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ou, as in our, th, as in thin , th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. CHEMNITZ, kem/-nits, an important manufacturing t. of Germany, in Saxony. Lat. 50° 50' N., Lon. 12° 52' E. Pop. 23,000. (B.)

CHEMUNG, she-mung', a co. in the S. part of N. Y., intersected by the Tioga r., and bordering on Pa. Pop. 28,821. Co. t. Elmira.

CHENANGO, she-nang-go, a co. in the S. central part of N. Y., inter. sected by the E. branch of the Susquehanna. Pop. 40,311. Co. t. Norwich.

Chep-stow, a commercial t. and port of England, in Monmouthshire, on the Wye, 110 m. W. of London. Pop. of the parish, 3,366.

Cher, share, a dep. nearly in the centre of France. Pop. 276,853. (B.) Capital, Bourges.

CHERBOURG, sherl-burg, or share'-boon), a fortified city and seaport of France, on the N. coast of the dep. of Manche, and one of the princi pal stations of the French navy. Lat. 49° 38' N., Lon. 1° 40' W. Pop. above 18,000. (B.)

CHER'-O-KEE', a co. forming the W. extremity of N. C. Pop. 6,838.

CHEROKEE, a co. in the N. part of Ga., intersected by the Etowah r. Pop. 12,800. Co. t. Canton.

CHEROKEE, a co. in the N. E. part of Ala., bordering on Ga. Pop. 13,884.

CHER'-0-KEEŞI, a noble and once powerful tribe of Indians, who formerly possessed the southern portion of the Appalachian mountains and a large tract of country on both sides of this range. In 1809 their number amounted to 12,359; but it had since considerably diminished, when, at length, in 1838, all the Cherokees who were in Georgia, constituting a large majority of those who still remained, were removed to the W. of the Mississippi, by the order of the U. S. government. The Cherokees have been considered the most civilized of all the American Indians. They have a written language; the alphabet, which was invented by a native Cherokee, consists of 85 characters. Previously to their expulsion from Georgia, some of them are said to have become excellent and thriving farmers, so as to bear an advantageous comparison with the most skilful and industrious of this class, in the southwestern states.

CHERRY VALLEY, a village of Otsego co., N. Y., 53 m. W. by N. from Albany.

CHERSO, kérl-so (Anc. Crepea) and OSERO, 0-sd-ro, (Anc. Absorus,) two islands in the Adriatic, belonging to Illyria, situated between 440 28' and 45° 12' N. Lat., and 14° 16' and 14° 32' E. Lon. United arca, 95 sq. m. Pop. 14,000. (M.) The two islands are connected by a bridge.

CIIES/-A-PEAKE, a large bay situated in the E. part of Md. and Va. It is nearly 200 m. in length; its average breadth is perhaps about 18 m. The Susquehanna enters it at the N. extremity, and the Potomac about 70 m. from its junction with the Atlantic.

CHESH-IRE, a co. in the W. of England, celebrated for the excellence of its cheese. The name is an abbreviation of Chester shire, or county of Chester. Pop. 395,660.


Fåte, får, fåll, fűt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; nd, nởt; öð as in gool;

CHESHIRE, a co. formning the S. W. extremity of N. H. Pop. 30,144. Co. t. Keene.

CHES-TER, an ancient walled city of England, the co. t. of Cheshire, situated on the Dee, near its mouth. It was probably an important military station, under the Romans, as a great many Roman remains have been discovered here. The name is derived from the Latin, Castra, a camp," and there is reason to conclude that the present fortifications rest upon a Roman basis. Lat. 53° 11' N., Lon. 2° 53' W. Pop., including an area of above 4 sq. m., 23,115.

CHESTER, a co. in the S. E. part of Pa., bordering on the Schuylkill and on Maryland. Pop. 66,438. Co. t. Westchester.

CHESTER, a dist. in the N. part of S. C., on the Catawba r. Pop. 18,038. Seat of justice, Chester c. h.

CHES/-TER-FIELD', a t. of Derbyshire, England, 132 m. N. by W. from London. Pop. of the parish, 6,212.

CHESTERFIELD, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on the Appomattox and James rivers. Pop. 17,489. Seat of justice, Chesterfield

CHESTERFIELD, a dist. in the N. E. part of S. C., W. of and bordering on the Great Pedee r. Pop. 10,790, Seat of justice, Chesterfield

c. h.

c. h.

CHE-SUN/-Cook, a lake of Maine, communicating with the Penobscot r.

CHE'-TIM-ACH-ES, or shet'-måshl, a lake in the S. part of La., above 30 m. in length, communicating with the Atchafalaya r.

CHEVIOT, chiv/-e-ọt. The Cheviot Hills run from N. E. to S. W., and form part of the boundary between Scotland and England. The highest summit is 2,658 ft. above the sea.

CHIARI, ke-ål-re, a t. of Austrian Italy. Lat. 45° 32' N., Lon. 9° 55 E. Pop. 8,000. (B.) Chicago, (she-kau'-go,) the most populous city of Ill., and

сар. .

of Cook co. on L. Michigan at the mouth of Chicago r. 204 m. N. E. from Springfield. Lat. 42° N., lon. 87° 35' W. It is at the head of navigation on the lake, and the terminus of the Illinois canal, which circumstances have rendered it the most commercial city of the State, and perhaps the greatest lumber-market in the Union. The quantity of lumber received here in 1851 was more than 210 million feet. Chicago is connected by railroad with Detroit, Toledo, and Galena. Founded in 1831. Pop. in 1840, 4,470; in 1850, 29,963.

CHICH/-ES-TER, an ancient walled city of England, the cap. of the co. of Sussex, 56 m. S. W. by S. from London. The name is said to be a contraction of Cissanceaster, the city or castle of Cissa, an AngloSaxon chief who repaired and partly rebuilt it, after it had been de stroyed in a siege. Pop. 8,512.

CHICK'-A-SAW/ a co. in the N. part of Miss., intersected by the Oktibbewba r. Pop. 16,368. Co. seat, Houston.

CHICKASAWS, a tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the northern part of Miss. and Ala., who have made considerable progress towards civilization.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. CHICOT, sheel-ko, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Ark. Pop. 5,115. Co. t. Columbia.

CHIEM SEE, keem så, a lake in the S.E. part of Bavaria, 45m. E.S.E. of Munich. It is about 10 m. in length.

CHIETI, ke-al-te, an archiepiscopal t. of Naples, the cap. of Abruzzo Citra, on the Pescara. Lat. 42° 22' N., Lon. 14° 9' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)

CHIHUAHUA, che-wål-wå, a large and handsome t. of Mexico, the cap. of a state of the same name, with a flourishing military academy. Lat. 28° 37' N., Lon. 105° 4' W. Pop. about 30,000. (B.)

CHILI, chill-le, (Sp. Chile, chee-ld,) one of the new republics of S. America, lying along the coast of the Pacific, between 25° and 42° S. Lat.; but the

archipelago of Chiloë, which belongs to it, extends about two degrees farther S. It is bounded on the N. by the desert of Atacama, which belongs to Bolivia, E. by the republic of La Plata, from which it is divided by the Andes, and on the S. by Patagonia. But the southern limit of Chili, properly speaking, is the r. Bio-bio, by which it is separated from Araucania, which is still independent. Length near 800 m.; breadth varying from 90 to 200 m. Area estimated at 130,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,400,000. (B.) The climate of the central

part of Chili may, with respect to temperature, be compared to that of Italy; though it varies much in different districts, it is everywhere healthy. This country, however, is subject to strong periodical gales. In the beginning of the rainy season (May and June), the wind often blows with great violence from the N. W. During eight or nine months it blows from the S., and frequently with great force, especially in autumn, that is from February to April. The vegetable productions of Chili do not, for the most part, materially differ from those of other countries within similar latitudes; the extreme dryness, however, of the air in the northern districts is unfavourable to the sugarcane and to most intertropical plants. Probably no country is more subject to earthquakes than this. In the northern district slight shocks are felt almost every day; they occur more frequently along the coast than in the interior. This republic became independent in 1818. The cap. is Santiago.--Adj. and inhab. Chil'-!-ẠN. The Spanish appellation CHILENOS, che-la-noce, is also employed by some English writers to designate the inhabitants.

CHIL-LL-COTH-E, the cap. of Ross co., Ohio, situated on the Sciotor. and the Ohio and Erie Canal, 85 m. E. by N. from Cincinnati. Pop. 7,098.

CHILOE, cheel-o-d, almost chil-way), an i. on the W. coast of S. America, belo to Chili, between 41° 48' and 43° 50' S. Lat., and 73° 20' and 74° 30' W. Lon. Its length is about 120 m.; its greatest breadth 60 m.

CHIMBORAZO, cheem-bo-rå -so, a mountain in Ecuador, till recently regarded as the highest in S. America; but it is now ascertained that the Nevado de Sorata exceeds it by nearly 4,000 ft. The Chimborazo is about 3,350 toises, or 21,426 English ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. about 1° 30' S., Lon. 79° 5' W.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nó, nột; öð as in good

Chil-NẠ, an extensive country in Eastern Asia, bordering on the Pacific, and constituting the principal portion of the Chinese empire. It lies between 18° and 41° N. Lat., and 98° and 124° E. Lon. Its length, from S. E. to N. W., is above 1,400 m. ; breadth from 900 to 1,300 m. The area is estimated at about 1,298,000 sq. m. On the northern frontier, China is inclosed by the great wall, about 1,400 long, and 20 ft. high; it is believed to have been built about 200 years

before the Christian era. Before the arrival of Europeans, the norther portion of China was called by the neighbouring nations of central Asia, CATH-AY!, under which name it became known to the Russians, while the inhabitants of India called the southern part Chin, whence is derived the ordinary European name. The Chinese name it Chon-Koo, or the “centre of the world.” The climate of this country differs greatly from that of Europe within the same latitudes. The mean temperature is considerably lower, while the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons are much greater. In this respect, the climate of China may be considered as bearing a eneral resemblance to that of the United States. If the difference in temperature in the same latitudes between the E. and W. coast of N. America, is less striking than between China and the western part of Europe, it may, perhaps, be attributed to the greater breadth of the eastern continent, in conse. quence of which, those influences that cause the western sides of continents to be warmer than the eastern, manifest themselves in their fullest force. The gulf stream, also, in all probability contributes something towards moderating the temperature of our climate, especially along the coast. The soil of China is, in general, productive, and some parts are extremely fertile. The country is watered by numerous rivers. The Imperial Canal, a work which excites the admira

of travellers, commences in about 30°-N. Lat., at Hang-tchecofoo, and extending, in a northerly direction, perhaps 700 m., terminates at Lin-tchin-cheoo. It appears to have been constructed both for the purpose of internal navigation and of draining, and irrigating some parts of the adjacent country. The vegetable productions of China are highly interesting; among them we may mention a superior species of orange, which, when ripe, has a deep crimson rind, quite detached from the fruit; the Nelumbiurn, a beautiful flower, of which the seeds resemble, in form and size, acorns without their cups, and have the flavour of nuts, while the root is sliced and eaten as fruit; and the tallow tree, the Croton sebiferum, from the seeds of which the vegetable oil is obtained; it is like wax, and, in its natural state, is of snowy white

Silver mines are abundant in China, but are little worked ; gold is obtained from the sands of some of the rivers, but no gold or silver money is coined. (M. B.) The governinent of China is an absoluto despotism. The emperors of the present or Mantchoo dynasty, sprung from a union of the eastern Tartars and Mongols, have been in possession of the sovereignty since the year 1644. Of the population of this great country, the estimates vary exceedingly. According to a census which is stated to have been taken by the Chinese government in 1812,


ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the entire population of the empire amounted to more than 360,000,000. Balbi estimates it at 170,000,000.

The Chinese empire comprises, besides China proper, Chinese Tartary, including the countries of Mongolia and Mantchooria, Little Bucharia, Thibet, and the peninsula of Corea. Peking is the capital of China proper, and of the whole empire.—Adj. and inhab. Chi-Neşel and CathAYI-AN (poetical).

CHIN ÎNdia, a name given to the region situated between China and Hindostan, comprehending the Birman empire, the kingdoms of Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Laos, Siam, and the peninsula of Malacca. It is often called the Peninsula beyond the Ganges. Little is known of these countries, and their political divisions and boundaries are very uncertain.

CHINCHILLA, chin-cheell-yå, a t. of Spain, in the prov. of Murcia. Lat. 38° 56' N., Lon. 1° 47' W. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

CHIPPENHAM, chip’-num, a small t. of England; in Wiltshire, 86 m. W. from London.

CHIPPEWA, chip-pe-wa', a large co., forming the N. extremity of Mich., and bordering on L. Superior. Pop. 898. Co. t. Sault St. Mary.

CHIP-PE-WAY', a r. of Wisconsin Territory, flowing into the Mississippi.

CHIPPEWAYS, written also OJIBBEWAY, a numerous tribe of Indians, chietly inhabiting Wisconsin.

CHIQUITOS, che-keel-toce, a tribe of S. American Indians, inhabiting the E. part of Bolivia.

CHIT -TEN-DEN, a co. in the N. W. part of Vt., bordering on L. Champlain. Pop. 29,036. Co. t. Burlington.

Choc-TAW, a co. in the N. central part of Miss., intersected by the Big Black r. Pop. 11,402. Co. seat, Greensborough.

Choc'-Taws, a tribe of Indians, formerly inhabiting the middle portion of Miss., on both sides of the river Yazoo. They have made considerable progress towards civilization.

Criolula, cho-lool-lå, a t. of Mexico, about 20 m. from Puebla. Lat. 19° 2' N., Lon. 98° 15' W. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

CHOR/-LEY, a t. of Lancashire, England, 22 m. N. W. from Manchester. Pop. of the parish, with an area of above 4 sq. m., 13,139.

CHO-WẢN', a r. of N. C., formed by the union of the Nottaway, Meherrin, and Blackwater rivers, which falls into Albemarle Sound.

CHOWAN, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on Chowan r. and Albemarle Sound. Pop. 6,721. Co. t. Edenton.

CHRISTIAN, a co. in the S. W. part of Ky., bordering on Tenn. Pop 19,580. Co. t. Hopkinsville.

CHRISTIAN, a co. near the centre of Ill. Pop. 3,202.

CHRIST-AN-A CREEK, in the S. E. part of Pa., flows into the Delaware, below Wilmington.

CHRISTIANIA, kris-te-ån/-e-å, the cap. of Norway, situated in a prov. of the same name, on Christiania Fiord (fe-ord'), a bay which extends


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