin. Pop. 9,747. Co. t. Concord.

CAB/-ELL, a co. in the W. part of Va., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 6,299. Seat of justice, Cabell c. h.

CAB-001/,t (Cabul or Caubul), an important city of Asia, the cap. of Afghanistan, situated on the Cabool r., in a large, well-watered plain, and surrounded with beautiful gardens. The town, though not large, is handsome and compact; the houses are mostly built of wood, to avoid the consequences of the frequent earthquakes. It is surrounded with falls, and strongly fortified. Lat. 34° 26' N., Lon. 69° 5' E. Pop. forme-ly estimated at 80,000, but it does not probably at present amount to mire than 60,000. (B.).

CABOOL OF CABUL, a r. of Afghanistan, flowing into the Indus.

CACERES, k-tha-rés, (Lat. Cas/tra Cæcillia,) an ancient t. of Spain, in Estremadura. Lat. 39° 25' N., Lon. 6° 15' W. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

CAD/-Do, a parish forming the N. W. extremity of La. Pop. 8,884.

Cadiz, cal-diz, (Sp. pron. kål-dith,) the principal commercial city of Spain, situated in the prov. of Andalusia, on the S.W.coast. It stands on a tongue of land, projecting from the island of Leon. This town was founded by the Phænicians, many centuries before the Christian era; the exact time is not known. It was called by them Gadir or Gadeira, which was afterwards changed to Gades by the Romans, under whom it became a municipium, or free town, and one of the richest provincial cities in the empire. Nature and art have combined to render this place one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Lat. 36° 31' N., Lon.

* These are sometimes employed to designate an inhabitant of the modern Turkish capital. The eastern Roman empire, the seat of which was at Constantinople, is frequently called the Byzantine empire.

+ The French write this name "Caboul, while the Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese, write it Cabul, but pronounce the latter syllable bool. Nevertheless, we are assured, on the best authority, that the native inhabitants write and pronounce it without any vowel between the b and l, which might be represented in English thus–Kab'l.' The European pronunciation, however, seems unaltera bly fixed; and we ought, perhaps, to acquiesce the more willingly because the ori. ginal name could not be restored without some loss of euphony. Moore writes the name Caubul, but accentuates the last syllable.

“Pomegranates full
of melting sweetness, and the pears
And sunniest apples that CAUBUL

In all its thousand gardens bears.”—Lalla Rookh.
Rogers adopts the same accentuation,

“From Alexandria southward *o Sennaar,
And eastward through xamas'us, and CABUL,
And Samarcand, to the grea. well, Cacha;';'

Malg, fart Soord, »

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. 6° 17' W. Pop. estimated at 70,000. (B.)—Inhab. Gad'-l-tal-NL-AN. (Borrow.)

Caen, kản, a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Calvados, situated on the Orne, 127 m. W. by N. of Paris. Among its numerous scientific and literary institutions, we may mention the Académie Universitaire, the Royal College, and the Public Library, containing 40,000 vols. Lat. 49° 11' N., Lon. 0° 22' W. Pop. 39,000. (B.)

CAERMARTHEN, ker-marl-Then, a t. of Wales, cap. of Caermarthenshire, is about 190 m. nearly W. from London. There is here a Presbyterian college, for the education of young men for the ministry. Caermarthen forms a little co. of itself, of which the entire pop. is 9,526. Lat. 51° 51' N., Lon. 4° 19' W.

CAERMARTHENSHIRE, ker-marl-Then-shịr, a co. of S. Wales, on a bay of the same name. Pop. 106,326.

CẠER-NAR/-vọn, a te of Wales; the cap. of Caernarvonshire. Lat. 53° 9' N., Lon. 4° 14' W.

CẠER-NARI-VỌN-SHIRE, a co. in the N. W. part of Wales, bordering on the sea, and the Menai Strait. Pop. 81,093.

CAF-FRAI-RF-A or CAF/-FRE-LAND, a name given by Europeans, to a country in the S. E. part of Africa, extending about 600 m. along the coast, from the Great Key r. to Lagoa Bay. The name is derived from the Arabic word Kafir, which signifies " unbeliever.” This country is occupied by four principal nations, originally of one stock. One of these, the Zoolas or Vatvahs, are a fine athletic race, and very warlike, and have overpowered, dispersed;

or destroyed all the surrounding tribes, from King George's r. to Port Natal, a tract of above 300 m. in length, from N. to S. The Caffres acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being, but have no form of worship. Some tribes are industrious, and cultivate millet, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes or yams, maize and tobacco. The complexion of the Caffres va per hue to a deep black. Their nose is arched ; they have thick lips and curly hair, but less woolly than the negroes. The Caffre women are considered to be among the handsomest in Africa.—Adj. and inhab. CAFI-FRE.

CAGLIARI, kåll-yå-re, (Anc. Callaris), a fortified archiepiscopal city, the chief port of Sardinia, and cap. of the vice-royalty of Sardinia, is situated in the S. part of the island, on a bay of the same name. It has a fine harbour, and an extensive commerce : also a university, with the four faculties of theology, law, medicine, philosophy and belleslettres. Lat. 39° 13' N., Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. in 1825, 27,300. (P. C.)

CẠ-HAWI-eẠ, a r. of Ala., which flows into the Alabama r. At its influx is situated the town of Cahawba, the former cap. of the state.

Canir or Caner, Kahl-her or kare, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Tipperary, on the Suir, 40 m. N. E. of Cork. Pop. in 1831, 3,408. (P.C.)

Cahors, kả'-OR', (Divona Cadurcorum,) a city of France; cap. of the dep. of Lot, on the right bank of the r. Lot. This town is very ancient; it was the cap. of the Cadurci, under the Romans, and after. wards of the prov. of Querci, which name, as well as Cahors, is derived

les from a cop

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mè, mét; pine or pīne, pin; no, nôt; öð as in good ; from Cadurci. Many ancient ruins are found in it and its vicinity. Lat. 44° 25' N., Lon. 1° 27' E. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

Caicos (kil-koce) ISLANDS, one of the groups comprehended under the general name of Bahamas, situated between 21° and 22° N. Lat., and 71° and 73° W. Lon.

Cairo, kil-ro, a celebrated city, the metropolis of modern Egypt, situated about half a mile from the right bank of the Nile, and about 100 m. in a straight line from the entrance of the E. branch into the Mediterranean. The Arabs formerly called it El-Kahira, el-kål-he-rå, i. e. “the victorious,” but Musr (or Másr) is the name by which it is now commonly known among the natives. The streets of Cairo are winding, narrow, and unpaved. The houses, not being lighted except from windows opening on the courts in the interior, present, from the street, the appearance of prisons. But, though the exterior of the houses is gloomy, many of them exhibit, within, conveniences and luxuries suitable to the climate. Here everything is arranged with a view to coolness; the floor is inlaid with marble and coloured earthenware, and fountains spring up into marble basins. The commerce of this city is very extensive. Through it the productions of Asia and the East Indies, and partly also those of Europe, are transmitted into the vast regions of interior Africa. Boolak (boo'-låk/), the principal port of Cairo, is on the right bank of the Nile, N. N. W. of the metropolis. Pop. estimated at above 18,000. (B.) The other port, Old Cairo, is situated on the Nile, S. S. W. of New or Great Cairo. The Egyptian capital is in about 30° 3' N. Lat., and 31° 18' E. Lon. Pop. estimated at 330,000, previously to the recent ravages of the cholera and plague; but, at present, it probably does not exceed 270,000. (B.) — Adj. and inhab. CAIRINE, ki-reenl. (Arab. Mus/-ree.)

CAITH-NESS, a co. occupying the N. N. E. extremity of Scotland. Pop. 36,343.

CA-LA-BR!-4, or kå-lal-bre-å, a territory of the kingdom of Naples, occupying the southern extremity of Italy. It extends from 37° 56' to about 40° N. Lat., and is divided into Calabria Citra (cheel-trå), which forms the N., and Calabria Ultra (ool/-trå), the S. part of the territory.--Adj. and inhab. CA-LA/-BRJ-ẠN.

CALAHORRA, kå-lå-or/-rå, (Anc. Calagur/ris,) a t. of Spain, in Old Castile, remarkable for the ruins which attest its ancient splendour. Calagurris was the birth-place of Quintilian. Lat. 42° 15' N., Lon. 2° W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

Calais, kal).is, (Fr. pron. kå'-la),) a fortified seaport t. of France, in the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, situated on the Pas-de-Calais or Strait of Dover, 150 m. nearly N. from Paris. A steamboat runs daily from this place to Dover, which is about 25 m. distant. Calais was taken by Edward III. in 1347, and rernained in the possession of the English till 1558. Lat. 50° 58' N., Lon. 1° 51' E. Pop. in 1832, 10,437. (P.C.)


CALATAYUD, kå-lå-tå-yooD), a t. of Aragon, Spain. Lat. 41° 25 N., Lon. 1° 36' W. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; N,'nearly like ng.

CALCASIEU, kål/-ka--shu', or kul/-ka-shu', as it is commonly pronounced, a r. in the W. part of La., which, after flowing through a lake of the same name, empties itself into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake is about 30 m. in length, and 10 m. in breadth.

CALCASIEU, a parish forming the S. W. extremity of La. Pop. 3,914.

CAL-CUTI-TĄ, the cap. of Bengal, and the seat of the supreme government in British India, is situated on the E. side of the Hoogly, an arm of the Ganges, about 100 m. from the sea. In the beginning of the last century, Calcutta was only an insignificant village, and a great part of its present site was completely covered with jungle. The spot appears not to have been wisely chosen, as it is surrounded by a marshy and unhealthy country; and, though something has been done to remedy the evil, by draining the water off the surface, near the town, and by clearing away the surrounding jungle, the air ig still far from being salubrious. The city may be considered as consisting of two distinct parts; that portion which is inhabited by the Hindoos and Mahometans of the lower classes, is, in general, badly built, with narrow and dirty streets, the dwellings being, for the most part, mud hovels, and the walls frequently consisting of mats and bambous; while that quarter where the English and other Europeans reside, presents a very different aspect. This is finely, and even magnificently built, so that the houses are said to resemble palaces. The citadel, called Fort William, stands on the bank of the Hoogly, about a quarter of a mile below the city. The Europeans of Calcutta have established a number of literary and scientific institutions; among others, a Mahometan, a Sanscrit, and an Anglo-Indian college. About one-third of the native inhabitants of this town are Mahometans, and nearly all the remainder Hindoos. The number of Christians, in 1822, was stated to be 13,138. The commerce of Calcutta is very extensive; through it nearly all the external trade of the prov. of Bengal is carried on. Lat. 22° 34' N., Lon. 88° 26' E. Pop. estimated at 625,000. (P. C.)

CALDAS DA Rainha, kål/-dảs då rå-een-yå, a small t. of Portuguese Estremadura, much resorted to on account of its warm sulphurous baths. Lat. 39° 22' N., Lon. 9° 5' W. Permanent pop. 1,500. (B.) Caldas, signifying “warm baths,” is a name given to a number of other places in Portugal and Spain.

CẢL-DER, a small r. of Yorkshire, England, which flows into the Aire at Castleford, near Pontefract.

CẢLD-WELL, a parish in the N., or N. central part of La., intersected by the Washita. Pop. 2,815.

CALDWELL, a co. in the W. part of Ky., E. of, and bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 13,048. Co. t. Princeton.

CALDWELL, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo. Pop. 2,316. CAL-E-DO-NI-, the ancient and poetical name of Scotland. - Adj. and inhab. CAL-E-DO-NI-AN. CALEDONIA, a co. in the N. E. part of Vt., bordering on the Connec.

Pop. 23,086. Co. t. Danville.

ticut r.

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