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Fåte, får, fåll, fàt; me, mit; pine or pine, pin; n), not; öö as in good; the same name, at the confluence of the Rezat with the Holzbach (holts/-bảK), about 30 m. S. W. of Nuremberg. Lat. 49° 20' N., Lon. 10° 28' E. Pop. between 16,000 and 17,000. (P. C.)

AN-son, a co. of N. C., bordering on the Yadkin r. and S. C. Pop 13,489. Co. t. Wadesborough.

ANTEQUERA, ản-tå-kb-rå, a t. of Andalusia, Spain, 30 m. N. N. W. of Malaga. Lat. 37° 9' N., Lon. 4° 35' W: Pop. estimated at 20,000. (B.)

ANTIBES, ån'-teeb', (Anc. Antipolis,) a fortified t. and port of France, in the dep. of Var, on the Mediterranean, near the frontier of the Sardinian dominions. Lat. 43° 33' N., Lon. 7° 7' E. Pop. about 5,000. (P. C.)

ANTICOSTI, an-te-cosl-te, an island lying in the mouth of the St. Lawrence, above 120 m. long, and about 30 m. broad. It is uncultivated and uninhabited, with the exception of two families, who have been established here for the purpose of assisting persons cast a way on the coast. (P. C.)

ANTIGUA, an-tee-ga, one of the Caribbee Islands, belonging to England, about 20 m. long, and 12 m. broad. St. John, the cap., is in Lat. 17° 10' N., Lon. 61° 57' W. Total pop. of the island, 35,714. (P. C.)

ANTILLES, an-teel', a name given to certain West India islands. The Greater Antilles comprehend Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto Rico; the Lesser Antilles, all the Caribbean group, with those lying along the coast of S. America.

ANTIOCH, any-te-ok, (Anc. Antiocha, Turk. Antakia, ản-til-lee-u,) a decayed city of Syria, on the S. bank of the Orontes, 46 m. W. of Aleppo. It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, who named it Antiochia, in honour of his father, Antiochus. It became the residence of the Syrian monarchs, and grew to be one of the largest cities in the world. Lat. 36° 8' N., Lon. 36° 12' E. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 10,00).

ANTIOQUIA, ản-te-o-keel-å, a prov. of New Granada, in the dep. of Cundinamarca. Also, a small t. of this prov.

ANTISANA, ản-te-sål -nå, a summit of the Andes, in Quito, the highest volcano in the world, having an elevation of 19,130 feet. Also, a village on the side of the above mountain, formerly regarded as the highest inhabited place on the globe, being 13,450 feet above the level of the sea ; but it is now ascertained to be some hundred feet lower than the highest parts of the mining region, near Potosi. (B.) See THIBET.

AN-TRIM, a co. forming the N. N. E. extreniity of Ireland. Pop. in 1831, 323,306. (P. C.)

Antrim, a t. of the above co., near the N. E. extremity of Lough Neagh, and about 15 m. N. W. of Belfast." It was once a place of great i.nportance, but in 1831 had a population of only 2,655. (P. C.)

ANTRIM (Megissee), a co. in the N. N. W. part of Mich., bordering un an arm of L. Michigan.

ANT-WERP, (Dutch, Antwerpen, ảnt/-wêr-pen, Fr. Anvers, dn'-vair!,) a t. of Belgium, on the right bank of the Scheldt, 36 m. N. of Brussels. It is strongly fortified on the land side, and has a large citadel on the

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. S. The commerce of Antwerp is still considerable, though but the shadow of what it was in the 16th century, when its population amounted te more than 200,000, and when, if we may believe the concurrent testimony of different writers worthy of credit, 500 vessels daily entered its port, and about 2,500 ordinarily lay at anchor there. It is estimated that this great emporium put into circulation every year 500,000,000 forins, and that the annual receipts from the imposts amounted to 2,000,000. (B.) Lat. 51° 14' N., Lon. 4° 22' E. Pop. in 1831, 77,199. (P. C.)

Anzin, ản'-zẢN', a village of France, near Valenciennes, in the dep. of Nord, and the seat of the most extensive collieries in the kingdom.

The number of pits amounts to 40, and some of them have been sunk to the depth of 1,476 feet (450 metres); 16,000 workmen are employed here. (B.) Pop. of the village, 4,000. (P. C.).

AN-ZOO-AN' (ANZUAN or ANJOUAN), commonly called Jo-HAN-NẠ, the first in importance, though the second in size, of the Comoro Islands. The most southern point is in 12° 25' S. Lat. ; the most eastern, 44° 34 E. Lon. Its circumference is estimated at from 70 to 80 miles. The pop., much reduced of late, was formerly rated at 100,000. (P.C.)

Aosta, å-es/_tả, a t. of Piedment; cap. of a duchy of the same name, situated nearly 2,000 feet above the level of the sea, and about 65 m. S. E. of Geneva. Lat. 45° 45' N., Lon. 7° 16' E. Pep. 5,500. (P. C.)

Apl-EN-NINES', the general name for the great mountain system of Italy. This chain, beginning near Mount Appio, in the territory of Genoa, traverses Italy in its whole length. When near the end of its course, it divides into two branches, one of which runs S. E. towards the Capo di Leuca, while the other advances S. to the Strait of Messina. Mount Ætna, which may justly be regarded as forming a part of the Apennine system, and Mount Corno, in Abruzzo Ultra, are the highest points of the chain; the former having an elevation of about 10,870 feet (1,700 toises), the latter of 9,520 feet (1,489 toises). (B.)

AP-PALACH-L-col-29, r. formed by the union of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, in Ga. : it flows through Florida into a bay of its own name, communicating with the Gulf of Mexico. Length, 70 m.

APPALACHICOLA, a port of entry of Florida, cap. of Franklin co., at the mouth of the above r.

APPENZELL, åp'-pént-sell', a canton in the E. N. E. part of Switzerland. Area, 153 sq. m. Pop. 55,000. (B.)-Inhab. APPENZELLER, ảp'-pentsel!-ler.

APPENZELL, a t. of the above canton, on the Sitter, 40 m. E. by S. of Zürich. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

Apl-PLANG, a ce. in the S. E. part of Ga., S. of, and bordering on the Altamaha. Pop. 2,949. Seat of justice, Appling c. h.

Ap-PO-MATI-Tox, a r. in the S. E. part of Va., flowing into James r.

Apt, åpt, (Lat. Ap'ta Julia,) an ancient t. of France, in the dep. of Vaucluse, about 30 m. E. by S. of Avignon. Lat. 43° 53' N., Lon. 5° 25' E. Pop. 5,433. (M. B.)

Apure, å-poo'-rå, a r. of S. America, in Venezuela, which flows into

Fåte, får, fån, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good, the Orinoco. Length estimated at 650 m. It is navigable through nearly the whole of its course.

Aqui, ål-que, a t. of the Sardinian states, 47 m. E. S. E. of Turin, noted for its warm sulphurous baths. Pop. 6,700. (M.)

AQUILA, ål-que-lå, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Abruzzo Ultra, 57 m. N. E. of Rome. It is surrounded by walls, which are above 3 m. ir extent, but a great portion of the enclosed space is now occupied by gardens. This town holds a conspicuous place in history, and was long considered as the first city of the kingdom, after Naples. Daring the

acme of its prosperity it could muster, it is said, 15,000 armed men at the sound of the alarm bell. The period of its greatest glory may be reckoned from about the middle of the 13th, to the beginning of the 16th century. Lat. 42° 20' N., Lon. 13° 28' E. Present pop.

about 8,000. (B.)

AQUINO, á-queel-no, (Ane. Aqui'num,) a decayed t. of Campania, ins the kingdom of Naples. It was a large and populous city in the time of Strabo; the Via Latina passed through it. Juvenal, the Roman poet, was born in or near Aquinum. This town suffered greatly from the invasions of the barbarians, on the fall of the Roman empire, and was at last utterly destroyed, during the wars of the emperors Conrad and Manfred against the popes. At present it contains scarcely 1,000 inhabitants. Lat. 41° 33' N., Lon. 13° 40' E.

AR-Al-B1-4, an extensive country in the S.W. part of Asia, bounded on the N. by Syria and the river Euphrates, E. by the Persian Gulf, S. by the Indian Ocean, and W. by the Red Sea. Length from the northern extremity, on the Euphrates, to Cape Babelmandel, about 1,500 m.; breadth on the southern coast, from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, 1,200 m.; from Basrah to Suez, 900 m. It is commonly divided into three parts, Arabia Felix, or hapfy; Petræa, or stony; and Deserta, or desert. Arabia Felix borders on the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, and the S. part of the Red Sea; Arabia Petræa lies on the Red Sea, N. of Arabia Felix ; Arabia Deserta includes all the northern part of the country. Among the Arabians, these names are not known. They call Arabia Deserta, Nedjed or Nejd; Arabia Petræa, Hedjaz; Arabia Felix is divided into Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, and Lahsa; which will be treated of under their respective heads.

This vast country contains but two rivers worthy of the name, the Meïdam (mà'e-dåm'), and the Shab, which descend from the plain of Yemen into the Indian Ocean. All the other streams either entirely disappear in summer, or descend from the mountains and are dried up before reaching the sea. (B.) Arabia has long been celebrated for the abundance of its odoriferous plants. Coffee, of a superior quality, is cultivated in Yemen. Grapes, maize, wheat, barley, beans of differ ent kinds, tobacco, &c., are produced in this country. The gum Ara. bic is obtained from an indigenous tree called by naturalists the acacis

Arabia is remarkable in history for having almost uniformly main tained its independence against the different conquering powers which


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. in ancient or modern times, have successively extended their sway over the neighbouring kingdoms. For this independence it has been chiefly - indebted to those peculiar means of defence, with which it has been fur

nished by nature. Its vast and parching deserts have stood as a “wall of fire" against the encroachments of foreigners; at the same time the general sterility of the soil has afforded no sufficient motive for undertaking the conquest of a country, in which so many formidable, not to say insurmountable, difficulties must be encountered. This country is also remarkable as the birth-place of Mahomet, and the cradle of the Moslem religion, which, in a few years, extended its dominion over a large portion of Asia, the northern regions of Africa, and thence over the greater part of Spain.—Adj. Ar-Al-B!-AN, ARABIC, årl-a-bik, and ARABESQUE, år'-a-beskl.-Inhab. ARAB, årl-ab, and ARABIAN.


ARAD, örl-od', the name of two small towns of Hungary, situated in a county of the same name.

OLD ARAD, (Ger. Alt-Arad, ålt ål-råt; Hung. O' Arad ;) is on the r. Marosch. Lat. about 46° 10' N., Lon. 21° 20' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

NEW ARAD, (Ger. Neu-Arad, noi ål-råt; Hung. Uj Arad, 00-e ör-od ;) an important fortress, on the opposite side of the Marosch, 23 m. from the old town.

ARAGON, årl-a-gọn, (Sp. pron. år-å-gone',) a large prov., formerly a kingdom of Spain, bounded on the N. by the Pyrenees, E. by Catalonia and a part of Valencia, S. by Valencia, and W. by Navarre and Old Castile. Length, from N. to S., about 200 n.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., about 130 m.-Adj. and inhab. Ar'-A-GON-EŞE'.

ARAGUAY, år-a-ġwil, a r. in the central part of Brazil, which flows into the Tocantins.

ARAL (år/-al), SEA OF, a great inland lake of Asia, situated E. of the Caspian Sea, between the 43d and 47th degrees of N. Lat., and the 58th and 62d of E. Lon. Its length is about 290 m. from N. to S., its breadth varies from 130 to 250 m. The souther» extremity is studded with innumerable small islands, at the mouth of the r. Amoo; and from this circumstance it has received the name Aral, which, in the Tartar language, signifies island. It has no communication with the occan, and though it receives several rivers, among which are the Amoo and Sihon, the level of this lake is constantly lowering. The waters are saline, but the exact proportion of salt has not been ascertained. (P. C.)

ARAGUEZ, Ả-rin-Hweth', (Lat. Ara Jovis, “altar of Jove,”) a t. and royal palace of Spain, on the Tagus, 25 m. S. by E. from Madrid. It is the residence of the court ordinarily from Easter till the end of June. Permanent pop. about. 4,000. (B.) Lat. 40° 2' N., Lon. 3° 36' W.

ARARAT, årl-a-rat', a celebrated mountain of Armenia, situated to the S. W. of the t. of Erivan, about 5 m. from the river Aras. It rises from the midst of a great plain, in two conical peaks, one of which ascends far above the limit of eternal snow, its height being about 17,260 feet above the level of the sea. It does not, however, rise to this great elevation, immediately from its base, but stands on the table land of


the sea.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nd, nốt; öö, as in good; Armenia, which is stated by Ritter to be 7,000 feet above the level of

The smaller cone is separated from the greater by a plain of considerable extent, and is much lower. The surrounding people regu• late their agricultural operations by the melting of the snow on the little Ararat, from the summit of which it entirely disappears in sumrner.

Aras, årl-əs, (Anc. Araxles), a r. of Armenia, which rises about 20 m. S. of Erzroom, and, flowing easterly, empties itself into the Koor (Kur). Length estimated at above 500 m.

AR-AU-CAI-NI-ANS, a nation of Indians of S. America, inhabiting a country bonnded on the N. by the r. Bio-bio, E. by the great Cordillera of the Andes, S. by Valdivia, and W. by the Pacific Ocean ; extending along the coast about 180 m., with a breadth, from the sea to the crest of the Andes, of perhaps 150 m. They are a brave and hardy people, very jealous of their honour, hospitable, honest, grateful, generous, and humane; but when not at war, indolent, haughty, and addicted to intoxication. The Araucanians have sustained an almost uninterrupted war against the Spaniards from the first invasion in 1537, until the present time. Their independence was formally acknowledged by Spain in 1773, and they were allowed to send an ambassador, who should reside at Santiago de Chili. (P.C.)

ARBE, ar/-bà, an i. in the Gulf of Venice, containing an area of about 29 sq. m., and between 3,000 and 4,000 inhabitants. Also, a small t. on the above island. Lat. 44° 45' N., Lon. 14° 50 E. (P. C.)


ARCHANGEL, ark-anel-jel, (Russ. pron. Årk-ångl-gěl,) a prov. the most northern and the most extensive of Russia in Europe. Its superficial extent is estimated at 300,000 sq. m. Pop. perhaps 280,000. (P.C.)

ARCHANGEL, an archiepiscopal t.; the cap. of the above, on the Dwina, with a fine harbour, which, however, is ordinarily free from ice only from July to September. It was the only town in Russia of any commercial importance, previously to the founding of St. Petersburgh, in 1703; since which time its trade has diminished, though it is still the depository of foreign merchandise destined for Siberia. Pop. 19,262. (B.) Lat. 64° 32' N., Lon. 40° 43' E.

ÁR-cor', a decayed city of Hindostan; the Mahometan cap. of the Carnatic. It is a place of great antiquity, and was once an important Indian fortress. Lat. 12° 54' N., Lon. 79° 22' E.

ARDÈCHE, ar'-daishl, a smallr. of France, which flows into the Rhone.

ARDÈCHE, a dep. in the S. E. of France, W. of, and bordering on the Rhone. Pop. 353,752. (B.) Capital, Privas.

ARDENNES, ar'-denn',* (Lat. Arduen'na Sillva,) a celebrated forest of France, which gives name to the dep. of Ardennes.

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* In the works of some of the poets, this name is spelled Arden, in which case it is to be accentuated on the former syllable.

• Beyond old ARDEN, in his sister's home" -
* The warrior who from ARDEN's fated fount
Drank of the bitter waters of aversion.”

SOUTHEY'S Joan of Arc, Books I and IV

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