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Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nò, nðt; öð as in good about 60 m. inland. It is the seat of a university, founded in 1811, which has a library of 10,000 vols., and about 500 students. Lat. of the Observatory, 59° 54' 5" N., Lon. 10° 44' 57" E. Pop. above 21,000. (B.)

CHRISTIANSAND, kris-te-ån-sảnd', a t. of Norway, situated on the N. coast of the Skager Rack. Lat. 58° 10' N., Lon. 8° 20' E. Pop. in 1826, 7,488. (P. C.)

CHUQUISACA, choo-ke-sål-kå, formerly called La Plata, the cap. of Bolivia, situated in a plain at an elevation of 9,300 ft. above the sea. Lat. about 19° S., Lon. 64° 40' W. Pop. 13,000.

CIENFUEGOS, se-en/-food-gos, or fwal-goce, a flourishing t. on the S. coast of Cuba, on a bay called Xagua (Hål-ġwả), which forms one of the finest harbours in the world. It was founded about the year 1818, and named in honour of Cienfuegos, who was then captain-general of Cuba. Lat. about 22° 15' N., Lon.

near 81° W. Pop. 3,500. CINCINNAT’I* the metropolis of the State of Ohio, and capital of Hamilton Co., is situated on the Ohio r., about 500 m. from its mouth, 116 S. W. from Columbus, and 497 m. from Washington. Lat. 39° 6' N. Lon. 84° 27' W. It is the most populous city of the Western States, and the fifth in population in the whole Union. During the last forty years its growth has been extremely rapid. In 1800 it contained 750 inh.; in 1840, 46,338; and in 1850, 116,108; exclusive of the suburbs on the left bank of the river.

It is beautifully situated near the extremity of a valley, enclosed on the north by hills, which rise gently to the height of 300 feet, and present from their summits delightful views of the city and the river, which is here about 800 yards wide. The town is built on two plateaus, the highest of which is about 50 feet above the other, and 108 feet above low-water mark. The average difference between high and low water here is about 50 feet. The shore is supplied with floating wharves, adapted to the rise and fall of the water, which render the landing at all times convenient.

The corporate limits include about 4 sq. miles. The city is well built, a large portion of the houses being of brick or stone. The streets cross each other at right angles, and are wide, straight, and well paved. Among the principal buildings may be mentioned the court-house, the edifice of the Franklin and Lafayette Banks, built on the model of the Parthenon; the Cincinnati College, with a marble front of the Doric order; and several fine churches. The Observatory has one of the best telescopes in the country. The Catholics have a college with a library of 6300 volumes. Lane Seminary, a Presbyterian institution, two miles from the city, has a library of 10,500 volumes; and the Mercantile Library contains over 10,000 volumes. Among the charitable institutions are two orphan asylums, a hospital, and a lunatic asylum which will accommodate 250 patients.

* This is frequently pronounced, contrary to all principles of correct pronunciation, sin-sin-at-tůh, an error which cannot be too carefully avoided.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ne. Cincinnati possesses great facilities for communication with the surrounding country. Besides the Ohio river, which is the main thoroughfare between the Atlantic States and the Mississippi valley, the Miami canal connects it with Lake Erie, and several lines of railroad are already completed, which extend to Columbus, Cleveland, and Sandusky. Others are in progress which will connect it with St. Louis, Pittsburg, and the Atlantic seaports. This is the greatest pork-market in the Union. The value of the pork received here in a single year is about 4,000,000 dollars. During the year ending Sept. 1, 1851, 233 steamboats were employed in the commerce of Cincinnati, and the number of steamboat arrivals in that year was 3,698.

The manufactures are various and important. It contained in 1851, 5 cotton-factories, 9 paper-mills, 44 iron-foundries and engineshops, which produce annually $3,676,000; 34 oil and stearine factories, product $3,015,000 ; 33 pork and beef establishments, product $5,760,000; 40 wine manufactories; 62 tobacco factories, product $931,000; 12 publishing offices, product $1,246,000; and 7 boatyards, in which 31 steamboats were built in that year.

In ordinary seasons, the navigation is open all winter, though partially obstructed by floating ice. The river was frozen over in 1838–9, and again in the winter of 1851–2, when it remained closed for 9 successive days, and the mercury sank to 10° below zero.

The mean annual temperature is 53. The climate is adapted to the production of the finest fruits of the temperate regions, with which the market is abundantly supplied. The grape especially is cultivated extensively in this vicinity.

CINQUE Ports, sink põrts, ports on the S. eastern coast of England, which, in return for the enjoyment of certain peculiar privileges, were to furnish a certain number of ships, equipped and manned, to be at the disposal of the sovereign in any emergency. As their name implies, there were originally but five; viz., Dover, Sandwich, Hithe, Romney, and Hastings. To these, Rye, Winchelsea, and Seaford, were afterwards added.

Cin-tra or seen-trå, a small t. of Portugal, 15 m. W. N. W. of Lisbon, celebrated for its fine air and beautiful situation. It is a place of great resort in summer for the citizens of the capital. Many of the nobility and wealthy merchants have villas in the vicinity of Cintra. Pop. about 4,000. (B.)

CỊR-CARS', NORTHERN, a large maritime prov. of Hindostan, between 15° and 20° N. Lat., and 80° and 86° E. Lon., extending along the W. side of the Bay of Bengal.

CIRCASSIA, sir-kashl-e-a, (Russ. Tchér-kås/-cå,) is situated along the N. declivity of Mount Caucasus, and comprehends the whole of this tract, from the Black Sea to the vicinity of the Caspian. It belongs nominally to Russia. The beauty of the Circassian women is much celebrated.—Adj. and inhab. CIRCASSIAN, sịr-kash/-e-ản.

CIRENCESTER, commonly pronounced sis/-e-tęr, a t. of England, in


Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mệt; pine or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good ; Gloucestershire, 17 m. S. E. of Gloucester. Pop. of the parish, with an area of above 9 sq. m., 6,014.

CITTADELLA, chit-tå-dell-là, a t. of Austrian Italy. Lat. 45° 37' N., Lon. 11° 50' E. Pop. above 6,000. (B.) CIUDAD REAL, the-oo-DảD' rà-åll, a t. of Spain, in New Castile,

сар. of La Mancha. Lat. 38° 57' N., Lon. 3° 49' W. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

CIUDAD Rodrigo, the-00-DảD/ roD-reel-go, a fortified t. of Spain, in the prov. of Salamanca. Lat. 40° 31' N., Lon. 6° 26' W. Pop. 4,300. (B.)

CIVITA VECCHIA, cheel-ve-tå vek/-ke-å, a fortified t. and sea port of Italy, in the Papal State, 36 m. N. W. of Rome. Lat. 42° 5' N., Lon. 11° 45' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

CLACK-MANI-NẠN-SHỊRE, a small co. in the E. part of Scotland, bordering on the r. Forth. Pop. 19,155.

CLAGENFURTH or KLAGENFURTH, klål-gen-foort', a t. of the Austrian empire, in Carinthia, the cap. of a circle of the same name, with several important institutions for education. Lat. 46° 36' N., Lon. 14° 20' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

CLAI-BORNE, a co. in the S. W. part of Miss., bordering on the Big Black and the Mississippi rivers. Pop. 14,941. Co. seat, Port Gibson.

CLAIBORNE, a parish in the N. part of La., bordering on the Red r. Pop. 7,471. Seat of justice, Russelville.

ČLAIBORNE, a co. in the N. E. part of Tenn., bordering on Va. and Ky. Pop. 9,369. Co. t. Tazewell.

Clair, St., a lake between Mich. and Upper Canada, about 27 m. long, with a mean breadth of perhaps 15 m. It receives the waters of L. Huron by the r. St. Clair, and discharges itself into L. Erie by the Detroit r.

The r. St. Clair is about 40 m. long, & m. wide, and is navigable for large vessels.

Clair, St., a co. in the N. E. central part of Ala., W. of and bordering on the Coosa r. Pop. 6,829. Co. i. Ashville.

CLAIR, Sr., a co. in the S. E. part of Mich., bordering on the r. and L. St. Clair. Pop. 10,420. Co. t. Palmer.

CLAIR, St., a co. in the S. W. part of Ill., on the Kaskaskia and Mississippi rivers. Pop. 20,181. Co. t. Belleville.

CLAIR, Sr., a co. in the W. S. W. part of Mo., intersected by the Osage r. Pop. 3,556.

CLAMECY, klåm-se, a t. of France, in the dep. of Nièvre. Lat. 47° 27' N., Lon. 3° 30' E. Pop. about 5,000. (P. C.)

Clare, a co. of Ireland, in the prov. of Munster, bordering on the Atlantic. Pop. in 1831, 258,322. (P. C.)

CLARKE, a co. in the N. E. part of Va., intersected by the Shenandoah. Pop. 7,352.

Clarke, a co. in the N. central part of Ga., on the Oconee r. Pop. 11,119. Co. t. Watkinsville.

CLARKE, a co. in the S. W. part of Ala., bordering on the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers. Pop. 9,786. Co. t. Clarkesville.


ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng.

CLARKE, a co. in the E. part of Miss., bordering on Ala. Pop. 5,477. Co. seat, Quitman.

CLARKE, a co. in the S. part of Ark., intersected by the Washita r. Pop. 3,995. Co. t. Greenville.

CLARKE, a co. in the N. E. central part of Ky., bordering on the Kentucky r. Pop. 12,683. Co. t. Winchester.

Clarke, a co. in the S. W. central part of Ohio, a little E. of the Great Miami r. Pop. 22,178. Co. t. Springfield.

CLARKE, a co. in the S. E. part of Ind., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 15,828. Co. t. Charlestown.

CLARKE, a co. in the E. part of Ill., bordering on the Wabash. Pop. 9,532. Co. t. Marshall.

CLARKE, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Mo. Pop. 5,527. Co. t. Alexandria.

CLARKE's River, in Oregon, rises in the Rocky Mountains, and flows into the Columbia r. Its length is about 460 m.

CLAUSTHAL or KLAUSTIIAL, klousl-tåål, a t. of Germany, in Hanover, remarkable for the silver and lead mines in its vicinity. It is the seat of administration for the mining districts of Hanover. Lat: 51° 48' N., Lon. 10° 20' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.) The mines of Clausthal yield annually about 160,000 ounces of silver, 2,400 tons of lead and litharge, and 4 tons of copper. They employ upwards of 2,000 work

Clay, a co. in the S. E. part of Ky., on the S. E. fork of the Kentucky r. Pop. 5,421. Co. i. Manchester.

CLAY, a co. in the W. part of Ind., intersected by the Eel r., little E. of the Wabash. Pop. 7,944. Co. t. Bowling Green.

Clay, a co. in the S. E. part of Ill., intersected by the Little Wabash. Pop. 4,289. Co. t. Maysville.

Clay, a co. in the W. N. W. part of Mo., bordering on the Missouri r. Pop. 10,332. Co. t. Liberty.

CLAYl-TỌN, a co. in the E. part of Iowa, bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 3,873.

CLEAR/-FIELD, a co. in the W. central part of Pa. Pop. 12,586. Co. t. Clearfield.

CLÆR-MONT', a co. in the S.W. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 30,455. Co. t. Batavia.

CLERMONT-FERRAND, klair'-mon fér'-rån', (Anc. Augustonemetum, afterwards Clarus Mons,) the cap. of the French dep. of Puy-de-dôme, and formerly, of the prov. of Auvergne. It contains a number of literary and scientific institutions; among which we may mention the Académie Universitaire and the Royal College. Lat. 45° 46' N., Lon. 3° 5' E. Pop. 28,000. (B.)

CLEVE-LAND, a port of entry of Ohio, the cap. of Cuyahoga co., situated on L. Erie, at the termination of the Ohio canal. Pop. 17,034.

Cleves, (Ger. Kleve, kldl-veh ; Fr. Clèves, klave,) a walled t. of the Prussian dominions, the cap. of a circle of the same name. Lat. 51° 47' N., Lon. 6° 7' E. Pop. 7,400. (B.)

and a

Fåte, får, fàll, fat; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; öð as in good ;


CLINCH, a r. of Tenn., which unites with the Holston to form the l'ennessee.

Clin'tỌN, a co. occupying the N. E. extremity of N. Y. Pop. 40,047. Co. t. Plattsburg

CLINTON, a co. in the N. central part of Pa., on the W. branch of the Susquehanna. Pop. 11,207.

CLINTON, a co. in the S. S. E. part of Ky., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 4,889.

CLINTON, a co. in the S. W. part of Ohio, N. E. of Cincinnati. Pop. 18,838. Co. t. Wilmington.

CLINTON, a co. in the S. central part of Mich. Pop. 5,102.

Clinton, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ind., a little S. E. of the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 11,869. Co. t. Frankfort.

Clinton, a co. in the S. W. part of Ill., intersected by the Kaskaskia r. Pop. 5,139. Co. t. Carlyle.

CLINTON, a co. in the N. W. part of Mo., a little E. of the Missouri r Pop. 3,786. Co. t. Plattsburgh.

CLINTON, à co. in the E. part of Iowa, bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 2,822.

CLINTON, a village of N. Y., in Oneida co., about 9m. W. S. W. of Utica. It is the seat of Hamilton College.

CLITHEROE, klith-er-o', a small t. of England, in Lancashire, 21 m S. E. of Lancaster. Pop. of the township, 6,765.

Clocher, klồhl-her, a small t. of Ireland, in the co. of Tyrone, 22 m. W. by N. of Armagh.

CLOGHNAKILTY, klõh'-na-kill-te, or Clon-A-KILI-TY, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Cork, situated on a bay of the same name. Lat. 51° 38' N., Lon. 8° 51' W. Pop. in 1831, 3,807. (P. C.)

CLON-MELL', the chief t. of the co. of Tipperary, Ireland, situated on the r. Suir. Lat. 52° 19' N., Lon. 7° 43' W. Pop. in 1831, 15,134. (P.C.)

Clyde, a r. of Scotland, which rises in the S. part of Lanarkshire, and, flowing in a north-westerly direction, enters the Frith of Clyde. Its whole course is upwards of 70 m. Though the third in magnitude, it is, as respects navigation, the most important river of Scotland.

Co-4-Hol-mẠ, a co. in the N. W. part of Miss., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 2,780.

COBB, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee. Pop. 13,843. Co. t. Marietta.

COBI-LENTZ,* (Ger. Coblenz, köl-blents; Fr. Coblence, ko'-blånce/) a

* We often hear Coblentz accentuated on the last syllable, but this is contrary to the tendency of our language, (see Int. XII., Obs. 2,) as well as to the native pronunciation. Byron is right, as usual

“ By COBLENTZ, on a rise of gentle ground,
There is a small and simple pyramid.”.

Childe Harold, Canto III.

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