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diversity must necessarily prevail, at least for a time, when the name is of foreign origin (e. g. Terre Haute), and the inhabitants are of different nations or from different sections of the country. When this is the case, some will probably conform to the foreign pronunciation, while others will adopt various modes of anglicizing it. We believe that the determining of such questions must be left to time; which will doubtless gradually bring about the same uniformity in the pronunciation of these names as now prevails with respect to the words and names introduced into the English language at the Norman conquest.
It is, moreover, proper to apprise the reader that a multitude of names will not be found in the Supplement as they are given in some of our most popular school atlases, from the fact that they are misspelled in these works. Mistakes in orthography (owing perhaps to the greater difficulty of making corrections on an engraved plate) are much more frequent on maps than in ordinary printing. That the Gazetteer may not be censured—as it has been in several instances—for omissions attributable to the mistakes above alluded to, it is proposed to cite a few examples in illustration and proof of the foregoing statements. That there may be no appearance of reflection on any particular publication, the examples will be taken promiscuously from different popular atlases, and from such only as justly rank among the best works of the kind that have been published.
* These are given first, not because they are preferable in themselves, but because they are evidently the spellings which were before the mind of the engraver when the mistakes were originally made. Kirmanshah, Miskolcz, and Soorgootoi or Soorgoot, are in fact prefer• able to the others.
This list might be greatly extended, especially with names from the maps of those portions of the world of which comparatively little is known, P. g. the countries of Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.
In some few instances mistakes in spelling, which in the first place have doubtless originated in mere inadvertence, have, by being copied from one map to another, gradually become so general, that they seem at length to have bid defiance to the reproach which ordinarily attaches to such faults, or to have become legitimated by the respectability or number of those by which they are adopted. BEHRING'S (Strait) is a remarkable instance of this kind. In only one out of a great number of atlases that we have examined, is it uniformly spelled correctly. But another, in which the name occurs five times, has it misspelled only once. It is very often given differently on the different maps of the same atlas-generally Bhering, sometimes Beering or Bering, but very rarely Behring, which is the correct spelling. As the strait alluded to derives its name from the navigator who is supposed to have visited it first, it is evident that the name of the strait should be written in the same manner as that of the navigator. Another instance of a similar kind is furnished in Los ANGELES, the name of a town in California. This is almost invariably written incorrectly Los Angelos. As the name is Spanish, and signifies “the Angels,” there is no difficulty in determining the true orthography, which is as we have first given it, Los Angeles.
It is, however, important to distinguish between the misspelling of geographical names and that legitimate diversity of spelling, which naturally results from the different power attributed by different nations to the same letters. (See Preface to the Gazetteer, page xii.)
It may be proper to say a few words respecting omissions in the Supplement, which are not referable to mistakes in orthography merely. A number of names have crept into some of our most respectable school atlases, for which, after the most careful research, we can find no sufficient authority. CHOUMALARIE, sometimes given as the highest mountain in the world, may be cited as an example. Balbi (who writes the name Tchhamoulari) gives it among the mountains of Asia, but speaks of its height as undetermined; at the same time vaguely assigning it a place “on the limits of Bootau.” Cannabich gives it (written Chamalari) as one of the highest mountains of Asia, without indicating its position more definitely than merely naming it among the Himalayas. Mount Tchhamoulari or Choumalarie is not to be found on Balbi's map of India, nor on the maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, nor in the excellent and accurate atlas of Gilbert, recently published in London. This work, in its list of mountains, gives Dhawalaghiri as the highest on the globe, but does not so much as name Choumalarie. It is a curious if not significant circumstance, that those atlases which give Mount Choumalarie, assign to it almost the identical position that is given to Dhawalaghiri on Balhi's map of India ; which position, according to the best authorities, oannot be less than three
hundred miles from the nearest part of Bootan! The various and contradictory spellings of the name in question, render it no less difficult to determine its pronunciation, than to ascertain the precise locality to which it belongs, if indeed such a locality exist. In view of the foregoing facts, wo have thought it advisable to wait for further information before attempting to give the pronunciation of a name, which at present seems wholly involved in doubt and perplexity. In a number of instances, especially, where the pronunciation could not easily be mistaken, we have inserted doubtful names, with a point of interrogation affixed.
From the belief that it will materially contribute to the practical utility of our system of geographical orthoëpy, a list of those names which are most frequently mispronounced is appended to the Supplement. It is obvious that such a list, were it deemed advisable, might readily be much extended in a future edition.
Great pains have been taken in order to render the Supplement a complete key to the various spellings of oriental and other names. (For a full explanation of this interesting subject, see Preface to the Gazetteer, pp. xii. and xiii., and pp. 28 and 29 of the Introduction; also the Table of different spellings at the end of the Introduction.) This feature of our work, which is peculiar to the Pronouncing Gazetteer, and which is so important to every intelligent teacher, inasmuch as it affords the only means of extricating an extensive department of geography from perplexity and confusion, has been much more fully developed in this than in the former editions of the Gazetteer.
Although the utmost care has been taken to render the present edition of our work as faultless as possible, we are not so sanguine as to imagine that it will be found to be without defects. In a publication of this sort, where there are so many minute marks made use of in order to indicate the exact pronunciation, * it is impossible but that some inadvertencies will occur, not to mention those errors which may in some cases result from a deficiency of information. For such unavoidable defects we trust that the candid and enlightened critic will make due allowance.
* It may not be improper here to call the attention of our readers to the great advantage possessed by a stereotype work, from the facilities it affords for attaining absolute accuracy. All persons who have any acquaintance with the subject must be aware of the difficulty or rather impossibility of printing any work which shall at first be entirely free froni typo. graphical errors. This difficulty is greatly increased in a book like the present, in which many signs and figures are employed to mark the pronunciation. In a stereotype work the errors may be corrected in the plates, as they are discovered, while those parts which are already correct remain undisturbed. In this way any conceivable degree of accuracy may be gradually attained.
EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS OF NOTATION USED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt, mė, mėt, no, nôt; a, e, i, o, a, long; š, č, 1, 8, å, short; a, e, i, y, obscure; oo as in moon, do as in good, ou as in our (or ow as in now), 'n similar to'ng, gh like g hard, th as in thin, tu as in this. Ñ indicates a sound similar to our v; it is intended, however, that the English scholar shall pronounce it like simple w.
Ah is employed to denote a sound intermediate between å and &, but more resembling the latter, e. g. 'al-a-bah'mą.
When h (not small capital) occurs at the end of a syllable in the pronunciation of a name, it is not to be sounded.
An acute accent (') is used to denote the primary or principal accent; a grave (') to mark the secondary accent of a name, e. g. Passa-ma-quod'dy.
Dr For further particulars see pp. 50 and 51 of the Gazetteer–especially Observations 1 and 2, on p. 51.
Adana, åldá-nå. Aachen, åå'ken. See Aix-la-Chapelle.
Ad'da, &d'då. Aalborg, ol'borg.
Adel, å-del'. Aar, åår, or Aren, å'ren.
Aden, å'den or d'den. Aargau, dåRgow (Fr. Argovie, ar'go've'). Adige, ad'e-je (It. pron. &'de-jà; Ger. Etsch Aarhuus, oR'hooce.
etch): Aath, ååt. See Ath.
Adirbeitzan. See Azerbaijan. Abaco, å'bå-ko, i. of W. Indies.
Ad-i-ron'dack. Abakan, å-bå-kån'.
Adlerberg, å'dler-berg, or Arlberg, arlberg Abakansk, å-hå-kånsk'.
Adour, &d'OOR'. Abancay, ả-bản-ki.
Adowah, å'do-wå, or Adova, å do-vå. A bano, å-bå'no.
Adramiri, å drå-mee'te.
Kooree or Kouri,) 2. of Ind. Ocean. Æröe, &'ro or drö-eh.
Ætna, pronounced, and often written, Et'ną Ab-er-deen'.
Afghanistan, åf-gån'is-tản'. Abergavenny, ab-er-gå'ne.
Afioom, A fioum, or Afium, å-fe-oom'. Ab-er-ist'wiih (th as in thin)
Afragola, å-frå-goʻlà. Abert, d'bert, 1. of Oregon.
Agably or Aghably, å gå-blee', t. of N. AfAbo, &'bo (Sw. Åbo, o’boo).
rica, Abomey, ab-o-ma'.
Agadir, å-gå-deer', (called also Santa Cruz,) Abookeer, Aboukir, or Abukir, å-boo-keer'. t. of Morocco. Abootizh, Aboutige, or Aboutij, å-boo-tizh'; Agdas, åg dås', or Aghades, &'gạ-des, t. of
written, also, Abutisch and Abootish. Africa. Abrantes, å-brán'tės.
Agde, ågd. Abrolhos, å-brole'yoce.
Agen, å zhán'. (This is an exception to a Abruzzo Citra, å-broot'so chee'trå.
general rule:, the regular pronunciation Abruzzo Ultra, å-broot'so ool'trå.
would be å'zhån', almost å-zhòng.) * Ab-se'cum or Absecombe.
Aghrim, aug'rim or auh'rim, t. of Ireland. Abukir. See Abookeer.
Agnone, ån-yo'na. Abutige or Abutisch. See Abootizh.
Agosta, a-gos'ta. Ab-ys-sin'i-a.
Agra, å'gra. Acapulco, å-kå-pool'ko.
Agram, '&'gråm, t. of Austria. Acaray, 8-kå-ri', mts. of Brazil.
*Aguadilla, å-gwa-Deel'yå. Ac'co-mack.
*Agua Nueva, à'gwă nwa'vå. Accra. See Acra.
*Aguas Calientes, å'gwås kå-le-en'tés. Acheen or Atch-een'. Achigan, ash'e-gan' or å'shegån',r.of Canada. Agulhas, d-gool'yås, cape forming the 8.
Aguayo, å-gwi'o, t. of Mexico. Achil, ak’il, i. of Ireland.
point of Africa Achmim or Akhmym, ak-meem'.
Ah med-nug'ger. Acqui or Aqui, 'que.
Ahwaz, å waz', t. of Persia. Ac'ra or Accra,
Aichstadt. See Eichstädt, Acre, &'ker or d'ker.
Ain, ån. A-dair'.
Ainiab, Ine-tåb'. Adalia, &-då'le-d, or Satalia, så-t&'le-d.
Almeida, ål-ma'e-då. Ajasaluk. See Ayasoolook.
Almeria, &l-md-ree'å. Akaba, đ/ky-bả, t. Arabia.
Almirante, ål-ine-rån'tă, i. E. of Africa Akerman, &'ker-mån.
Almunecar, al-moc-na-kar'. Akhaf, å kåf', desert of Arabia.
Alnwick or Alnewick, an'nik. Akhissar, åk'his-saR'.
Al Obeid. See Obeid. Akhmym or Achmim, åk-meem', written Al-pe'ną. sometimes Ekhmym.
Alps, älps. Akshehr, Akchehr, or Akscheher, åk-shēh'r' Alsace, 'al'såss'. or åk-sha'her.
Als, åls, or Alsen, Ål'sen.
Altamaha, aul'ta-ma-hau'. Alachua, al-atch'u-a.
* Altamira, ål-tå-mee'rå. Alagoas, &-lå-go'ås, t. of Brazil.
Altamura, ål-tå-moo'rå. Alais, & ía.
Altena or Altona, ål'to-nå. *Alamo, &'lå-mo.
Alten-burg (Ger: pron. äl’ten-bởÖRG"). *Alamos, å lå-moce...
Al-in or Altyn, ål-tin', l. of Siberia. Aland, å lạnd (Sw. Åland, oʻlånd).
Alton, auliun. *Alaqua, al'a-quaw.
Altorf, ål'loof, or Altdorf. Alashehr or Alaschehr, å tå-shềh'r' or å-lå. Altzey or Alzey, ált'st. shå'her.
Aluta or Alouta, &-looʻlå, r. of Wallachia Alba, ål’bå.
*Alvarado, ål-vå-rå'do. Al Baab, ål-hååb, t. of N. Africa.
Alvarez, al' vå-rés, t. of Cuba. Albacete, ål-bå-tha'tå.
Amager, å må-gher. Albą Ju'si-a. See Karlsburg:
Amalfi, &-mål'fe. Al-bā'ni-a (Turk. Arnaootleek or Arnaoutlik, Amapala, å-må-på'lå, . of Honduras. aR'nå-oot'leek).
Amarapoura. See Ummerapoora. Albano, &l-bå'no.
Amasera or Amasrah, å-mås'rą.
Amasia or Amasieh, &-ma'see'a.
Amatique, am-a-teek', bay of Central Amer.
Amaxichi, å-måx'e-kee, t. on Santa Maura I. Al-be-marle' (in the United States).
Amox-zon (Sp. Maraũon, mả-rần-yone'; call Albula, ål’boo-là, r. of Switzerland.
ed, also, Orellana, o-rel-yå'nå). Albuquerque, ål-boo-ker'kà.
Am-boy'nạ. Alcantara, ål-kånrå-rå.
Ambriz, am'briz, or åm-breez', r. of Guinea. Alckmaer. See Alkmaar.
Am'bro, cape of Madagascar. Al-co'na.
Am'brose, St., i. W. of Chili. Alcoy, ål-ko'e.
Ameland, å'mel-ånt. Aldabra, ål-då'brå, ¿. E. of Africa.
Am-e'll-ạ. Aldan, al-dân', t. of Siberia.
Am-er'i-ca. Alden, aul'den.
Amersfort or Amersfoort, &'mers-fort.
Amga, åm'gå, r. of Siberia.
Amiens, am'e-enz (Fr. pron. å me-&n). Alessandria, ål-ês-sån'dre-å.
Amito, am-eet'. Aleutiall, alu’she-an, or Aleutan, a-luoạn. Amlwch, am'look. Al-ex-an-dret'ta. See Scanderoon.
åm'mer, r. of Bavaria. Al-ex-an'dri-a.
Am-mon-o0'suck. * Alford, aul'fürd.
Amoo or Amou, å-moo'. See Oxus. Algarve, al-gar'và, or Al-gar/by-ą.
Amoor or Amour, å-moor'. Algeziras, alg.ez-ee'ręs, or Algeciras (Sp. Amorgo, å-mor'gó, or Amor'gos, i. of Greece pron. of boih, ål-hd-ihee'ras).
*Amoskeag, amos-keg'. Algiers, ål-jeerz'.
Amoy' or Emoui, em-oo'e, i. on E. coast of Al-go ạ, buy in $. Africa.
China. Alhama, al-'ınå.
Amretsir, åm-ret-seer', or Um-rit-seer'. Alicante, å-le-kån'tà, or Al-i-cant'.
Am'ster-dam. Alicata, å-le-käytå.
Ainu. See Amoo. Alkmaar or Alckmaer, alk-mar'.
Amur. See Amoor. Allahabad, ål läh-ha-båd'.
An-abla-rą, or å-nå'bå-rå, r. of Siberia. Alle, &l'leh.
An-a-deer' or Anadir. Alle-glòny.