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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; N, nearly like ng ; G like 3. å mounted to 56,655. (P. C.) This is the smallest canton of the Swiss confederation.


GENEVA, a village of N. Y., beautifully situated at the N. end of Seneca Lake, on the R. R. between Albany and Buffalo.

GENEVIEVE (jen'-e-veev!) St., a co. in the E. S. E. part of Mo., bordering on the Mississippi. Pop. 5,313. Co. t. St. Genevieve.

Gen/-0-^* (the Gen/ua of the ancient Romans; It. Genova, jen/-o-vå ; Fr. Gênes, zhain); an archiepiscopal city in the N. W. part of Italy, formerly the cap. of the celebrated republic of this name, situated at the foot of the Northern Apennines, in the recess of a wide gulf on the Mediterranean, to which it gives its name. It is strongly fortified on the land side, being enclosed by a double line of fortifications. Though, in general, irregularly and badly built, it contains many fine edifices; the palace Durazzo, and that of Andrew Doria are among the most remarkable. Genoa has several important literary and scientific institutions; the University, with its twenty-nine professors, the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, are perhaps the most deserving notice. The territory of the old republic now forms a part of the kingdom of Sardinia, under the name of the duchy of Genoa. The climate of this region is healthy, and the atmosphere remarkably pure. The Genoese are a shrewd, active, frugal, industrious, and still eminently commercial people. The town is in Lat. 44° 25' N., Lon. 8° 58' E. Population about 100,000. Adj. and inhab. GEN-O-EŞE'.

GEORGE, Lake, a lake in the E. N. E. part of N. Y., situated between the counties of Washington and Warren; it is 33 m. in length, and about 2 in breadth. Its outlet, which is 3 m. long, flows into Lake Champlain. It is studded with small islands, and its waters are remarkably pure and transparent: these circumstances, together with the wild and lofty hills by which it is surrounded, render it almost un. egnalled for picturesque and romantic beauty.

GEORGE, ST., (Port. Sam Jorge, soung zhor/-zha,) an i. of the Azores, intersected by the parallel of 38° 30' N. Lat., and the 28th meridian of W. Lon. Length above 30 m.; mean breadth only 4 or 5 m.

GEORGE-TOWN, formerly STABROEK (stål-brook), the cap. of British Guiana, situated near the mouth of the r. Demerara. It formerly belonged to the Dutch. Lat. about 6° 48' N., Lon. 58° 7' W. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

GEORGETOWN, a dist. in the S. E. part of S.C., intersected by the Great Pedee r.,

and bordering on the sea. Pop. 20,647. Co. t. Georgetown.

GEORGETOWN, a port of entry, cap. of the above situated on Winyaw Bay, at the mouth of the Great Pedee r. Lat. 33° 21' N., Lon 79° 17' W. Pop. estimated at above 3,000.

* See Introduction, I.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, met; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good;

GEORGETOWN, a t. and port of entry of Washington co., in the Dist. of Columbia, situated at the confluence of Rock Creek with the Potomac, 21 m. above the capitol. Pop. 8,366.

Georgia, jor/-je-a, (called by the Russians Grusia, grool-se-å,) a considerable country of Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and extending from 38° 18' to 43° 52' N. Lat., and from 39° 43 to 50° 14' E. Lon. These, however, are to be understood as the limits of the Russian prov. of this name. Georgia Proper is considerably less extensive. There is some diversity among geographers respecting its boundaries; but it appears to have included originally nearly the whole of the southern declivity of the Caucasus, from the Caspian to the Black Sea. The origin of the name is unknown: some derive it from the r. Koor (Kur), which intersects nearly the whole extent of this fine country. The Persians call it Goorgistan. The climate of Georgia is inild and, in general, very healthy. The Georgian girls, like those of Circassia, are celebrated for their beauty, though their complexion is said to be less delicate, and their figure less graceful. This country produces many excellent fruits, among which are peaches, apricots, and figs. The vines are abundant, and of a good quality; the wine that is made from them is mostly sent to Persia. The pop. of Georgia Proper is estimated at 300,000. (M. B.) Capital, Tiflis.-Adj. and inhab. GEOR'-GI-ẠN.

Georgia, one of the thirteen original U. S., between 30° 21' and 35° N. Lat., and 81° and 85° 50' W. Lon; bounded on the N. by North Carolina and Tennessee, N. E. by South Carolina, E. and S. E. by the Atlantic, S. by Florida, and W. by Alabama; and divided into 94 counties.* Length, from N. to S., about 300 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., near 250 m. The area is estimated at 62,000 sq. m. Pop. 905,999, of whom 521,438 are whites, 2,880 free coloured, and 381,681 slaves. Milledgeville is the seat of government.

Gera, gal-rå, a t. of Germany, the seat of government for the Reuss principalities, which are on the W. border of Saxony. It is also the seat of a Protestant consistory. Lat. 50° 53' N., Lon. 12° 4' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

GER-MAIN, SAINT, (Fr. pron. sån zhir'-mån'), a town of France, in the dep. of Seine and Oise, situated on the left bank of the Seine, about 14 m. W. by N. from Paris, with which it is connected by a rail

* Appling, Baker, Baldwin, Bibb, Bryan, Bullock, Burke, Butts, Camden, Cano. bell, Carroll, Cass, Chatham, Chattooga, Cherokee, Clarke, Cobb, Columbia, Coweta, Crawford, Dade, Decatur, De Kalb, Dooly, Early, Effingham, Elbert, Emanuel, Fayette, Floyd, Forsyth, Franklin, Gilmer, Glynn, Green, Gwinneti, Habersham, Hall, Hancock, Harris, Heard, Henry, Houston, Irwin, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jones, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln, Lowndes, Lumpkin, Macon, Madison, Marion, Mc Intosh, Meriwether, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Mur. ray. Muscogee, Newton, Oglethorpe, Paulding, Pike, Pulaski, Putnam, Rabun, Randolph, Richmond, Scriven, Stewart, Sumter, Talbot, Taliaferro, Tatnall, Telfair, Thomas, Troup, Twiggs, Union, Upson, Walker, Walton, Ware, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Wilkes, Wilkinson, Gordon.

et, as in our; th, as in thin; TA, as in this; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. road. It was formerly a favourite residence of the French kings. The forest of St. Germain, in the vicinity, is still a frequent resort of the royal family, with their hunting parties. To distinguish it from other places of this name, the town is often called St. Germain en laye (ản la), ė. e. “in the lane or passage,” probably referring to its position on one of the roads leading to the forest. Pop. in 1831, 10,671. (P. C.)


GÆR-MA-NY (Lat. Germania; Ger. Deutschland, doich/-lånt; Fr. Allemagne, állo-mån); an extensive country of Europe, situated between 45° 30' and 55° 50' N. Lat., and 4° 45' and 22° 54' E. Lon. These limits have reference to all the territories comprised in the Germanic confederation, including some districts which do not belong to Germany Proper; e.g. Luxemburg, and Friuli. According to the more strict application of the name, Germany is bounded on the N. by the Baltic, E. by Poland, Galicia, and Hungary, S. by Croatia, Illyria, Italy, and Switzerland, and W. by France, Belyium, and Holland. Its length, from the Netherlands to the E. part of Prussia, is upwards of 700 m.; its breadth is very unequal; measuring from N. to S., from the Baltic to the southern limit of Tyrol, it amounts to near 600 m. The area is stated at 284,000 sq. m. Before the French Revolution, the German empire was divided into nine circles; namely, those of Austria, Bavaria, and Suavia, in the S. ; Franconia, Upper Rhine, and Lower Rhine, in the middle; and Westphalia, Upper Saxony, and Lower Saxony, in the N. Other countries, however, were considered as forming parts of the empire, of which the principal were Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia, and Lusatia. The present Germanic confederation, as established by an act of the Congress of Vienna, on the 8th of June, 1815, consists of thirty-eight independent states. The central point and organ of the confederation is the Federative Diet, which sits at Frankfort on the Main. It exercises its authority in a double form : 1st, as a general assernbly, termed Plenum; and, 2dly, as a minor council, called the Federative Diet Ordinary. The Plenum meets only when an affair relating to all the confederation is to be decided. It has seventy votes, of which four belong to Austria, and as many to each of the five German kingdoms; the other states, according to their respective importance, have three, two or one vote each. The Federative Diet Ordinary possesses in all seventeen votes, cut of which eleven principal states have each a single vote, and the remaining twenty-seven only six joint votes. Austria presides in both assemblies, and decides in case of equality. The objects of the Germanic confederation are mutual defence against a common enemy, and the preservation of internal security and peace among the confederated states, which have no right to declare war on each other, but must submit their differences to the decision of the Diet. The following is a list of the states, with the number of votes which each possesses in the general assembly. Į States having each four votes: 1. Austria,

4. Saxony, 2. Prussia,

5. Hanover, 3. Bavaria,

6. Würtemberg. 21

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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; öö, as in good,

II. States having each three votes: 7 Baden,

10. Holstein and Lauenburg, $ The electorate of Hesse,

11. Luxemburg 9. The grand-duchy of Hesse,

JII. States having each two votes: 12. Brunswick,

14. Nassau. 13. Mecklenburg-Sehwerin,

IV. States having each one vote : 15. Saxe-Weimar,

27. Lichtenstein, 16. Saxe-Coburg,

28. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 17. Saxe-Meiningen,

29. Waldeck, 18. Saxe-Hildburghausen,

30. Reuss, elder branch, 19. Mecklenburg-Strelitz,

31. Reuss, younger branch, 20. Holstein-Oldenburg,

32. Lippe-Schauenburg, 21. Anhalt-Dessau,

33. Lippe-Detmold, 22. Anhalt-Bernburg,

34. Hesse-Homburg, 23. Anhalt-Cæthen,

35. Lübeck, 24. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 36. Frankfort, 25. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 37. Bremen, 26. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, 38. Hamburg.

The following is a list of the Austrian, Prussian, Dutch, and Danish possessions comprised in the Germanie confederation:

AUSTRIAN.— The archduchy of Austria, the duchies of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Austrian Friuli, the territory of Trieste, the county of Tyrol, with Vorarlberg, the kingdom of Bohemia, the margraviate of Moravia, and Austrian Silesia.

PrussiaN.—The provinces of Brandenburg, Pomerania, Silesia, Prussian Saxony, Westphalia, and the provinces of the Rhine.

Dutch.--The grand-duchy of Luxemburg.
DANISH.--The duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg.

Nothing is known of the early history of Germany, except what we derive from the Romans. In the time of Julius Cæsar, the Germans (Germani) were regarded as the most formidable and warlike of all the European barbarians. To this character they appear to have been indebted for the appellation by which they were known among the surrounding nations. Wehrman, i.e. “ war-man," was changed by the Romans into German, as they probably had no other mode in which they could indicate more nearly the sound of the barbarian game.* In the early part of the third century the Alemanni or Allemanni apo pear as one of the most conspicuous and powerful of the German nå.

* It is curious to observe how often w, in a Teutonic language, is changed to gin a Romanic. Among many other instances, we may cite the following: Ger. wehr, Sp. guerra, Fr. guerre; Eng. ward, Sp. guarda, Fr. garde; Eng. waste, Sp guastar, Fr. gâter (originally gaster); Eng. wager, Fr. gager; Eng. warrani, Fr garantir. (See note to CORNWALL, page 169; also, Int. XXVII., 10.)

sa, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. Lions, if they were not rather a union of various nations, as their name (Allemannen, all men, or all sorts of men), would seem to imply. Though often defeated, the Allemanni harassed almost continually the Roman frontier on the side of Germany, during the decline of the Western empire. But having, in a sanguinary battle, been utterly routed by the Franks, under Clodwig, in 496, they were afterwards united to the Suevi, and with them consolidated into a dukedom, called the Duchy of Allemannia. From the Allemanni the French and Spanish names of Germany, Allemagne and Alemania, are derived. The Germanic empire dates from the time of Charlemagne, by whom it was founded, in the latter part of the eth century. Conrad, the first duke of Franconia, was elected emperor about the year 911, from which time the crown of Germany remained elective till 1806, when Francis II. abdicated the imperial crown of Germany, and declared the dissolution of the Germanic empire. After the dethronement of Napoleon, in 1815, the new system of general government, called the Germanic confederation, was established, as already explained. --Adj. GER/-MẠN and GER MAN-1C; inhab. GERMAN.

GERONA, Hå-rol-nå, a t. of Spain, in Catalonia, the cap. of a dist. of the same name, and formerly important on account of its fortifications. Lat. 42° 2' N., Lon. 2° 47' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)

GERS, zbare, a dep. in the S. of France, intersected by a small r. of the same name, which flows into the Garonne. Pop. 312,882. (B.) Capital, Auch.

Gex, zhex, a small t. of France. near the frontiers of Switzerland, 11 m. N. by W. from Geneva, in a dist. of the same name, which forms a part of the dep. of Ain.

GHADAMIS, ghả-då-mịs, or ghạ-dảms', a commercial t. of N. Africa, in an oasis of the same name, which is tributary to Tripoli.

It is a rendezvous for caravans travelling from Tripoli to Timbuctoo. Lat. about 29° 50' N., Lon. near 11° E.

GHAUTS, Mountains of Hindostan, which are usually divided into the Western and the Eastern Ghauts. The Western Ghauts extend along the W. coast of Hindostan, from the r. Tapty, on which Surat stands, 10 about 11° N. Lat., and form the boundary of the table land of the Dekkan on the side towards the Indian Ocean. The Eastern Ghauts, which separate the table land of the Dekkan from the low and level country along the Bay of Bengal, extend from about 12° to 18° N. Lat. To another mountain ridge, which bounds the table land of the Dekkan on the S., and which has only been explored within the last twenty-five years, the name of Southern Ghauts has recently been applied. The word Ghaut literally signifies a

* mountain pass. GHEEL. See GEEL.

GHEEl-ZEH (Gizeh or Jizeh), a smalt t. of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, chiefly remarkable for its vicinity to the pyramids. Lat. 30° 2' N., Lon. 31° 15' E.

GAENT, (Flem. Gentor Gend, Hent; Fr. Gand, gån,) a city of Belgium, cap. of E. Flanders, situated at the confluence of the Lys with the

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