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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. 274,623 are whites, 8,900 free coloured persons, and 384,984 slaves, Columbia is the capital.

CAROLINE, a co. in the E. part of Md., bordering on Del. Pop. 9,692. Co. t. Denton.

CAROLINE, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on the Rappahannock. Pop. 18,456. Co. t. Bowling Green.

CAR-PAI-THI-AN MOUNTAINS, a chain which bounds Hungary on the N. W., N., and N. E., and Transylvania on the N. E., E., and S. E. Mount Ruska (roos/-kả), in that branch of the chain, which separates the above countries, is the highest of the Carpathian system, and has an elevation of 1,550 toises, or 9,913 English ft. _(B.)

CARPENTRAS, kar'-pån'-trås, a walled city of France, in the dep. of Vaucluse. Lat. 44° 3' N., Lon. 5° 4' E. Pop. 6,294. (P. C.)

CARRARA, kår-rål-rå, a small t. and territory in the N. of Italy, bordering on the Mediterranean, which belongs at present to the Duke of Modena. It is important on account of its extensive and valuable marble quarries.

CARA-RICK-ON-SUIR (-shure), a t. of Ireland, situated on the r. Suir, partly in the co. of Tipperary, and partly in that of Waterford, about B5 m. S. S. W. from Dublin. Pop. 9,626. (P. C.)

CARI-RICK-FERI-GUS, the cap. of the co. of Antrim, Ireland, on the W. side of the little bay called Belfast Lough, 9 m. N. N. E. of Belfast. This town, together with its liberties, forms what is called the county of the town of Carrickfergus. The castle stands on a rocky peninsula, whence the name, which signifies the “rock of Fergus"Irish king, who was drowned there. Pop. of the co. in 1831, 8,706. (P. C.)

Carl-ROLL, a co. in the E. part of N. H., bordering on Me. Pop. 20,156. Co. t. Ossipee.

CARROLL, a co. the N. part of Md., bordering on Pa. Pop. 20,616. Co. t. Westminster.

CARROLL, a co. in the S. S. W. part of Va., bordg on N. C. p. 5,909.

CARROLL, a co. in the W. part of Ga., bordering on Ala. and the r. Chattahoochee. Pop. 9,357. . Co. t. Carrollton.

CARROLL, a co. in the N.W.central part of Miss., on the Yalabusha r. Pop. 18,491. Co. seat, Carrollton.

CARROLL, a parish forming the N. E. extremity of La. Pop. 8,789.

CARROLL, a co. in the N. W. part of Ark., bordering on Mo. Pop. 4,614. Co. t. Carrollton). CARROLL, a co. in the W. part of Tenn., a little W. of the Ten

Pop. 15,967. Co. t. Huntingdon. CARROLL, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 5,526.

CARROLL, a co. in the E. part of Ohio, intersected by the Sandy and Beaver Canal. Pop. 17,685. Co. t. Carrollton.

CARROLL, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ind., intersected by the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 11,015. Co. t. Delphi.


nessee r.

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; oo, as in gooa ;

CARROLL, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo., bordering on the r. Missouri. Pop. 5,441. Co. t. Carrollton.

CARTAG ENA, kar-ta-jel-nạ, (SD. pron. kak-ti-Hà-nẵ, Anc. Carthago Nolva,) a fortified seaport t. of Spain, in Murcia, with one of the finest harbours on the Mediterranean. Lat. 37° 36' N., Lon. 1° W. Pop. estimated at 37,000. (B.)

CARTAGENA, a seaport in the republic of New Granada, on the northern coast of S. America, with one of the safest and most convenient harbours in all America. The entrance is so narrow that only one vessel can come in at a time. It is defended by two strong castles. Among the institutions for education, may be mentioned a university, a school of navigation, and a college. Its commerce is considerable, though less than it was before the war of independence. Lat. 10° 25' 48" N., Lon. 75° 30' W. Pop. about 18,000. (B.)

CARTER, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Tenn., bordering on N.,C. Pop. 6,296. Co. t. Elizabethtown.

CARTER, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Ky. Pop. 6,241. Co. t. Grayson.

CARI-TER-ET, a co. in the S. E. part of N. C., bordering on the sea. Pop. 6,803. Co. t. Beaufort.

CASALE, kå-sål-la, a fortified t. of the continental Sardinian states; cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the S. bank of the Po, 35 m. E. of Turin. Pop. 16,000. · (P. C.)

CASAL MAGGIORE, kå-sål måd-jol-ra, a t. of Austrian Italy, on the left bank of the Po, 20 m. E. S. E. of Cremona. Lat. about 45° N., Lon. 10° 26' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

Caşl-Bin* or Kazein (Pers. pron. kảs'-been', whence the name is sometimes written CASBEEN), a 'manufacturing and commercial city of Irak, Persia, situated in the midst of a country rendered very fertile by an extensive system of irrigation, which is carried on by means of subterranean aqueducts. The grapes of Casbin are considered to be the finest in Persia. Lat. 36° 17' N., Lon. 49° 33' E. Pop. 60,000. (B.)

CASERTA or CASERTA NUOVA, ky-sẽR/-tả nwo-vả, a t. of Naples, with a royal palace, one of the most magnificent in Europe, and a superk aqueduct, 27 m. long. It is 17 m. N. by E. of Naples. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

Cal-şey, a co. in the central part of Ky., intersected by Green r Pop. 6,556. Co. t. Liberty.

Cash-EL, an ancient city of Ireland, in the co. of Tipperary, 108 m S. W. of Dublin. It was formerly the residence of the kings of Mun ster. Pop. in 1831, 6,971. (P. C.)

*" And Cassin's luscious grapes of amber hue.”

SOUTHEY's Thalaba. Book VI. “With grapes of gold, like those that shine On Cassin's hills”.

MOORE's Lalla Rookh.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; N, nearly like ng. CASH-MERE/* or KASHMIRE, an extensive valley in the southern part of Asia, surrounded by high mountains of the Himalaya range, between 33° 20' and 35° 40' N. Lat., and 74° 30' and 77° E. Lon. This country is remarkably well watered and productive. As it is 6,000 or 7,000

eet ab the level of the sea, the climate is cool for the latitude. Cashmere was not long since in the possession of the Afghans, but more recently formed a part of the extensive dominions of Runjeet Sing, the sovereign of the Seiks. (See LAHORE.) The chief t. is Sirinagur.Adj. and Inhab. CASH-ME/-RI-AN.

CASI-P!-ẠN SEA (the Kaoria Oanaooa of the Greeks), a large inland sea, situated on the boundary between Europe and Asia, extending from 47° 20' to 36° 40' N. Lat., and from 54° 10' to 46° 50' E. Lon. Its length, following the curve of the sea, is about 900 m.; its average breadth about 210 m. The waters of this sea are much less salt than those of the Atlantic. Gmelin estimates the proportion as 1 to 4. Though it receives the waters of the Volga and several other rivers of considerable magnitude, the Caspian has no outlet. The surface of this sea is stated to be more than 300 ft. below that of the ocean.

Cass, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., intersected by the Etowah r. Pop. 13,300. Co. t. Cassville.

Čass, a co. in the S. W. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. P. 10,907. Co. t. Cassopolis.

Cass, a co. in the N. central part of Ind., intersected by the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 11,021. Co. t. Logansport.

Cass, a co. in the W. central part of ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 7,253. Co. t. Beardstown.

Cas'-SEL, a t. of Germany, the cap. of the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, on the Fulda, about 108 m. N. E. of Coblentz. It has numerous institutions for the promotion of the arts and sciences, among which we may inention the Museum, one of the finest buildings in the place, the Observatory, the Academy of Antiquities, the Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, and the Lyceum. Lat. 51° 18' N., Lon. 9° 30' E. Pop. above 26,000. (B.)

CASTELNAUDARY, kås'-těl'-nö'-då -rel, a t. of France, in the dep. of Aude. Lat. about 43° 19' N., Lon. 1° 53' E. Pop. in 1832, 8,471. (P. C.)

CASTEL VETRANO, cảs-tell vå-trål-no, a t. of Sicily, remarkable for its

* In familiar discourse, we very often hear this name accentuated on the first syllable ; e. g. in the phrase, “a Cashmere shawl.” Cashmere, in such cases, may be considered simply as an English word, having become thoroughly anglicized. (See Int. XII., Obs. 2.) When, however, the country itself is spoken of, the almost invariable practice of the best speakers, as well as the usage of the poets, will, we believe, be found to justify the pronunciation above given.

“Who has not heard of the Vale of CASHMERE,

With its roses the brightest that earth ever gave ?
Its temples, and grottos, and fountains as clear
As the love-lighted eyes that hang over their wave ?"

MOORE's Lalla Rookh.

128 m.

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nò, not; öð as in good, manufactures of coral, and for the ruins of the ancient Selinus found in its vicinity. Lat. 37° 40' N., Lon. 12° 46' E. Pop. about 13,000. (B.)

CASTIGLIONE, cảs-teel-yol-na, a t. of Austrian Italy, about 20 m. N.W. of Mantua. Pop. above 5,000. (B.)

CASTILE, kas-teel', (Sp. Castilla, kås-teel-yå,) an ancient kingdom of Spain, which has been divided into Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja, lå ve-d-uả), and New Castile (Castilla la Nueva, -Iiwà-vå). Old Castile borders on the Bay of Biscay, and extends in a south-westerly direction about 250 m. Its greatest breadth is about 110 m. Burgos is the capital. New Castile is S. of, and borders on the above; it is about 200 m. from N. to. S., and 230 m. from E. to W. Capital, Madrid. Adj. and inhab. Castilian, kas-till-yun.

Casting, kas-teen', a port of entry of Me., in Hancock co.. on the E. side of Penobscot Bay, with an excellent harbour. Lat. 44° 22' 30" N., Lon. 68° 45' W. Pop. of the township, 1,188.

CASTLEBAR, kas'-sel-bar), a t. of Ireland, the cap. of Mayo co., W. N. W. from Dublin. Pop. in 1830, 6,373. (P. C.)

CASTLETON, kas-sel-ton, a village of Rutland co., Vť., the seat of the Vermont Academy of Medicine, founded in 1818.

CASTRES, kảstr, the largest and most important town, though not the capital, of the French dep. of Tarn. Lat. 43° 37' N., Lon. 2° 15' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

CASTRO GIOVANNI, kås-tro jo-vån/-ne, (Anc. En'na,a t. of Sicily, nearly in the centre of the i., remarkable for its situation on the summit of an almost inaccessible mountain, more than 4,000 ft. above the

Enua was celebrated, in ancient times, as the birth-place of Ceres, and the site of her most sacred temple. Lat. 37° 31' N., Lon. 14° 18' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)


CasI-WELL, a co. in the N. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 15,269. Co. t. Yanceyville.

CAT-A-HOOI-LA or CATAHOULA, a parish in the N. E. part of La., intersected by the r. Washita. Pop. 6,982. Co. t. Harrisonburg,

CAT-A-LO-NI-A, (Sp. Cataluña, kåt-8-loon-ya,) a prov. occupying the E. extremity of Spain, bordering on France and the Mediterranean. It is about 190 m. in length, and 126 m. in breadth. Capital, Barcelona.--Adj. and inhab. Cat/-A-LẠN and CAT-ALOI-NI-AN.

CATANIA, kå-tå -ne-å or ka-ta)-ne-a, (Gr. Katavn, Lat. Cat/ana,) the cap. of a prov. of the same name, and the handsomest t. in Sicily, is situated on the sea-coast, S. of Mount Ætna, near its base. Here may be seen the remains of an ancient amphitheatre, the largest of which we have any knowledge. It has a circumference greater, by nearly one-third, than the famous Coliseum of Rome. (B.) Catania has a university and several other public institutions. Lat. 37° 29' N., Lon. 15° 5' E. Pop. about 40,000. (B.)-Adj. and inhab. CA-TAI-NI-ẠN.

CATANZARo, ky-tin-ză/-ro, a t. of Naples, in Calabria Ultra. Lat. 387 57' N., Lon. 16° 31' E. Pop. estimated at 11,000. (B.)


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Car'-TA-RAU-Gus, a co. in the S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 38,950. Co. t. Ellicottsville.

CA-TAWI-BA, a r. which rises in N. C., and flowing into S. C,, takes the name of Wateree, and joins the Congaree to form the Santee.

CATAWBA, a co. in the W. part of N. Č., on the above river. p. 8,862. CATHAY. See CHINA. CAT-MAN-Doo or KATMANDOO, the cap. of the kingdom of Nepaul, in Northern Hindostan. It stands at an elevation of 4,784 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. 27° 42' N., Lon. about 85° E. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (P. C.)

CATS/-KILL, the cap. of Green co., N. Y., situated on the W. side of the Hudson, 34 m. below Albany, on a creek of the same name.

Pop. of the township, 5,454. The inhabitants of the village of Catskill may perhaps amount to half this number.

CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a branch of the great chain of the Alleghanies, situated in the E. part of N. Y., W. of the Hudson. The highest summit, Round Top, is about 3,800 ft. above the level of the sea.

CAT-TE-GAT' or KATTEGAT, a large gulf which separates Denmark from Sweden on the north. This name is of Dutch origin, and signifies " cat's hole."

Caul-CẠS-US, (Gr. Kovxagos,) an extensive mountain system, between the Black and Caspian Seas. The general direction of the range is from W. N. W. to s. S. E. The highest summit, Elbrooz, is 2,800 toises, or about 17,908 English ft. above the level of the sea.-Adj. Caucasian, kau-kål-she-un or kau-kal-shun.


Cava, kål-vå, a t. of Naples, 5 m. N. W. of Salerno. Pop. estimated at 19,000. (B.) Near it is the celebrated Benedictine Convent of La Trinità, with a fine library.

Cavl-an, an inland co. of Ireland, in the prov. of Ulster. 1831, 228,040. (P. C.)

CAVERY, sometimes written, and always to be pronounced Caul-VER-Y, a r. in the S. of Hindostan, which rises among the Western Ghauts, and, flowing S. easterly, empties itself into the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths, near Tranquebar. Its whole course is about 450 m.

Cax-A-MARI-CẠ, kåh-hå-mar/-kå, a t. of Peru, at the height of 9,363 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. about 7° 9' S., Lon. 78° 35' W. Pop. estimated at 7,000. (B.)

Caxias or CACHIAS, kå-sheel-ås; a t. of Brazil, in Maranham. Lat. 4° 52' S., Lon. 43° 25' W.

CAXOEIRA or CACHOEIRA, kå-sho-de a t. of Brazil, 60 m. N. W. of Bahia, with a flourishing inland trade. Pop. estimated at 16,000.' (B.)

CAYENNE, ki-enn!, an island, river, and town of S. America, in French Guiana. The town is situated on the i., in Lat. 4° 56' N., Lon. 52° 15' W. Pop. about 2,000. (P. C.)

Cay-ul-GẠ, a co. in the western part of N. Y., bordering on the Cayuga Lake and L. Ontario. Pop. 55,458 Co. t. Auburn.

Cayuga LAKE, situated in the W. central part of N. Y., is about 38 m.

Pop. in

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