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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mě, mét; pine or pine, pin; rò, not; öö, as in gord; empire, Alexandria scarcely lost any of its splendour. It was consi. dered second only to Rome, and still engrossed, as it had done before, the trade of India : goods being brought up the Red Sea, landed at Berenice, and carried across to the Nile, were conveyed down the river and through a canal to the city. After it was reduced by Omar, ir 610, and subjected to the Saracen yoke, the caliphs transferred the seat of government to Cairo, and Alexandria was no longer the capital even of Egypt. The discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, by turning the commerce of India into a different channel, completed its downfall. Lat. 31° 13' N., Lon. 29° 55' E. Pop. above 25,000. (B.) Adj. and inhab. ALEXANDRIAN. (Arab. Skản-der-il-ree.)

ALGARVE, ål-garl-vă, or AL-GAR-P!-^, once an independent kingdom, now the most southern province of Portugal; bounded on the W. and S. by the Atlantic, E. by Andalusia, N. by Alem-Tejo. Length, 85 m.; greatest breadth, about 30 m.


ALG-EZ-//-RẠs or ALGECIRAS, (Sp. pron. ål-Hà-theel-rås,) a town of Andalusia, Spain, on the Gulf of Gibraltar. Lat. 36° 8 N., Lon. 5° 26% W. Pop. about 9,900. (P. C.)

ALGIERS, ål-jeerzl, or AL-GE/-R !-A (Arab. Al-Jéz-air,) a territory of northern Africa, forming one of the principal of the Barbary States, between 34° and 37° 7' N. Lat., and 8° 40' E. and 20 W. Lon; bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Tunis, S. by the Atlas, which separates it from the Beled-ool-Jereed, or Country of Dates, and on the W. by Morocco, from which it is divided by the desert of Angrab. It comprehends the greater part of the Numidia and Mauritania Tingitana of the ancients. In the sixteenth century, the celebrated corsair, Barbarossa, took possession of Algiers, and became its ruler. The utmost efforts of the emperor, Charles V., proved abortive against the power thus founded ; and Algiers, under enterprising chiefs, became a great naval state, which continued for three centuries the terror of Christendom. More recently, however, from a want of intelligence in the rulers, and from not sharing in the rapid improvernents of the European states, she had lost much of her relative importance and power; and finally, in the year 1830, was conquered by the French army, under Marshal Bourmont, and subjected to the dominion of France.--Adj. and inhab.ALGERINE, ål-jer-een'.

Algiers, à celebrated city, and cap. of the country of the same name, is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean, upon the declivity of a hill, on which the houses rise gradually in the form of an amphitheatre, and terminate nearly in a point at the summit. It is not above a mile and a half in circuit. The largest street is said to be 1200 paces long, and not more than 12 feet wide. The population, previous to the French conquest, had been variously estimated, from 80,000 to 200,000, and even 300,000; but it is probable that even the first estimate was much beyond the truth. According to a census taken by the French in 1833, the whole number of inhabitants, exclusive of the garrison, amounted only to 23,753. (B.) Lat. 36° 49' N.. Lon. 3° 25' E.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. ALHAMA, ål-hå -må, a t. of Spain, in Andalusia, 25 m. S. W. of Granada, celebrated for its baths. Pop. 6,300. (B.)

ALICANTE, ål-e-can-tà, or Au'-I-CANT), a seaport and cominercial t. of Spain, in Valencia, with a strong citadel. It is 78 m. S. of Valencia Lat. 38° 20' N., Lon. 0° 28' W. Pop. 25,000. (B.)

ALICATA, å-le-kål-tå, a fortified t. on the S. coast of Sicily, 20 m. E. S. E. of Girgenti. Lat. 37° 5' N., Lon. 13° 55' E. Pop. 13,465. (M.)

ALKMAAR, ålk-mar), a well-built and strongly fortified t. of Holland, 20 m. N. N. W. of Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 38' N., Lon. 4° 45' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

ALLAHABAD, ål -la-ha-bảd', (i. e. “ city of God,") an ancient city of Hindostan; cap. of a prov. of the same name. At the distance of about two miles from the town, is situated, at the junction of the rivers Ganges and Jumna, the celebrated fortress of Allahabad, founded by the emperor Akbar, in the year 1583, one of the most esteemed places of Hindoo worship and ablution. Every summer multitudes of pilgrims resort thither from all parts of India, and, encamping on the sands between the two rivers, perform their purifications and other ceremonies for nearly two months. This fortress stands in Lat. 25° 27' N., Lon. 81° 50' E., being, by the course of the Ganges, 820 m. from the sea. Pop. 20,000. (B.)

ALLE, ål/-leh, a r. of Prussia, which flows into the Pregel, about 30 m. E. of Königsberg,

AL'-LE-GĦAl-NY* MOUNTAINS, a chain of mountains, stretching from Maine to the N. part of Georgia. In New England they are less than 100 m. from the Atlantic coast, but gradually diverge as they advance southward, so that near their southern extremity, they are more than 300 m. from the sea. They divide the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those that flow into the Mississippi. Some writers on geography describe the Alleghany mountains as commencing in Georgia and terminating at the Hudson. But there appears to be no sufficient reason why the Green Mountains of Vermont, and White Mountains of New Hampshire, should not be included under the same general appellation with the rest of this chain. They are also sometimes called the Ap'-PA-LAI-CHI-AN MOUNTAINS.

ALLEGHANY, a r. which rises in Pa., and after making a circuit into N. Y., returns again into Pa., and, uniting with the Monongahela at Pittsburg, forms the Ohio.

ALLEGHANY, à co. in the W. part of Pa., surrounding the mouth of the Alleghany r. Pop. 138,290. Co. t. Pittsburg.

ALLEGHANY, a co. in the S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 37,808. Co. t. Angelica.

* We regret to perceive that it is becoming customary, even in works of a respectable character, to write this name Allegheny. It is difficult to conceive of any sufficient motive for departing from the ordinary spelling, which gives the true pronunciation, in order to adopt another, which contradicts the pronunciation. We are compelled, therefore, to place this in the list of retrograde innovations.

Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo as in good,

ALLEGHANY, a co. forming the W. extremity of Maryland. Pop. 22,769. Co. t. Cumberland.

ALLEGHANY, a co. in the central part of Virginia, near the source of James r. Pop. 3,515. Co. t. Covington.

All-LỆN, a co. in the S. part of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, a little W. of the Cumberland r. Pop. 8,742. Co. t. Scottsville.

ALLEN, a co. in the W.N. W. part of Ohio, on the Miami Canal.
Pop. 12,109. Co. t. Lima.
Allen, a co. in the

N. E. part of Indiana, intersected by the Maumeer.
Pop. 16,919. Co. t. Fort Wayne.

ALLIER, ål'-le-d), a r. of France, flowing into the Loire, 3 m. below Nevers.

ALLIER, a dep. in the E. central part of France, intersected by the above r. Pop. 309,270. (B.) Capital, Moulins.

A1-L0-4, a sea port of Scotland, in Clackmannan co., on the N. bank of the Forth, 27 m. W. N. W. of Edinburgh. The harbour is safe and commodious. Lat. 56° 7' N., Lon. 3° 46' W. Pop. 5,434.

ALMADEN, ål-må-den), a t. of Spain, in New Castile, 55 m. N. of Cordova. Its mines of quicksilver are regarded as the richest in Europe. Pop. about 10,000. The mines of Almaden have been long known, and are supposed to have been wrought by the Romans; a few years ago they yielded, annually, about 22,000 quintals of mercury. (B.)

ALMANSA, ål-mån -sả, a t. of Spain, 60 m. S. W. of Valencia. Pop. 5,030. (M.)

ALMEIDA, ål-male-dả, one of the strongest fortresses in Portugal, situated in the prov. of Beira, on the

Spanish frontier. Lat. 40° 37' N., Lon. 6° 52' W. Pop. 1,150. (P. C.)

ALMERIA, ål-md-ree/-å, a rich maritime t. of Spain, in the prov. of Granada, near the mouth of the r. Almeria, 77 m. S. E. of Granada, with a good harbour. Lat. 36° 44' N., Lon. 2° 31' W. Pop. 19,000. (B.)

ALMUNECAR, ål-moo-na-cảrl, a small seaport t. of Spain, with a good harbour and a castle, 38 m. S. of Granada. Lat. 36° 42' N., Lon. 3° 47' W.

ALNWICK or ALNEWICK, an-nik, a t. of England, in the co. of Northumberland, 32 m. N. by W. of Newcastle. At the N. entrance of the town stands Alnwick Castle, a magnificent mansion, belonging to the duke of Northumberland. The original building is supposed to have been a stronghold in the time of the Romans. Lat. 55° 25' N., Lon. 1° 42' W. Pop. 4,945.

AL-PE/-NA (Anamickee), a co. in the N. E. part of Mich., bordering on L. Huron.

ALPs, älps, mountains of Europe, which divide Italy from France, Switzerland, and Germany. Their general form resembles that of a crescent. Beginning near the mouth of the Var, on the Gulf of Genoa, they terminate, after many windings, near the Gulf of Trieste, on the Adriatic. The highest is Mount Blanc. (See BLANC, Mount.)

Alps, LOWER, (Fr. Basses-Alpes, båss ålp,) a dep. near the S. E

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. extremity of France, bordering on Italy. Pop. 159,045. (B.) Capital, Digne.

ALPs, UPPER, (Fr. Hautes-Alpes, ote zålp,) a dep. in the S. E. part of France, N of, and bordering on the preceding. Pop. 131,162. (B.) Capital, Gap.

ALSACE, ảl'-såss', a former prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Upper and Lower Rhine.

Als, åls, usually, though improperly, written ALSEN, Ål -sen, a fertile island in the Baltic, lying between Fünen and the E. coast of Sleswick. It is about 20 m. long and 8 broad. Pop. about 15,000. (P. C.)

Altaï ål-tål -e or ål-ti', mountains of Asia, which commence near the sea of Aral, and terminate at East Cape, on the Pacific Ocean, in the 170th degree of W. Long. They traverse, under different names, an extent of near 5,000 miles. The highest part of the chain is computed at 11,512 feet (1,800 toises) above the level of the sea. (B.)

ALTAMAHA, aul'-tạ-ma-haul, a r. of Georgia, formed by the union of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. It runs S. E., and empties into the sea about 60 m. S. W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville, on the Oconee branch, about 300 m. from the

ALTAMURA, ål-tå-mool-rå, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Bari. Lat. 40° 47' N., Lon. 16° 33' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

ALTENBURG, åll-ten-burg', (Ger. pron. all-ten-boort',) a't. of Germany; cap. of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the Pleisse, with several important literary institutions. Lat. about 51° N., Lon. 12° 30' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

ALTON, aull-ton, a flourishing t. of Ill., in Madison co., on the Mississippi, 3 m. above the mouth of the Missouri. A railroad 63 m. loug connects it with Springfield. Pop. 3,875.

ALTONA or ALTENA, &ll-ton-å', a city of Holstein, the second town of the Danish dominions, as regards industry, commerce, and population; on the Elbe, about 2 m. W. of Hamburg. It is a free port, and contains a mint, besides several important literary and scientific institutions. The Observatory is in Lat. 53° 32' 51" N., Lon. 9° 56' 50” E. Pop. estimated at above 27,000. (B.)

ALTORF, ål'-torf, or ALTDORF, (i. e. “Old Village,") the cap. of the Swiss canton of Uri, about 2 m. from the S. E. extremity of the lake of Lucerne. Here the tyrant Gessler proceeded to those indignities which, through the patriotism of William Tell, laid the foundation of Swiss independence. Lat. 46° 53' N., Lon. 8° 38' E. Pop. about 1,500. (B.)

ALTZEY or ALZEY, ålt-si, a to in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 14 m. N. W. of Worms. Pop. 3,600. (B.)

AMAGER, ål-må-ger, a small island in the Baltic, lying opposite to Copenhagen, with which it is connected by two bridges. It is about 9 m. long, and, on an average, 3 broad. It supplies the neighbouring town with garden vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. À part of Copenhagen, called Christiansbavn, is built on this island.


Fate, får, fall, fàt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good;

AMALFI, å-mål/-fe, a t. of Naples, 10 m. S. W. of Salerno. It was quite celebrated in the middle ages, and possessed no inconsiderable

Present pop. scarcely 3,000. (B.) Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 14° 35' E. AMARAPOORA. See UM

ERAPOORA. Amasia or AMASIEH, å-mål-see'-a, (Anc. Amasila or Amasseila,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on the Yesheel (Yeshil) Ermak, 390 m. E. of Constantinople. It is an extensive and populous place, but the streets are narrow and dirty. The greater portion of the houses are of wood, though many are built of stone and covered with tiles. The river here is large and rapid, and the water is raised in buckets by means of large wheels turned by the stream. These buckets empty themselves into reservoirs, whence the water is conveyed to the baths and fountains of the city. This town was the birth-place of the famous geographer, Strabo. Pop. 60,000 or 70,000. (E. G.) Lat. 40° 30' N., Lun. 36° 25' E.

AMASERA, å-mål -ser-a, or AMASREH, (Anc. Ames/tros,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on a point of land projecting into the Black Sea, 150 m. E. N. E. of Constantinople. Lat. 41° 46' N., Lon. 32° 24' E.

AM-A-ZỌN, (Sp. Marañon, må-rån-yonel: called by the Indians Am-ås'so-nạ, i. e. “boat destroyer,") a r. of S. America, the largest in the world, formed by the union of the Tunguragua and Ucayali. It empties itself into the Atlantic, under the equinoctial line, after a course of more than 4,000 m. The mouth of this river is 180 m. wide, and it flows into the ocean with such violence that it carries its own waters unmixed into the sea to the distance of 80 leagues. In the freshets, the country, for several hundred miles, is laid under water. This river is also called the ORELLANA (o-rél-yål-nå).

AM-A-Zol-N]-a, a region in the central part of S. America, discovered in 1539, by Francisco Orellana, who sailed down the Amazon to the Atlantic. Observing, as he states, companies of women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and the river Amazon.*

AMBERG, åm/-berg, a t. of Bavaria, 32 m. N. of Ratisbon. It has a castle, arsenal, and mint, and various manufacturing establishments. Pop. 8,000. (B.) Lat. 49° 25' N., Lon. 11° 50' E.

AMBERT, ảM'-bair, a t. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme, on the Dore, possessing above 100 paper-mills, besides various other manufactories. Lat. 45° 33' N., Lon. 3° 48' E. Pop. 8,016. (M.)

AMBOISE, åmb'-wåz', (Anc. Amba/cia,) a t. of France, in the dep. of Indre and Loire, 14 m. E. of Tours. Lat. 47° 24' N., Lon. 0° 58' I. Pop. 4,695. (M.)

AM-BOY!, a small t. of Middlesex co., N. J., at the mouth of the Raritan, about 30 m., in a straight line, S. W. of New York, with an excellent harbour. It is a port of entry.

AM-BOY/-NẠ, an island of Malaisia, intersected by the parallel of

* It is not improbable that the Indian name of the river may have suggested this acoount of the armed women.

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