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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. near the coast—both mountain and plain. The cypress, pine and fir of this region attain an enormous size. Fremont measured a cypress near Monterey, whose altitude was 275 feet, and diameter 15 feet, 3 feet above the base.
Among the wild animals are grizzly bears, elks, deers, antelopes, and wild horses. Great abundance of salmon are found in the rivers.
The commerce of California is extensive, and the harbour of San Francisco is thronged with shipping from the Atlantic ports of the Union, from England, from Australia, and other parts of the world. There is little to export of her native products except gold, which is freighted in steamers to New York. The other trade is confined to supplying the wants of the inhabitants, as even the materials for building have as yet mostly to be imported, as well as their food, clothing, machinery, &c. The arrivals from California in 1851, at different ports on the Atlantic shore of the Union, were 35; the clearances for California amounted to 115. The Sacramento is navigable at all times to Sacramento City, and except in the dry season, for 200 miles. The San Joaquin is navigable for vessels of 400 tons, to Stockton, 65 miles; and for smaller vessels to Stanislaus, perhaps 100 miles further. Manufactures.-California has as yet but few manufactures.
History, Government, &c.—The north part of California was discovered by Sir Francis Drake, in 1578; but was first colonized by some Spaniards in 1768. After the Mexican revolution, California formed a province of that country until 1836, when it rebelled, drove out the Mexicans, and formed an independent congress. By the treaty of peace of 1848, after having been the scene of several sangụinary skirmishes during the war with Mexico, it became a part of the United States, and in 1850 was admitted into the American Confederacy as a sovereign state.
The constitution of California is similar to that of the northern states; slavery is excluded. The governor is elected for two years, and receives $10,000 per annum; and a lieutenant-governor for the same period. The senate consists of sixteen members, elected for two years; and the house of representatives of thirty-six members, elected for one year-all elected by the people.
The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, composed of a chiefjustice and two associates, receiving $10,000 per annum each, and elected for six years by the people; and of district courts presided over by judges elected for a like period by the people, and receiving $7,500 per annum. A county judge is elected for four years, to act as judge of probate, and to hold county courts, and with two justices of the peace to hold criminal sessions.
Education is intrusted to a state superintendent, who holds his office for three years. 500,000 acres of public lands are appropriated to educational purposes.
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pīne, pin; nd, nôt; öð as in good;
Towns.-San Francisco, the commercial metropolis of California, is situated on the N. W. shore of the southern arm of the bay bearing its own name. It stands on a plain about half a mile wide, gently inclined towards the bay, with numerous hills behind it. It is regularly laid out with streets, crossing each other at right angles. The houses are mostly frame, but since the destructive fires that have occurred, several times laying large portions of the city in ruins, brick and iron are becoming more extensively used. The better class of frame houses are painted white, with green blinds, presenting the appearance of the houses in New England. The soil on which the town is built is very sandy, and around the city, particularly the northern part, are numerous sand hills. Along the water's edge, many of the stores and warehouses are built on piles driven into the water. Near the southern end of the town is a high hill or butte, (pronounced bute,) called Telegraph Hill, having an elevation of 1,000 feet or upwards, and from the summit of which a very extensive view may be had of the surrounding country. In the centre of the city is a large public square, which is called by its Spanish name, “plaza,” (plah-sa.). The inhabitants of San Francisco have been variously estimated at from 25,000 to 40,000; but there is so large a mass of floating population, that it would be impossible, even by taking a census, to state the number with any exactness.
Sacramen'to City, the present capital, is favourably situated on the Sacramento river, in the midst of a level country, and on one of the richest soils in the world. In it and in its vicinity are perhaps the finest gardens in California. Suttersville, a village, formerly two miles further up, is now joined with it, and the two may properly be regarded as a single town. Sacramento City is about 80 or 90 miles N. E. of San Francisco, and is the principal entrepot of trade for furnishing provisions to the northern mines. The entire population is estimated at 12,000.
Marysville, on Yuba river, just above its junction with Feather river, is situated 70 miles N. of Sacramento City, at the head of steamboat navigation. It is an important trading-post for the northern mines. Pop. about 5,000.
Stockton, the third city in California, situated on Stockton Slough, three miles from the San Joaquin, is about 70 miles E. by N. of San Francisco, in a direct line. Vessels of 400 tons burden may ascend to Stockton. It is a place of great activity, and a depot for the southern mines. Pop. estimated from 6,000 to 10,000.
Sono'ra, situated in the richest mining region in California, 160 or 170 S. E. by S. from San Francisco, is the capital of Tuolumne county, and has a population of from 3,000 to 8,000.
San Jose', (san-ho-sa',) the former capital of California, is beautifully situated in Santa Clara valley, seven miles from the head of San Francisco bay. Though the town stands in a plain, snow-capped mountains may be seen in the distance on every side of it, during the whole year. The climate is perhaps the most delightful in California.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. It is about 45 or 50 miles S. E. from San Francisco. Pop. about 4,000.
Neva da City, (nå-våh’-då,) a very important mining town is situated on Deer creek, an affluent of the Yuba river, about 190 miles N. of San Francisco.
Benicia, (bå-nish'-e-a,) on the strait of Carquines, is a small town, but is important as the seat of the arsenal and other government works. The Pacific Steam Company have also a station here for refitting their ships. Pop. from 3000 to 5000.
CALIFORNIA, Gulf of, on the W. coast of Mexico, extends from about 23° 30' to 32° N. Lat. Its length is above 700 m.; its breadth varies from about 40 to 150 m.
CALLAO, kål-lål-o or kål-yå-o, on the coast of Peru, is the sea port of Lima, from which it is 7 m. distant, by a good level road. It is the best fortress and the most convenient and safest port in Peru. Lat. 12° 3 S., Lon. 77° 14' W. Before the war of independence, it had a pop. of 4,000. (B.)
Cal/-LA-WAY, a co. in the S. W. part of Ky., bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 8,096. Co. t. Wadesborough.
CALLAWAY, a co. in the E. central part of Mo., bordering on the r. Missouri. Pop. 13,827. Co. t. Fulton.
Calmar, kål-mår, or Kalmar, a commercial t. of Sweden, in the ancient prov. of Småland. Lat. about 56° 40' N., Lon. 16° 26' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
Calne, kản, a t. of England, in Wiltshire, 83 m. W. of London. Pop. 2,483.
CALTAGIRONE, kål-tå-je-rol-na, a manufacturing and trading t. in the interior of Sicily: Lat. 37° 14' N., Lon. 14° 32' E. Pop. estimated at about 20,000. (B.).
CALTANISETTA, kal-ti-ne-set/-tả, an important inland t of Sicily. Lat. about 37° 26' N., Lon. 14° 4' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)
CAL/-U-MET', a co. in the E. part of Wisconsin, bordering on L. Winneba go. Pop. 1,743.
CALVADOS, kål-vål-dos or kål-vå-dos, a dep. in the N. of France, bordering on the English Channel. Pop. 501,775. (B.) Capital, Caen.
CAL/-vęRT, a co. in the S. central part of Md., between the r. Patuxent and the Chesapeake. Pop. 9,646. Co. t. Prince Frederick.
Cam, a small r. of England, which flows by Cambridge, and falls into the Ouse.
CAM-BAY', an ancient t. on the N. W. coast of Hindostan, on a gulf of the same name. Lat. 22° 21' N., Lon. 72° 48' E.
CAM-BOX-DJ-A, CAM-BOX-DJẠ or CAM-BOGE', an extensive country of Asia, in Chin-India, a part of which is now subject to Cochin China,
Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mệt; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; do as in good : the remainder to the Siamese. The Chinese call it Kan-phu-tche, from which the European name is derived.
CAMBODIA, called also Meinam-Kong, a large r. of S. Asia, flowing into the China Sea. It is navigable for the largest vessels, 40 leagues from its mouth. Length estimated at 1,700 m.
CAM-BOGE or Cambodia, one of the chief cities of Cambodia, situated on the r. Meinam-Kong, above 150 m. from the sea. Lat. 12° 30' N.. Lon. 105° 4' E.
CAM-BRAY or CAMBRAI, (Fr. pron. kảm'-bra!, Lat. Camaricum,) a fortified commercial t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, on the E. bank of the Escaut or Scheldt, with a college and a school of anatomy. Lat. 50° 10' N., Lon. 3° 14' E. Pop. 17,000. (B.)
CAM-BR!-4, a co. in the S. W. central part of Pa., near the sources of the Juniata. Pop. 17,773. Co. t. Ebensburg.
CAMBRIDGE, kamel-brij, (Lat. Canta'bria,) the cap. of Cambridgeshire, England, on the r. Cam, about 48 m. N. by E. from London, is the seat of an ancient and celebrated university. This consists of 17 colleges, 4 of which are termed halls. The observatory is in Lat. 52° 12' 52" N. Lon. 0° 5' 53" E. Pop. including that of the university, 24,453.—A student at the university is called a CAN-TAB, which is evidently an abbreviation of Cantabrian, derived from the Latin name of Cambridge.
CAMBRIDGE, a t. of Middlesex co., Mass., about 3 m. W. N. W. of Boston, the seat of Harvard University, which is the oldest and most richly endowed collegiate institution in the U. S. It was founded in 1638, has numerous professors, and contains a library of 61,000 vols. In connexion with the collegiate department, there are schools of law and medicine, and a theological seminary. Lat. 42° 22' 21" N., Lon. 71° 7' 38" W. Pop. 15,215.
CAMBRIDGESHIRE, kamel-brij-shịr, a co. in the E. part of England, N. of London. Pop. 164,459.
Cam/-DEN, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 6,049. Co. t. New Lebanon.
CAMDEN, a co. forming the S. S. E. extremity of Ga., bordering on the sea and St. Mary's r. Pop. 6,319. Co. t. Jeffersonton.
CAMDEN, a city of N.J., on the Delaware, opposite Phila. Pop. 9,479.
CAMPAGNA DI Roma, kảm-pån/-yå de rol-mà, a prov. of Italy, in the 8. part of the Papal State, nearly corresponding in limits with the ancient Latium.
CAMPBELL, kam/-el, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on James r. Pop. 23,245. Seat of justice, Campbell c. h.
CAMPBELL, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ga., intersected by the Chattahoochee r. Pop. 7,232. Co. t. Campbellton.
CAMPBELL, a co. in the N. part of Tenn., bordering on the Clinch r. and Ky. Pop. 6,068. Co. t. Jacksborough.
CAMPBELL, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 13,127. Co. t. Newport.
CAMPBELLTOWN, kam'-el-town, a seaport of Scotland, in Argyleshire, 65 m. W. by S. from Glasgow. Pop. 5,028.
CAMPEACHY, kam-peel-che, (Mex. Campeche, kim-pa -cha,) a fort:
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. fied t. of Yucatan, Mexico, on a bay of the same name.
Lat. 20° N., Lon. 90° 30' W. Pop. 18,000. (P.C.)
CAMPO-Basso, kảm]-po-bảs -so, an important commercial and manufacturing t. of Naples; cap. of the prov. of Molise (mo-leel-så). The best cutlery made in the kingdom is produced here. Lat. 41° 37' N., Lon. 14° 27' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
CAN-A-DA, an extensive country of N. America, belonging to Great Britain, extending from 64° 15' to near 91° W. Lon. Its southern extremity (the S. point of Pelee Island, in Lake Erie), is in about 41° 45' N. Lat. On the N. its limits are not defined. It is usual to consider all the territory N. of the great lakes, which is drained by the rivers that fall into the St. Lawrence, as belonging to Canada. It is bounded on the N. by the British possessions round Hudson's Bay and by Labrador, E. by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, S. by New Brunswick and the United States, and W. by the British territories, between which and Canada the limits do not appear to be accurately defined. Canada was formerly divided into Upper and Lower, but the two provinces were united in 1841, by an act of the British parliament. As, however, this country has been so long known by the names of the former provinces, it may not be improper to give these a passing notice. Upper Canada (now called Canada West) is situated on the right of the r. Ottawa, by which it is separated from Lower Canada, and extends westward along the chain of the great lakes. Area vaguely estimated at 140,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1835, 336,461. Capital, Toronto. Lower Canada (Canada East) lies chiefly on the left of the Ottawa, and extends on both sides of the St. Lawrence, to its mouth, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Area estimated at 200,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1830, 511,917. (M.) More than three-fourths of the inhabitants of Lower Canada are of French descent, and French is the prevailing language. Quebec was formerly the capital of this province and of all the British possessions in N. America. The entire pop. of Canada, according to the recent census, is about 1,300,000. Montreal is the present seat of go vernment.--Adj. and inhab. CAN-A-DI-ẠN.
Can-A-JO-HARI-IE (-hår/-re), the cap. of Montgomery co., N. Y., on the Erie Canal, 50 m. W. of Albany.
CAN-AN-DAI-QUẠ, a beautiful village of N. Y.; cap. of Ontario co., 208 m. W. of Albany. It is situated near the N. extremity of a lake of the same name, which is about 17 m. long. Pop. of the township, 6,143.
Can-A-RA, a prov. on the W. coast of Hindostan, between 12o and 15° N. Lat., and 74o and 76° E. Lon.
CA-NAI-RJES (Sp. Canarias, kả-nå-re-ås), a group of islands belonging to Spain, in the Atlantic, lying off the coast of Africa, between 270 40 and 29° 30' N. Lat., and 13° 30' and 18° 20' W. Lon. The principal islands are Canary, Teneriffe, Palma, Ferro, Gomera, Fuertaventura, and Lanzarote, which will be treated of under their respective namnes. -Inhab. CA-NA-RI-AN.
Canary, GRAND, (Sp. Gran Canaria, grån kå-nål-re-å) the second in