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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, not; čð as in good; S. and W. by the Gulf of Mexico; it contains 28 counties.* Its length, from N. to Š., from Cape Sable to the mouth of St. Mary's r., is about 400 m.; breadth of the northern part, 354 m. ; greatest breadth of the peninsula, 172 m. The area is estimated at 55,000 sq. m. Pop. 87,401, of whom 47,167 are whites, 925 free coloured, and 39,309 slaves. Ponce de Leon discovered this country in 1512, on Palm Sunday (called in Spanish Pasqua Florida), and from this circumstance bestowed upon it its present appellation. During a great part of the 16th century, the name was applied indefinitely to the S. E. coast of N. America, but was finally restricted to what now constitutes the state of Florida. That portion which lies W. of the r. Appalachicola, was formerly designated West Florida ; the remainder, including the peninsula, East Florida.
Floyd, a co. in the S. S. W. part of Va., bordering on the Blue Ridge. Pop. 6,458. Seat of justice, Floyd c. h.
Floyd, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., bordering on Alabama. Pop. 8,205. Co. t. Rome.
Floyd, a co. near the E. extremity of Ky., intersected by the W. Fork of the Sandy r. Pop. 5,714. Co. t. Prestonsburg.
Floyd, a co. in the S. S. E. part of Ind., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 14,875. Co. t. New Albany.
Flush/-ING (Dutch Vlis/-sing-en), a fortified seaport t. of Holland, in the prov. of Zealand, on the S. side of the i. of Walcheren, remarkable for its harbour, its extensive dock-yards, and its fine basins, one of which is sufficiently deep to receive the largest ships of war. Lat. 51° 27' N., Lon. 3° 35' E. Pop. above 6,000. (P. C.)
FLU-VAN-NA, a co. in the E. central part of Va., bordering on James r. Pop. 9,487. Co. t. Palmyra.
Föu or FöyRl-Dę, a Danish i. on the W. coast of Sleswick, with an area of 25 sq. m. and 5,000 inhabitants. (P. C.)
Foggia, foj'-jả, an important commercial t. of Naples, the cap. of the prov. of Capitanata, situated in the midst of a vast plain, 78 m. N. E. of Naples. Lat. 41° 27' N., Lon. 15° 30' E. Pop. about 21,000. (B.)
Foix, fwả, a t. of France, the cap. of the dep. of Ariège, and the ancient residence of the counts of Foix, is situated on the r. Ariège. Lat. 42° 58' N., Lon. 1° 36' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
Fond du Lac, a co. in the E. part of Wisconsin, at the S. extremity of L. Winnebago. Pop. 14,468.
Fondi, fon-de, (Anc. Fun/di,) a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Terra di Lavoro, remarkable for its antiquities. Parts of the pavement of the celebrated Appian Way (via Appia), which forms the principal street of Fondi, are here preserved in their primitive state. Lat. 41° 21' N., Lon. 13° 25' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
FONTAINEBLEAU, fðn'-tane'-blöl, a t. of France, in the dep. of Seine
Alachua, Benton, Calhoun, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Hamilton, Hillsborough, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, St. John's, Leon, Levy, Lucia St., Madison, Marion, Monroe, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton, Washington.
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. and Marne, 35 m. S. S. E. of Paris, situated in the midst of a noble forest, (called, from the name of the town, the Forest of Fontainebleau,) which occupies an extent of more than 41,000 acres.
Here is a magnificent royal château, erected by Francis I., and considerably embellished by succeeding princes.' Lat. 48° 24' N., Lon. 2° 42' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)
FONTARABIA, fon'-ta-rd/-be-a, (Sp. Fuenterabia, fwen/-td-rå-beel-å,) a small fortified t. of Biscay, in Spain, situated at the mouth of the river Bid-ås-sol-å, which forms a part of the boundary between France and Spain. It is chiefly interesting on account of its historical associations. Lat. 43° 22 N., Lon. 1° 47 W.ỮAdj. FoN-TA-RA-BI-ẠN.
FONTENAY, font'-nål, the largest and most commercial t. in the dep. of Vendée, in France, is situated on the r. Vendée. Lat. 46° 29' N., Lon. 0° 47' W. Pop. in 1832, 6,388. (P. C.)
Fool-LAH (or Foulah). The Foolahs are a nation widely spread along the W. coast of Africa, occupying the countries N. of C. Palmas as far as the banks of the r. Senegal. Their principal kingdoms are Foota Toro, Bondoo, Fooladoo, Kaarta Ludamer, and Casson. The Foolahs, especially those who inhabit the countries which border on the Moorish territories, approach nearer to Europeans in their complexion and general features, than any of the other tribes of W. Africa, except the Moors. Those of Bondoo are described as being of the middle size, well made, and very active, with hair less short and woolly than that of the negroes. In speaking of the negro nations, they always rank themselves with the white people.
For/-FAR, a t. of Scotland, cap. of Forfarshire, situated in the great valley of Strathmore, 15 m. N. by E. from Dundee. Lat. 56° 39' N., Lon. 2° 50' W. Pop. 8,362.
FOR -FAR-SHỊRE, a co. in the E. part of Scotland, bordering on the sea and the Frith of Tay. Pop. 170,520.
Forli, for-leel, (Anc. Forum Livlii,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal State, cap. of a prov. of the same name. Lat. 44° 13' N., Lon. 12° 3'E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)
FORMENTERA, for-men-tål-rả, (Anc. Ophiu'sa,) one of the Balearic islands, lying S. of Ivica, from which it is separated by a channel 5 m. broad. Its length is about 14 m.
FOR-MO-SA (called, by the Chinese, Taï-wan or Taywan, ti-win'), a large i. in the Chinese Sea, lying between 21° 50' and 25° 30' N. Lat., and 120° 20' and 122° E. Lon. Its length is about 250 m.; its greatest breadth about 70 m. It is important, on account of its fine harbours, its timber, and other productions. On the W. coast is the Chinese town of Taï-wan; the eastern part is inhabited by independent savages.
Forsyth, for-sith', a co. in the N. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee. Pop. 8,850. Co. t. Cumming.
FORTAVENTURA. (See FUERTAVENTURA.)
FORTH, a r. of Scotland, which rises in the mountains between Loch Katrine and Loch Lomond, and, flowing in an easterly direction, falls
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pīne, pin; nò, nốt; öð as in good; into the Frith of Forth. Its length, following all its sinuosities, is stated to be above 60 m.
Forth, Frith OF. After the r. Forth is joined by the Devon, on the N. it begins to widen, and gradually assumes the appearance of a bay. This bay, called the Frith of Forth, is about 50 m. long, and, where widest, is near 15 m. broad.
Fossano, fos-sål-no, a walled t. of Piedmont, situated near the r. Slura, on the Naviglio Nuovo (nå-veell yo noo-o-vo), or new canal, which connects the Stura with the Po. It has a royal academy of Belles Lettres. Lat. 44° 36' N., Lon. 7° 51' E. Pop. 12,500. (P.C.)
Fougères, foo'-zharel, a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Ille and Vilaine, 160 m. W. by S. of Paris. Pop. in 1832, 7,446. (P.C.)
FOULAH. See FOOLAH.
Found-TAIN, a co. in the W. part of Ind., bordering on the Wabash r. Pop. 13,253. Co. t. Covington.
Fourche. See La FourchE.
Fower, foy, sometimes written Fawey, a small r. of England, in Cornwall, which flows into the sea.
Fowey, a fortified seaport of Cornwall, situated on the above r., near its mouth. It was anciently a place of much greater importance than at present. Fowey furnished more ships to the fleet of Edward III., when he was besieging Calais, than any other port in England. Lat. 50° 20' N., Lon. 4° 37' W. Pop. 1,643.
Fox ISLANDS. See ALEUTIAN ISLANDS. Foyers, often written, and always pronounced Fyl-Erș, a small r. of Inverness-shire, in Scotland, which flows into Loch Ness, remarkable for its stupendous fall of 207 ft. in perpendicular height. From the top of the adjoining rocks to the surface of the water in the abyss below the fall, the depth is 470 ft.
Foyle, Lough, lồh foil, a bay on the northern coast of Ireland, about 15 m. long, and 8 m. wide in the middle, which is connected with the sea by a strait, less than a mile in breadth. Ther. Foyle, which flows into its southern extremity, is navigable for vessels of 400 tons as far as Londonderry.
FRANCE (Anc. Gallia or Gaul; Fr. La France, lå frånce); one of the largest and most powerful countries of Europe, occupying the W. part of the continent, is situated between 42° 20' and 51° 5' N. Lat., and 4° 49' W. and 8° 16' E. Lon. Bounded on the N. W. and N. by the English Channel and the kingdom of Belgium, E. by Germany, Switzerland, and the Sardinian states, S. by the Mediterranean and the Pyrenees, which separate it from Spain, and W. by the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic. Its extreme length, from S. E. to N. W. is about 680 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. E. to S.W. is about 630 m. The area is computed at 200,925 sq. m., and if we include the Island of Corsica, which is now incorporated with France, it will amount to about 204,711. The entire population, according to the census of 1846, was 35,401,700. France is divided into 86 departments or prefectures, which are again divided into 363 sub-prefectures or arrondissements;
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. these are still further sub-divided into cantons and communes. Each department is under the administration of an officer called a prefect (préfet, pra-fa'); the arrondissements are under sub-prefects (sous-préfets, 800 -prà fà'). Paris is the seat of government,
The surface of France is very diversified. The northern and western regions are occupied by a plain of yast extent, interrupted only by small elevations. There are several chains of mountains near the eastern border, among which are the Vosges, Mt. Jura, and the Cottian Alps. The highest mountain of France is one of the latter group, which has an altitude of 2,163 toises, or 13,700 feet, above the level of the sea. (B.) In the south, the Cevennes extend along the western side of the basin of the Rhone. The soil is generally fertile and the climate affords in perfection the finest fruits of the temperate zone. The principal productions are wheat, rye, maize, oats, potatoes, and the
grape. The olive is extensively cultivated in the south, and the rearing of silk-worms forms an important branch of industry. Among the indigenous trees are the apple, pear, chestnut, oak, ash, elm, beech, poplar, and fir. The forests occupy scarcely one-seventh part of the surface. There is probably no country in which the landed property is divided into smaller parcels. Manufacturing industry has made great progress in France, and the arts are brought to a high state of perfection. The most important productions of this department are cotton, silk, and woollen stuffs, hardware, jewelry, porcelain, and chemical substances. The French excel particularly in the manufacture of broadcloth, silks, paper, and fancy articles.
Considered in relation to commerce, France is the second state of Europe. In 1850 the value of the imports was $151,162,880, and that of the exports $217,509,600. Among the chief articles of export are silks, muslins, woollens, wine, brandy, madder, and leather. The products of the soil and of manufactures supply the objects of an immense internal trade, which is facilitated by numerous canals and railways. The aggregate length of the latter, in 1850, was more than 1800 miles. A large majority of the people are Roman Catholics, but there is no religion established by law.
The government, which for many years has been very unsettled, is at present nominally a republic, but in reality a self-constituted dictatorship. The last monarchy ended on the 24th of February, 1848, when a revolution occurred by which Louis Philippe was compelled to abdicate the crown. A provisional government was formed, of which Lamartine and Arago were prominent members, under whose auspices a republic was proclaimed, and a national assembly convened by universal suffrage. The union of church and state was dissolved, and titles of nobility abolished. A constitution was adopted by which the legislative power was vested in a single chamber of deputies. Louis Napoleon, in December, 1848, was elected president for four years ; and, according to the constitution, was not eligible for a second term. On the second of December, 1851, the president, by the aid of a venal soldiery, and by a flagrant act of usurpation, dissolved the legislative assembly, imprisoned and banished many of the members, and as
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt: plne or pīne, pin; no, nôt; öð as in good; sumed the part of absolute dictator. The freedom of the press and of speech were suppressed, and hundreds were massacred in the streets of Paris. A new constitution has since been imposed on the nation, which retains some republican forms, but subverts the foundations and chief defences of public liberty. The legislative power is exercised jointly by the president, the senate, which is appointed by him, and the legislative body, the members of which are elected for six years, and receive no salary. The president alone appoints to all offices, has the initiative of all laws, declares war, concludes treaties, and claims the right to designate the citizen whom he thinks most worthy to succeed him. The name of France is derived from the Franks, (i. e. freemen,) a confederacy of various German nations, who overran Gaul, on the decline of the Roman power, and who afterwards were united under one head by Clovis, about the beginning of the 6th century.-Adj. French; inhab. French'MAN.
FRANCE, ISLE OF, (Fr. Ile de France, eel deh frånce;) formerly a prov., is now divided into the deps. Aisne, Oise, Seine, Seine and Oise, and Seine and Marne. It received its appellation from the circumstance of its being almost surrounded by the rivers which give name to the above deps., and by some other smaller streams.
FRANCE, ISLE OF. See MAURITIUS.
FRANCIS, Sr., a r. which rises in the E. S. E. part of Mo., and, flowing southerly into Ark., joins the Mississippi, near 34° 40' N. Lat.
FRANCIS, ST., a co. in the E. N. E. part of Ark., bordering on the above r. Pop. 4,479. Co. t. Madison.
FRANCIS, Sr., a co. in the E. S. E. part of Mo., on the sources of the r. St. Francis. Pop. 4,964. Co. t. Farmington.
FraN-CISI-co, St., a large r. of S. America, in Brazil, which rises near 20° S. Lat., and 47° W. Lon., and, flowing at first south-easterly, and then easterly, falls into the Atlantic, in about 10° 30' N. Lat., and 36° 20' W. Lon. Length above 1,300 m. It is navigable to Caninde (cả-neen/-da), more than 150 m. from its mouth; above this point there are a number of falls, the most considerable of which is said to be 50 ft. in perpendicular height.
FRANCHE COMTÉ, frảnsh kón'-td), or UPPER BURGUNDY, a former prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Doubs, Jura, and Upper Saône.
FRAN-CO-NI-A (Ger. Franken and Frankenland, frånkl-en-lånd', i. e. the “land of the Franks”), formerly a circle of the German empire, intersccted by the r. Main. Nearly the whole of it has been transferred by various treaties to the crown of Bavaria.
FRANEKER, från/-ek-er, a manufacturing t. of Holland, in Friesland, on the canal from Leeuwarden to Haarlingen, formerly the seat of a university, which was suppressed some years since, and replaced by an athenæum, or high school. Lat. 53° 11' N., Lon. 5° 30' E. Pop. 4,200. (P. C.)
FRANKENSTEIN, frånkl-en-stine', a walled t. of Prussia, the cap. of a circle of the same name. Lat. 50° 36' N., Lon. 16° 50' E. Pop. 5,500. (B.)
FRANKENTHAL, frånkl-en-tåål', a t. in the Bavarian circle of the