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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. the province of Delhi, S. by Malwah, E. by Oude and Allahabad, and W. by Ajmeer, being about 250 m. in length and 180 in breadth. It lies between 25° 35' and 28° 18' N. Lat.
Agra, called also AK-BAR-A-BÂD, the cap. of the above prov., and formerly the imperial seat of the Mogul government. Three miles from this city is a superb mausoleum, probably the finest in the world, built by Shah Jehan, as the cemetery of his favourite wife. It is kept in excellent order by the British government, together with its beautiful garden of trees and flowering shrubs. The town itself is in a ruinous state. Lat. 27° 12' N., Lon. 78° 5' E.
AGRAM, ögl-rõm', an important t. of Croatia, on the r. Save. It is the residence of the ban or viceroy of Croatia, and has an academy, which may be regarded as a sort of university. Lat. 45° 50' N., Lon. 16° E. Pop., including that of its environs, 17,000. (B.)
AHANTA, å-hån/tạ, a kingdom on the Gold Coast of Africa, extending from Ancobra to the Chama; bounded on the W. by Apollonia, and on the E. by the Fantee territories. It is the richest, and in every respect, the most improved district on this coast. (E. G.) It is now, like the whole of the Gold Coast, subject to the kingdom of Ashantee.
AHMEDABAD, å-med-a-bảd', an ancient city and fortress of Hindostan, in the prov. of Guzerat. Lat. about 23° N., Lon. 72° 40' E. Estimated pop. 100,000. (P. C.)
Ah-MED-NUGI-GUR, a strongly fortified city of Hindostan, in the prov. of Aurungabad. Lat. 19° 5' N., Lon. 74° 50' E. Pop. about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. (M.)
AJACCIO, å-yảch/-cho, or AJAZZO, å-yåt/-so, the chief t. of Corsica, remarkable for having been the birth place of Napoleon. Lat 41° 55 N., Lon. 8° 44' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)
AICHSTADT. See EICHSTADT.
AJAN, å-jản/ or å-zhảnt, the name of the E. coast of Africa from Cape Guardafui to Magadoxa.
Ain, ån, a small r. in the S. E. part of France, which flows into the Rhone.
Ain, a dep. in the S. E. part of France, bordering on Savoy and Switzerland. Pap. 346,188. (B.). Capital, Bourg:
AINTAB, ine-tåb', a flourishing and well built t. of Syria, 60 m. N. of Aleppo. Pop. about 20,000. (B.)
AISNE, dne, a r. in the N. of France, which flows into the Oise.
AISNE, a dep. in the N. of France, intersected by the above river. Pop. 527,095. (B.) Capital, Laon.
Aix, aix, (Anc. Alquæ Sex/tiæ, named from C. Sextius Calvinus, a Roman proconsul, by whom it was founded, 123 B. C.,) a handsome archiepiscopal city of France, formerly cap. of Provence, now in the dep. of the mouths of the Rhone, 17 m. N. of Marseilles. It has an acadé. mie universitaire, a public library of 80,000 volumes, and other literary institutions. The name of Aix is a corruption of the Latin Aquæ, which was given to the place on account of its warm medicinal springs Lat. 43° 32' N., Lon. 5° 27' E. Pop. 23,000. (B.)
Fate, får, fäll, fåt; inė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nò, nôt; 08, as in good ;
Aix, a small t. of Savoy, celebrated for its warm baths, 12 m. N. of Chambéry. Lat. 45° 40' N., Lon. 5° 48' E. Pop. about 2,000.
AIX LA CHAPELLE, aix lå shå -pell', (the Aachen, åå-ken, of the Germans, and Aquisgranum of the ancient Romans,) a t. of the Prussian states, in the grand duchy of the Lower Rhine. It was the second cap. of the empire of Charlemagne, and its name is derived from his having built a chapel there, which was frequently resorted to for his own devotions. Its baths, seven in number, are much celebrated. It now belongs to Prussia. Distant 25 m. N. E. of Liege. Lat. 50° 47' N., Lon. 6° 5' E. Pop. 37,000. (B.)
AKERMAN, ål-ker-mån', a t. and fortress of European Russia, on the Black Sea, at the mouth of the Dniester, important on account of its port, its commerce, and extensive salt works. Lat. 46° 12' N., Lon. 30° 23' E. Pop. estimated at 13,000. (P. C.) AKHISSAR, åk -bis-sar), (i. e. " white castle,") a t. of Asiatic
Turkey, on the site of the ancient Thyati/ra. Lat. 38° 50' N., Lon. 27° 55 E. Pop. estimated at 5,000. (M.)
AKHmym or EKHMIM, ak'-meem', (Anc. Chem'mis and Panop/olis,) a 1. of Upper Egypt, on the E. bank of the Nile. Lat. 26° 40' N., Lon. 31° 50' E. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)
AKSHEHR, åk'-shaih’ri, (i. e. “ white city,") an archiepiscopal t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, situated on the eastern base of the mountain Akshehr, from which the waters descend so as to form a rivulet in almost every street. From this town are exported to Smyrna, fine carpets, wool, wax, gum tragacanth, and galls. Lat. about 38° 20' N., Lon. 31° 40' E. Kinneir estimates the number of houses at 15,000. (B.)
AL'-A-BAM'-4,* one of the U. S., between 30° 10' and 35° N. Lat., and 85° and 88° 30' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Tennessee, E. by Georgia, S. by Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico, and W. by Mississippi; and divided into 52 counties.f Length from N. to S. about 330 m.; greatest breadth from E. to W. about 300 m. Area estimated at above 51,000 sq. m. Pop. 771,671, of whom 426,507 are whites, 2,272 free coloured persons, and 342,892 slaves. Alabama was admitted into the Union in 1819. Montgomery is the seat of government.
ALABAMA, a r. in Ala. formed by the union of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, and, flowing S. S. W., unites with the Tombigbee, to form the Mobile r.
AL-ACH'-U-A, a co. in the N. eastern part of Florida, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 2,524. Co. t. Newnansville.
Aland, å-land, (Sw. ÅLAND, o'-land,) an island of the Baltic, belong. ing to Russia, situated near the point of meeting of the Gulfs of Both.
* Sue Observation 2, pages 51 and 52. tAutauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Benton, Bibb, Blount, Butler, Chambers, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clair St., Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Dale, Dallas, De Kalb, Fayette, Franklin, Greene, Hancock, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Pickens, Pike, Randolph, Russell, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Washington, Wilcox,
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. nia and Finland, intersected by the parallel of 60° 20' N. Lat., and the 20th meridian of E. Lon. It is 35 m. long and 23 m. broad, and contains about 9,000 inhabitants. (M.)
Alais, å-1 il, a t. of France, in the dep. of Gard. It is about 40 m. N. of Montpellier. Pop. 13,000. (B.) Lat. 44° 3' N., Lon. 4° 5' E.
ALASHEHR, ål-lå-shaih'rl, (Anc. Philadelphi/a: See ALEXANDRIA note,) an important trading t. of Asiatic Turkey, on one of the principal roads to Sinyrna, from which it is distant 85 m. E. Lat. 38° 25' N., Lon. about 28° 40' E. Pop. estimated at from 15,000 to 18,000. (M.)
ALBA, åll-bå, a t. of Italy in Piedmont, on the Tanaro r., 32 m. S. Š. E. of Turin. Pop. 7,000. (M.)
ALBACETE, ål-bi-thål-t.), a t. of Spain, in Murcia, remarkable as giving name to a canal in its vicinity. Lat. about 39° N., Lon. 1° 55' W. Pop. 9,000. (B.)
ALBĄ JULIA. See KARLSBURG.
AL-BAI-NI-9,* (pronounced ål-bằ-neelå by the modern Greeks; Turk. Arnàoodlik or Arnaootleek,) a prov. of European Turkey, extending along the coast of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. The limits of this country are not well defined; it appears, however, to extend from about 39° to 43° N. Lat. A chain of mountains near the 21st degree of E. Lon. may be considered to form its eastern boundary. It is 130 m. in length, and from 70 to 90 in breadth.- Adj. and inhab., Al-Bal-NI-AN and AL'BANESE). (Turk. Arnaoot, arl-nå-oot'.)
ALBANO, ål-bål-no, a t. of Italy, in Campagna di Roma, resorted to on pleasure excursions by the inhabitants of Rome in spring and har
It is 14 m. S. S. E. of Rome. Pop. 4,200. (M.) ALBAN'S (ST.), aull-bạnz, a small t. of Hertfordshire, England, 20 in. N. N. W. of London. It derives its name from a magnificent monastery founded by Offa, in the eighth century, in honour of St. Alban, reputed the first British martyr. He is said to have suffered in the time of Diocletian, and to be entombed within the church.
ALBANY, a ull-ba-ne, a co. in the E. part of N. Y., bordering on the Hudson r. Entire population 93,279.
ALBANY, the cap. of the above co., and of the state of New York, on the W. bank of the Hudson, 160 in. N. of the city of N. York, is, in point of population, trade, and wealth, the second city in the state. It is finely situated for commerce, at the head of sloop navigation on the Hudson, and communicates by canals with L. Erie, L. Ontario, and L Champlain. It is also connected loy railroads with Utica, Rochester, and Buffalo, and with the principal towns of Massachusetts. Steamboats are constantly passing between Albany and New York. The first settlement of this city was made about the year 1612. Lat. 42° 39' N., Lon. 73° 44' 49" W. Pop. 50,763.
ALBANY, a r. of North America, which falls into James's Bay, near 52° N. Lat., and 83° W. Lon. This river has communication with a
* See Int. XI.
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; õõ, as in good, vast chain of small lakes lying in a S. W. direction, to the south end of L. Winnipeg. There is a fort of the same name on the river near its mouth.
Al'-BE-MARLE', a co. of Virginia, near the centre of the state. Pop. 25,800, Co. t. Charlottesville.
ALBEMARLE SOUND, on the coast of N. Carolina, in the N. E. part of the state; about 60 m. long, and from 4 to 15 wide.
ALBUQUERQUE, ål-boo-ker/-ka, a t. of Estremadura, Spain. Lat. 39° 12' N., Lon. 6° 48' W. Pop. 5,500. (M.)
All-BY or Albi (Fr. pronunciation, ål-bel,) an archiepiscopal t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Tarn, on the r. Tarn; is 44 m.
N. E. of Toulouse. Lat. 43° 55' N., Lon. 2° 10' E. Pop. 11,800. (B.)
ALCALA DE HENARES, ål-cả-lål-da-en-ål-rés, à t. of New Castile, Spain, 15 m. E. of Madrid, remarkable for its university, founded in 1499, by Cardinal Ximenes, which was formerly, after Salamanca, the seminary of the greatest repute throughout Spain. This town was the birth-place of Cervantes. Lat. 40° 27' N., Lon. 3° 25' W. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
ALCALA LA REAL, dl-cd-14_-ly-ri-ảy, a t. of Anda?usia, Spain, 30 m. S. W. of Jaen. Lat. 37° 33' N., Lon. 4° 14' W. Pop. 4,374. (M.)
ALCAMO, å\-cả-mo, a t. of Sicily, 25 m. S. W. of Palermo. Pop. . about 12,000. (B.)
Alcañiz, ål-cản-yeeth', a t. of Arragon, Spain, on the river Guadalupe. Lat. 41° 10 N., Lon. 0° 11' W. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
ALCANTARA, ål-cản/-tå-rå, a t. of Estremadura, Spain, remarkable for a bridge over the Tagus, erected in the time of the emperor Trajan. Lat. 39° 40N., Lon. 6° 43' W. Pop. 3,000. (B.)
ALCKMAER. See ALKMAAR.
AL-CO-NA (Negwegon), a co. in the E. N. E. part of Mieh., bordering on L. Huron.
Alcov, ål-col-e, a t. of Valencia, Spain, with flourishing manufactures, 20 m. N. of Alicante. Pop. estimated at 18,000. (B.)
ALDERNEY, aull-der-ne, an island in the English channel, belonging to Great Britain, about 10 m. in circuit, and 18 m. N. E. of Guernsey. Pop. 1,039.
ALEM-TEJO, å-léng-tal-zho, or ALENTEJO, (i. e. “ beyond the Tagus,'') the largest of the provinces of Portugal; bounded on the N. by Estremadura and Beira, on the E. by the Spanish frontier, on the S. by Algarve, and on the W. by the Atlantic. It is about 150 m. in length, and nearly the same in breadth.
ALENGON, al-en-son,* (Fr. pronunciation, a'-lån'-s'N',) a manufacturing t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Orne; 110 m. S. W. of Paris, Lat. 48° 25' N., Lon. 0° 5' E. Pop. 14,000. (B.)
* This name, so celebrated in the history of England and of France, appears to have become thoroughly anglicized. Shakspeare and Southey always accentuate i on the penultima, as here given.
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.
AL-EPI-PO, (Arab. Hå-leb or HV-lep; Anc. Bercela ; — not the Beræa mentioned in the New Testament: this was in Macedoniaits modern name is Kara VERIA, kål-rå ver-eel-a.) A city of Syria, and cap. of a pashalic of the same name. It was a few years since the third city of the Ottoman empire, yielding only to Constantinople and Cairo; but more than one-haif of it was laid in ruins by the earthquake of 1822. Previously to this dreadfui catastrophe, its commerce had raised it to the first rank among Asiatic cities, and procured for it the name of the modern Palmyra. Its population, together with that of its immediate environs, before 1822, is estimated by Balbi to have been near 200,000. Lat. 36° 11' N., Lon. 37° 10' E.-Adj. and inhab. ALEPPINE, al-ep-peen'. (Arab. Hål-lib-ee.)
ALESSANDRIA, ål-es-sån/-dre-å, a t. and, formerly, important fortress of the Sardinian states; cap. of a prov. of the same name on the
Tanaro, in Upper Italy, 48 m. S. W. of Milan. Lat. 44° 55' N., Lon. 8° 36 E. Pop. 36,000. (M.)
ALEUTIAN (à-lul-she-an), or ALEU'TAN ISLANDS, an insular chain in the North Pacific, stretching from the peninsula of Kamtchatka, in Asia, to Cape Alaska, in N. America, belonging to the Russian government of Irkootsk. They are about forty in number, and contain among them several volcanoes. In 1795 a volcanic island rose from the sea, which in 1807 was found to be enlarged to about 20 m. in circuit, and the lava was then flowing down its sides. Aleutian is derived from the Russian word aleut (or aleoot), signifying a “ bold rock.”. (P. C.)
AL-EX-AN-DRETI-TẠ (called by the Turks Is-ken-der-oon' or Scander-oon'), a seaport of Syria, on the Gulf of Scanderoon, 30 m. N. of Antioch. Its road is the only one in Syria which affords good anchorage. The air of the place is very insalubrious, so that it is never exempt from pestilential fevers. Lat. 36° 36' N., Lon. 36' 10' E.
AL-EX-ANI-DRI-A, a co. in the N. E. part of Virginia. Por. 10,008.
ALEXANDRIA, a city and port of entry; cap. of the above co., on the Potomac, 7 m. S. of Washington. It has a commodious harbour, sufficiently deep for the largest ships. Lat. 38° 49 N., Lon. 77° 4' W. Pop. 8,752.
ALEXANDRIA, (Anc. Alexandrila ;* called Is-kản-der-eel-ych by the Arabs and Turks,) a large and celebrated city; the ancient capital of Egypt; founded by Alexander the Great, in the year 332 B. C. It is situated at the W. extremity of the Egyptian coast, on the borders of the desert, upon a neck of land between the Mediterranean and L. Mareotis. It was once the centre of science as well as of commerce. Its library, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, surpassed all others of which antiquity could boast. Even after its subjection to the Roman
The accent should be placed upon the penultima of ALEXANDRIA whenever the ancient city is referred to. This accentuation is supported not only by the best authorities of the present day, but by the ancient Greek spelling. Alsçavdpora (Alexandria). The same may be said of ihe ancient name of Philadelphia, which was written by the Greeks Qidade Acra (Philadelpheia).