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Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo, as in good; Denmark, situated between 55° 2' and 55° 40' N. Lat., and 9° 40' and 10° 51' E. Lon. Its length is about 50 m.; its greatest breadth near 40. The area is about 1,176 sq. m. Pop. about 144,000. (P. C.) Odense is the capital.
FÜNFKIRCHEN, fünf-kéčr/-ken, (Hung. Pécs, paich,) an ncient t. in the S. W. part of Hungary, 105 m. S. by W. from Buda. Lat. 46° 5' N., Lon. 18° 16' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)
Furnes, fürn, a small t. of W. Flanders, situated at the termination of a canal, to which it gives its name. Lat. 51° 4' N., Lon. 2° 40' E. Pop. in 1830, 4,253. (P. C.).
FURRUCKABAD, fur'-ruk-a-bảd', a t. of Hindostan, cap. of a dist. of the same name, which lies between the Jumna and the Ganges. - Lat. 27° 24' N., Lon. 79° 27' E. Pop. estimated at about 67,000. (B.)
Fürth, fürt, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Germany, in Bavaria, cap. of a circle of the same name, with a Jewish university, about 4 m. N. W. of Nuremburg. Lat. 49° 29' N., Lon. 11° 1' E. Pop. estimated at 17,000. (B.)
Fyne, Loch, lok fine, a small bay on the W. coast of Scotland, ir Argyleshire, communicating with the Frith of Clyde.
Gads/-DEN, a co. of Florida, E. of and bordering on the Appalachicola r. Pop. 8,783. Co. t. Quincy.
GAETA, gå-d/-tả, (Anc. Caieta,) a strongly fortified seaport t. of Naples, in the prov. of Terra di Lavoro. Lat. 41° 13' N., Lon. 12° 34' E. Pop., exclusive of the military, 3,000. (B.)
GAILLAC, gåh -yåkl, a t. of France, in the dep. of Tarn, situated on the r. Tarn, 31 m. N. E. of Toulouse. It is celebrated for its wines.
GAILLON, gåh -yon', a t. of France, in the dep. of Eure, 50 m.W.N.W. of Paris, remarkable for its once magnificent palace, belonging to the archbishops of Rouen, which is now converted into a prison.
Gairloch, garel-lok, a bay on the W. coast of Ross-shire, Scotland, which gives name to a parish lying on it
. GA-LE-NA, a small t. near the N. W: extremity of Ill., the cap. of Jo Daviess co., remarkable for the rich lead mines in its vicinity. The name is taken from galena, a species of lead ore. Pop. 6,004.
GALICIA, gal-ish'-e-a, (Ger. Galizien, gå-lit/-se-en,) THE KINGDOM OF, . forms the N. E. portion of the Austrian dominions, being situated between 47° and 50° 50' N. Lat., and 18° 54' and 26° 37' E. lon. Its length, from E. to W., is about 350 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. to S., near 230 m. The area is computed at 32,949 sq. m. Pop. about 4,600,000. (P. C.) Lemberg is the capital.-Adj. and inhab. GALICIAN, gal-ishl.e-an.
GALICIA, (Sp. pron. gå-leel-the-å: Anc. Gallæ/cia,) a prov. occupying the N. W. extremity of the Spanish peninsula. Its greatest length, from N. to S., is about 125 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., 120 m. -Adj. and inhab. Gal-LE-GẠN (from the Spanish Gallego, gål-la-go) and GALICIAN.
GÅLL, SAINT, (Fr. pron. sån gåll; Ger. Sancte Gallen, sånk/-tęh-gåll.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly 'ike ng. lçn,) a canton in the N. E. part of Switzerland, bordering on the Rhine and Lake Constance. Area computed at 780 sq. m. Fop. in 1831, 165,740. (P. C.)
GALL, ST., an important manufacturing and commercial t. of Switzerland, cap. of the above canton, situated about 7m. S. W. of Lake Constance. It contains numerous literary institutions. Lat. 47° 26' N., Lon. 9° 22' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)
GAL-LA-TIN, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 5,137. Co. t. Warsaw.
GALLATIN, a co. in the S. E. part of Ill., bordering on the Ohio and Wabash rivers. Pop. 5,448. Co. t. Equality
GAL-LP-A, a co. in the S. E. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 17,063. Co. t. Gallip-olis.
GALLIPOLI, gal-lip-o-le, (Anc. Callipolis,) an important t. of European Turkey, situated at the entrance of the Hellespont, about 130 m. in a direct line, W. by S., from Constantinople. It is interesting in history, as the first place in Europe where the Turks acquired dominion. Lat. 40° 26' N., Lon. 26° 38' E. The pop. is variously estimated from 17,000 to 80,000. According to the P. C., it somewhat exceeds 20,000.
GALLIPOLI, a fortified seaport t. of Italy, in Terra di Otranto. Lat. 40° 2' N., Lon. 17° 57' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
GAL/-LO-WAY, a dist. in the S. W. of Scotland, comprising the shire of Wigtown and parts of some other shires. The small horses known by the name of Galloways, are bred here. GALI-VES-TỌN, the largest t. in Texas, situated on an island of its
Its commerce is represented as very flourishing. Lat. 29° 10' N., Lon. 94° 50' W. Pop. about 6,000.
GALVESTON BAY, a considerable bay in the S. E. part of Texas, N. of the island of Galveston.
GẢı/-way, a co. in the W. part of Ireland, in the prov. of Connaught, bordering on the sea. Pop. in 1831, exclusive of the co. of the town of Galway, 381,564. (P. C.)
GALWAY, THE CO. OF THE TOWN OF, lies in the above, and contains an area of near 36 sq. m, The town of Galway, which is the cap. of this, as well as the preceding country, is situated on the outlet of Lough Corrib, near its entrance into Galway Bay. Its harbour is large, but not deep. It has a pretty extensive trade; its chief manufacture is flour. Entire pop. of the co. in 1831, 33,120. (P. C.) The pop. of the town is stated, by the Edinburgh Gazetteer, to be above 15,000.
GAM-Bl-a, a r. of W. Africa, which flows into the Atlantic, between 13° and 14° N. Lat., and near 16° W. Lon. Its upper course has not been explored by Europeans, but, from information obtained from the natives, it is probable that its whole length exceeds 500 m. It is navigable to near Medina (med-eel-na), in about 14° W. Lon., a distance, by water, of perhaps 250 m. from its mouth.
GAND. See GHENT.
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; płne or pine, pin; nò, nôt; oo as in good, principal branches of which rise in the Himalaya Mountains, near
31° N. Lat., and between 78° 30' and 80° E. Lon. One of these, the Bagharet/tee, which is considered the true Ganges, rises from the side of a mountain 13,800 ft. above the level of the sea. In the first part of its course it runs south-westerly, but gradually changes towards the S. E., and, after its union with the Jumna, in about 25° 20' N. Lat., and 82o E. Lon., it flows easterly, and continues in this direction to near 88° E. Lon., when it again changes to the S. E., and falls into the Bay of Bengal, by many mouths. The whole length of the Ganges is estimated at near 1,500 m. It is navigable, for sınall boats, almost to its source, during the rainy season, and the greater portion of it is navigable all the year round, but not for vessels of the same size. Even some of the principal branches are impassable for large boats during six months of the year.-Adj. GANGETIC, gan-jet-ik.
Gap, gảp, a city in the S. E. part of France, cap. of the dep. of Upper Alps. It had, in the 16th century, more than twice its present number of inhabitants. Lat. 44° 34' N., Lon. 6° 5' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
GARD, gar, a dep. in the S. of France, bordering on the Mediterranean and the r. Rhone. Pop. 366,259. (B.) Capital, Nîmes.
Garda, gar/-dả, LAKE OF, (Anc. Bena/cus,) the largest lake in Italy, situated between 45° 26' and 45° 56' N. Lat., and 10° 32' and 10° 50% E. Lon. Its length is about 35 m.; its greatest breadth about 10 m. The r. Mincio forms its outlet. A steamboat plies between Desenzano (dà-sën-zål -no) on its S. coast, and Riva (reel-vå) at its N. extremity, in Tyrol.
Garvon, gar'-don', a small r. in the S. of France, which intersects the dep. of Gard, and flows into the Rhone. Over the valley of this stream is the celebrated Pont du Gard (pon dü Gar), a magnificent Roman aqueduct, 895 ft. long, and about 160 ft. above the waters of the river, which was constructed for the purpose of supplying the ancient Nemausus (now Nîmes) with water from the fountain of Aure.
Gard'-ỊNER, a flourishing t. of Maine, in Kennebeck co., situated on the r. Kennebeck, about 8 m. S. of Augusta. Pop. of the township, 6,486.
GARFAGNANA, gar-fån-yål-nå, a highland dist. of the northern Apennines, situated on the borders of the states of Tuscany, Genoa, and Modena.
GARIGLIANO, gå-reel-yål-no, a small r. of Naples, which flows into the Mediterranean, about 10 m. E. of Gaëta.
Gar'-ONNE! (the Garum'na of the Romans), a r. in the S. W. part of France, which rises a little beyond the frontier, in the kingdom of Spain, and, flowing in a north-westerly direction, unites with the Dordogne, about 15 m. below Bordeaux, to form the Gironde. Its length is about 360 m. It is navigable above 200 m., though there are many impediments in the upper part of its course.
GARONNE, UPPER, (Fr. Haute Garonne, õte gå'-ronn',) a dep. in the
ou, as in uur; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G like j. S. of France, intersected by the r. Garonne. Pop. 454,727. Capital, Toulouse.
GAR-RARD, a co. in the E. central part of Ky., bordering on the r. Kentucky. Pop. 10,237. Co. t. Lancaster.
GAR/-RÕws, a mountainous dist. bordering on the N. E. frontier of Bengal, tributary to the British.
Gas-CO-NADE', a r. of Mo., which flows into the Missouri r.
GASCONADE, a co. in the E. central part of Mo., intersected by the above, and bordering on the Missouri r. Pop. 4,996. Co. t. Mount Sterling.
Gas-co-ny, (Fr. Gascogne, gås -coñ,) formerly a prov. in the S.W. part of France, now constituting the deps. of the Upper Pyrenees, Gers, and Landes, and part of the Lower Pyrenees, Upper Garonne, Lot and Garonne, and Ariège.—Adj. and inhab. GAs/-cỌN.
GASPÉ, gås'-pal, a co. of Lower Canada, surrounding a bay of the same name in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Lat. of the latter, about 48° 47' N., Lon. 64° 20' W.
GATES, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on Va. and the Chowan r. Pop. 8,426. Co. t. Gatesville.
GATESHEAD. See NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE.
GAl-zĄ, an ancient t. of Palestine, situated near the borders of the desert which separates this country from Egypt, about 3 m. from the Mediterranean. Lat. 31° 27' N., Lon. 34° 27' E. Pop. between 3,000 and 4,000. (P. C.)
GE-Au-GẠ, a co near the N. E. extremity of Ohio. Pop. 17,827. Co. t. Chardon.
GEEL, gheel, (Dutch pron. Hale,) a t. of Belgium, in the prov. of Antwerp, remarkable for the great number of persons afflicted with insanity, who are sent thither from the surrounding country, to board in private families. The inhabitants, generally speaking, appear to possess great skill in the treatment of this malady, which forms the prin. cipal part of their
occupation. Lat. 51° 10' N., Lon. 4° 58' E. Pop. about 7,000. (P. C.)
GEFLE, yevl-là, a seaport t. of Sweden, situated at the mouth of a little stream which flows into the Baltic, important on account of its commerce, its dock-yards, and the number of its merchant vessels. It is regarded as the third sea port of Sweden. Here is a celebrated gymnasium. Lat. 60° 40' N., Lon. 17° 8' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
GEL-DERş or GUELDERS, (Dutch, Geldern, hel-dern,) called also GellDER-LAND, a prov. in the E. part of Holland, bordering on the Prussian dominions. The area scarcely exceeds 2,000 sq. m.. Pop. in 1824, 279,226. Capital, Arnhem. The ancient duchy of Gelders was considerably larger than the present province. One division of it, called Upper Gelders, remained subject to Spain after the successful revolt of the maritime provinces of the Netherlands; and a part of this, including the town of Gelders, now belongs to Prussia.
Gelders or GELDERN, a small t. and once an important fortress of the Prussian dominions, in the circle of Düsseldorf, 48 m. N. W. of
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo as in good; Cologne. From it the above-mentioned duchy took its name. Lat. 51° 31' Ñ., Lon. 6° 19' E. Pop. 3,600. (B.).
Gen'-E-SEE', a r. which rises in Pa., and, flowing across the W. part of N. Y., empties itself into L. Ontario. Its whole length is about
GENESEE, a co. in the N. W. part of N. Y., a little to the W. of the above r. Pop. 28,488. Co. t. Batavia.
GENESEE, a co. in the S. E. central part of Mich., S. of Saginaw Bay. Pop. 12,031, Co. t. Flint.
GEN'-ES-El-o, the seat of justice of Livingston co., N. Y., situated on the r. Genesee, about 25 m. S. by W. of Rochester.
GEN-E/-vẠ, (Ger. Genf, ghenf; Fr. Genève, zhen-avel; It. Ginevra, jin-d-vrả,) a celebrated city of Switzerland, the cap. of a canton of the same name, situated on both sides of the Rhone, where it issues from L. Leman. The larger part of the town is on the S side, but a portion is built on an island in the river, which is joined to the two banks by bridges. A smaller island, at the very point where the Rhone issues from the lake, is planted with trees, and forms a public promenade. A handsome suspension bridge has recently been thrown across the river. The town is regularly fortified, with ramparts, ditches, and bastions. As a seat of learning, Geneva holds a distinguished rank among the European cities. Its academy, or rather university, founded by Calvin, has the four faculties of theology, law, science, and belles lettres, with forty professors. The Botanic Garden is considered as the first establishment of the kind in Switzerland. Our limits will not permit us to mention even the principal among its numerous literary and scientific institutions; yet we may briefly notice the various collections in the sciences of mineralogy, entomology, botany, &c., especially the botanical library, and the magnificent herbarium of M. De Candolle, which contains not less than 58,000 different species, and may be regarded as the finest collection of the kind which has ever been made. The manufacturing industry of Geneva is chiefly directed to the construction of clocks and watches, and to works in jewelry. It would be difficult to name another town of equal size which has produced so many distinguished persons as Geneva; among these may be mentioned Saussure, Rousseau, Madame de Stäel, and Sismondi.' Geneva is one of the oldest cities in Western Europe, and is mentioned under its present name, in Cæsar's Commentaries on the Gallic war. (Lib. I., 7 and 8.) After the reformation, it became, under the auspices of John Calvin, one of the principal rallying points of the reformed communion, so as to be styled by some “ the Rome of the Protestants." Much of its present moral and intellectual elevation must be ascribed to the strong impression which Calvin stamped upon it three centuries ago. The Observatory is in 46° 11'59" N. Lat., and 6° 9' 22'' E. Lon. Pop. in 1834, 27,177. (P. C.)-Adj. and inhab. Gen'-E-VESE'.
GENEVA, CANTON OF, occupies the S. W. extremity of Switzerland. The area is computed at about 93 sq. m. The entire pop. in 1834