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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good;

Abascia or ABASSIA, ab-ashl-e-a, a country of Russia, E. of, and bore dering on, the Black Sea. Adj. and inhab., ABASCIAN or ABASSIAN, abashl-e-an.

ABBEVILLE, åb`-vill', a fortified manufacturing town of France, in the dep. of Somme, on the r. Somme, 25 m. N. W. of Amiens. Lat. 50° 7' N., Lon. 1° 50' E. Pop. 13,842. (M.)

AB'-BE-VILLE', a dist. of South Carolina, on the Savannah. Pop. 32,318. Seat of justice, Abbeville.

Ab/-ER-BROTH - OCK, or ARI-BROATH, a seaport t. of Scotland, in Forfarshire, 48 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. Lat. 56° 34' N., Lon. 2° 32' W. Pop. 7,218.

AB-ER-DEEN', a city of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, consisting of two parts; or, more properly, forming two distinct towns.

OLD ABERDEEN, on the right bank of the Don, was a place of some importance in the 12th century. It has a university called King's College, founded by James IV., in 1494.

NEW ABERDEEN, the cap. of Aberdeenshire, stands on the left bank of the Dee (which forms its harbour), 91 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. It has a university named Marischal College, in honour of Earl Marischal, who founded it, in 1593 or 1594. Lat. 57° 9' N., Lon. 2° 6' W. Entire population of the burgh, including both towns, 63,288.

AB'-ER-DEEN-SHỊRE, a co. in the E. part of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 192,387.

ABERGAVENNY, ab-er-gd-ne, a small t. in England, in Monmouthshire, 11 m. W. from Monmouth.

AB'-ER-ISTI-WITH (with) or ABERYSTWITH, a seaport t. of Wales, Cardiganshire. Lat. 52° 24' N., Lon. 4° 5' W. Pop. 4,975.

AB-ING-DỌN, a t. of England, in Berkshire, on the Thames, 56 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,585.

ABO, ål-bo, (Sw. ÅBO, 0/-boo), formerly the cap. of Finland, situated on a promontory, between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. Pop., formerly, 12,500. (P. C.) Lat. 60° 27' N., Lon. 22° 17' E. It was almost utterly destroyed by the dreadful conflagration of 1825, but is now slowly rising from its ruins. (B.)

ABOMEY, ab-o-mal, a populous t. of Africa, cap. of the kingdom of Dahomey. Lat. about 7° 30' N., Lon. 1° 45' E. Pop. 24,000. (B.)

AB-00-KEER' (Aboukir), a t. of Egypt, with a castle, 13 m. N. E. of Alexandria. Lat. 31° 20' N., Lon. 30° 7' E.

ABOOSHEHR, å-boo-shaih'ri, (Abuschehr or Aboushehr, also written Bushire, boo-sheer/; and Bender or Bunder Boshavir, bo-shå-veer!,) a seaport t. of Persia, on a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, 10 m. W. S. W. of Shiraz. Lat. 28° 57' N., Lon. 50° 52' E. Pop. formerly estimated as high as 12,000, and even 15,000, but now reduced by pestilence war, and other causes, to 1,500. (B.)

AB-00-TIZU' or ABOOTISH (written usually Aboutij or Abutige), a t in Upper Egypt, on the W. bank of the Nile, celebrated for its excellen! opium. Lat. 27° 5' N., Lon. 31° 20' E.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng.

ABRANTES, å-brån/-tés, a t. of Portuguese Estremadura, 74 m. N. E. of Lisbon. Pop. 5,000. (B.).

ABROLHOS, å-brolel-yoce dangerous sand-banks and rocks on the coast of Brazil, in about 18° S. Lat., 30° 20' W. Lon.

ABRUD BA'nya, ob'-rood' båản' yõh', a small t. of Transylvania, remarkable for its gold mines. Lat. 46° 28' N., Lon. 22° 10' E.

ABRUZZO, å-broot/-so, an extensive territory forming the N. E. portion of the Neapolitan dominions. It is divided into Abruzzo Ultra (ool/-trå) and Abruzzo Citra (cheel-trå), or, farther and nearer Abruzzo.


AB-Y8-8IN/-/-A, a kingdom of Africa, bounded on the E. by the Red Sea, N. by Sennaar, W. and S. by Sennaar, Kordofan, and barbarous regions; about 770 m. long, and 550 broad. The ranges of mountains, with which it is everywhere intersected, preserve the air cool, and afford a sufficient supply of water. In consequence of this physical structure, Abyssinia is exceedingly fertile, and is exempted, in a great measure, from that sand which dooms so large a portion of Africa to sterility. The chief alimentary plants are, millet, barley, wheat, maize, and teff.* All travellers concur in praising the fine wheaten bread of Abyssinia; but it is eaten only by people of rank. Teff grows on every soil, and affords the bread which is in universal use.

This once powerful kingdom, which during so many ages preserved its independence against the efforts of paganism and the sword of Mahomet, is now a prey to anarchy, and completely dismembered. Among the various kingdoms into which it has been divided, the following are the principal : The kingdom of AMHARA, of TIGRE, and of Shoa or SHwa. These will be spoken of in their respective places.- The Abyssinians profess Christianity, but their religion is filled with Judaical observances.-Adj. and inhab., AB-YS-SIN--AN.

ACAPULCO, ảc-å-pool-co, a t. of Mexico, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Its port is the finest in Mexico, and has few cquals in the world. Lat. 16° 50' N., Lon. 99° 49' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

Acl-co-MACK', a county of Virginia, on the E. shore of Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 17,890. Seat of justice, Accomack c. h.


Acra, ål-krą, or Ad-cra, a kingdom on the gold coast of Africa, about 26 m. in length, and from 12 to 20 in breadth.–Also the chief t. of the above kingdom. Lat. 5° 30' N., Lon. 0° 15' W. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

ACRE, ål-k'r or a/k’r, (Turk. and Arab. Ak/kả,) an ancient city and Beaport of Palestine, in a pashalic of its own name, on a bay of the

*“The teff or tafo is a grain smaller than mustard seed, and well tasted Blumenbach thinks that it is the same with the Poa Abyssinica.(M. B.)


Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo, as in good ; Mediterranean, in a situation rendered unhealthy by the neighbouring marshes. It is small, but very populous and well fortified. This city has been celebrated from remote antiquity. Strabo calls it AKE (Azn). Another appellation is, St. Jean D'Acre, which it probably acquired from the knights of St. John, so distinguished for their valour against the Mahometans. It is 23 m. N. N. W. of Jerusalem. Lat. 32° 54' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated at near 20,000. (B.)

A-DAIR), a co. in the S. central part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 9,898. Co. t. Columbia.

ADAIR, a co. in the N. part of Mo., near border of Iowa. P. 2,342.

ADALIA, å-dål-le-å, or Satalia, a seaport and commercial t. of Asiatic. Curkey, on the Mediterranean. Lat. 36° 53' N., Lon. 30° 45' E. Pop. variously estimated from 8,000 to 30,000. (B.)

Adl-Amp, a co. in the most westerly part of ill., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 26,508. Co. t. Quincy.

Adams, a co. in the E. part of Ind., a little S. of the Maumee r. Pop. 5,797. Co. t. Decatur.

ADAMS, a co. in the S. W. part of Miss., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 18,622. Co. t. Natchez.

Adams, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, on the Ohio r. Pop. 18,883. Co. t. West Union.

Adams, a co. in the S. part of Pa., a little W. of the Susquehanna r. and bordering on Md. Pop. 25,981. Co. t. Gettysburg.

ADANA, ål-dả-nå, a t. of Asiatic Turkey in Caramania, on a river of the same name. Lat. 36° 59' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated by M. Kinneir at near 30,000; but during the heat of summer it is almos: deserted. (B.)

Adda, ådl-då, a river of Italy, which runs through the Valtellina intc Lake Como, and joins the Po near Cremona.

AD -DJ-sỌN, a co. of Vermont, bordering on Lake Champlain. Pop. 26,549. Co. t. Middlebury.

Adel, 8-dell, a territory of Africa, immediately S. E. of Abyssinia. Zeila is the chief town.

Aden, ål-den or d-den, a seaport t. of Arabia, on a gulf at the N. extremity of the Indian Ocean, to which it gives its name. of this place, said to have been 30,000 in the 17th century, had become reduced a few years since to about 800 (M.), when it was taken possession of by the British, and made a commercial depot, and a station for the steamers running from Suez to Bombay. It is now represented as being in a very flourishing state, the pop. being estimated at between 10,000 and 20,000. Lat. 12° 45' N., Lon. about 45° E.

Adige, ad'-e-je, * (It. pron. ål-de-jà; Ger. Etsch ; Anc. Athlesis;) a r. of N. Italy, which rises in the country of the Grisons, on the borders of Tyrol, and flows into the Gulf of Venice, near the mouths of the Po. It is a rapid stream, and navigated with difficulty.

The pop.

Like him wayworn
And lost, who by the foaming A DIGÉ,
Descending from the Tyrol

Rogers's Italy, Part first, VIII.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. ADIRBEITZAN. See AZERBAIJAN.

AD'-I-RON-DACK, a name recently given to a cluster of mountains in N. Y., S. W. of L. Champlain. The highest summit, Mt. Marcy, has an elevatiòn of about 5,460 feet above the sea.

ADLERBERG, ål-dler-bérg or arly-bérg, one of the largest mountains of Suabia, properly a branch of the Tyrolese Alps, which separates Suabia from the Tyrol.

ADI-MI-RẠL-TY, a large island on the W. coast of North America. Lat. 58° N., Lon. about 134° W. About 180 m. in circuit.

ADOUR, åd'-oor!, a r. in the S. W. of France, which rises in the Pyrenees, and runs into the Bay of Biscay near Bayonne.

ADOWAH, ål-do-wåh or ål-do-vả, the cap. of Tigré, in Abyssinia, and the place of the greatest trade in all that country. (B.) Pop. 8,000. Lat. 14° 12' N., Lon. 39° 5' E.

ADRAMITI, åd-rå-meel-te, (Anc. Adramyt/tium), a t. of Natolia, near the E. extremity of a gulf of the same name. Lat. 39° 34' N., Lon. 26° 50' E.

ADRIA, ål-dre-å (Anc. Had/ria or Atria), a t. of Italy, 30 m. S. S. W. of Venice. It was an important commercial city, and a station for the Roman fleet under the emperors, but is now greatly reduced, and, in consequence of the sea having receded, is situated about 20 m. inland. Lat. 45° 3' N., Lon. 12° 4' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.).

ADRIANOPLE, ad'-dre-an-ol-p', (Anc. Adrianopolis, i. e. the “city of Adrian;”. Turk. Ed/ren-êh'), the second city of European Turkey on the Maritza, in a rich plain, 135 m. N. W. of Constantinople. It was the seat of the Turkish dominion in Europe from the year 1366 to 1453, when the residence of the Sultans was transferred to Constantinople. Adrianople is the residence of a grand_mollah and of a Greek archbishop: It contains some interesting Roman antiquities and several remarkable Moslem buildings, among which may be mentioned the mosque of Selim II., regarded as the most magnificent edifice of the kind that has ever been erected. Its dome is said to be even higher than that of St. Sophia's, at Constantinople. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 100,000. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. 26° 40' E.

Ad'-RI-AT/-IC SEA, or GULF OF VENICE, (Anc. Mare Adriat/icum, or Mare Superum,) a great arm of the Mediterranean, extending in a N. W. direction between the coasts of Italy on the W., left, and Albania and Illyria on the right. It lies between 39° 40' and 45° 50' N. Lat., and 12° 10' and 19° 40' E. Lon. Length about 500 m.; greatest breadth 130 m. The Adriatic derives its name from the once important seaport t. of Adria.

Æ-GE-ẠN SEA is that portion of the Mediterranean which lies between Asia Minor and Greece.

Ærös, d/-rö-e, a Danish island S. of Funen, about 14 m. long, with an area of 32 sq. m., and above 7000 inhab. (P. C.)

Ær/-NẠ or Er'na, a celebrated volcanic mountain of Sicily, situated near the S. E. coast. Height 10,873 feet. Lat. 37° 37' N., Lon. 15°

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; öð, as in good;

AFGHANISTAN, åf-gản-is-tản, called also the KINGDOM OF CABOOL, a kingdom of S. Asia, between 28° and 36° N.Lat., and 59° and 72o E.Lon. Bounded on the N. by Toorkistan, E. by the kingdom of Lahore, S. by Beloochistan, and W. by Persia. Its actual limits, however, are, very uncertain. The area is estimated by Balbi at near 150,000 sq. n. ; the pop. at 4,200,000. A large portion of the country is mountainous, or consists of high table land. In character the Afghans resemble the Arabs; they are hospitable, brave, rapacious, and revengeful. Malometanism is the prevailing religion. Cabool is the capital. --Adj. and inhab. AFGHAN, af-ghản/, or AF-GHAUN.


AFRAGOLA, åf-rå-go-lå, a t. of Naples, 5 m. N. E. of the capital, remarkable for its manufacture of hats. Pop. estimated at 13,000. (B.)

AF/-R]-cạ, one of the five grand divisions of the globe; bounded on the W. by the Atlantic, N. by the Mediterranean, E. by the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, while its S. touches the great Southern Ocean. Its most northern point, Ras el Kroon, or “Cape Horn," is in about 37° 21' N. Lat. ; its most southern Cape Agulhas (å-gooll-yås), or Cape Needles, is about 34° 50' S. Lat. The distance between these two points is nearly 5,000 m. Cape Guardafui, in Lon. 51° 22' E., is the most eastern point of Africa; and Cape Verde, in Lon. 17° 32' W., the most western. The distance between these capes is above 4,500 m. It contains an area of about 11.,650,000 sq. m. (Hassel.) On the whole, Africa seems to be less liberally supplied with moisture than either of the other great divisions of the globe. But while in some parts it has immense tracts of burning desert, in others it is marshy and flooded with water. In those regions which are exempt from these extremes, animal and vegetable life appear in remarkable variety and luxuriance. Of the central portion of this continent, little or nothing is known. -Adj. and inhab. Afl-RIC-ẠN. AGDE, ågd (Anc. Agatha), a t. of France, in the dep.

of Herault, 28 m. S. W. of Montpellier. Lat. 43° 19' N., Lon. 3° 28' E. Pop. 7,200.

AGEN, -zhån/* (Anc. Agin/num), a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Lot and Garonne, on the river Garonne, 75 m. S. E. of Bordeaux. Lat. 44° 12' N., Lon. 0° 37' E. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

AGGERSHUUS, åg'-gers-hoos', a dist. in the S. part of Norway. Christiana is the capital. AGNONE, ån-yol-ná, a t. of Naples, celebrated for its copper

manufac tures, which are considered the best in the kingdom. Lat. 41° 44' N., Lon. 14° 20' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

AGOSTA, å-gos/tả, or AUGUS-TA, a fortified seaport t. of Sicily, on tho E. coast, 12 m. N. of Syracuse. Lat. 37° 14' N., Lon. 15° 24' E. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (B.)

AGRA, ál-gra, an extensive prov. of Hindostan, bounded on the N. by

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