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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. ARDENNES, a dep. in the N. of France, bordering on Belgium. Pop. 306,861. (B.) Capital, Mezières.

ARI-DRẠH, a small kingdom of Africa, on the coast of Guinea.—Also, the cap. of the above. Lat. near 7° N., Lon. 2° 30' E. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (B.)

AREQUIPA, år-d-keel-på, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and, after Lima, the largest and finest city of Peru, near the r. Quilca (keell-kả), about 50 m. from the sea. It was founded by Pizarro, in 1539. The houses are built chiefly of stone; low and very substantial, with a view to resist the shock of earthquakes. Its manufactures and trade are considerable. Pop. estimated at above 30,000. (B.)

AREZZO, å-ret/-so, (Lat. Arre/tium,) an ancient and still considerable t. of Tuscany, 40 m. S. E. of Florence. _Arretium was one of the most wealthy and populous cities of ancient Etruria, and has ever since held an important place in the history of Italy. Arezzo is remarkable for having been the birth-place of many distinguished men, among others, Guido, the first restorer of modern music, and the celebrated Petrarch. Lat. 43° 28' N., Lon. 11° 52' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.).

ARGENTAN, ar'-zhản'-tản), a t. of France, in the dep. of Orne, 23 m. N. of Alençon. Lat. 48° 44' N., Lon. 0° 1' E. Pop. about 6,000. (P.C.)

ARGENTEUIL, ar'-zhản'-tuil, a t. of France, in the dep. of Seine and Oise, on the right bank of the Seine. Lat. 48° 56' N., Lon. 2° 14' E. Pop. 4,700. (P. C.)

ARGENTIÈRE, ar-zhảnte-air', a small t. of France, in the dep. of Ardèche, 20 m. S. W. of Privas. It derives its name from the mines of silver (argentum), wrought here in the 12th century. (M.)


ARGOSTOLI, ar-gos/-to-le, the chief t. of Cephalonia, with the best harbour in the island, and considerable commerce. Lat 38° 10' N., Lon. 20° 30' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

ARG-YLE' (often written Argyll), a shire in the W. of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 97,371.

ARGYRO-Castro, arl-ghe-ro-cas-tro, (Mod. Gr. Arguro-kastron, Turk. Ergree Kastree,) an inland t. of Albania. Lat. 40° 7' N., Lon. 20° 13' E. Pop. estimated at from 15,000 to 20,000. (P. C.)

ARICA, å-reel-kå, a seaport t. of Peru, once a flourishing and populous place, but now a miserable village. It has suffered much from earthquakes, particularly in 1608. During the war of independence, it was entirely desolated. Present pop. not above 400. (P. C.)

Ariège, å'-re-aizh', a small r. of France, tributary to the Garonne.

AKIÈGE, a dep. in the S. of France, on the sources of the above r., and bordering on Spain. Pop. 260,536. (B.) Capital, Foix.

AR-KAN-sẠs or ARI-KAN-SAW', a r. of N. America ; next to the Missouri, the largest affluent of the Mississippi. It rises in the Rocky Mountains, and, after a course of more than 2,000 m., flows into the Mississippi, in Lat. 33° 54' N., Lon. 91° 10' W. It is navigable almost 10 its source.

ARKANSAS, one of the U. S., between 33° and 36° 30' N. Lat., and

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; öð as in goud, 89° 50' and 94° 40' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Missouri, E. by the Mississippi r., which separates it from Tennessee and the state of Mississippi, s. by Louisiana, and W. by the Indian Territory; and divided into 51 counties.* Length, from E. to W., 264 m.; breadth, from N. to S., about 240. Area estimated at 54,500 sq. m. Pop. 209,639; of whom 162,068 are whites, 589 free coloured persons, and 46,982 slaves. Arkansas was admitted into the Union in 1836. Little Rock is the seat of government.

ARKANSAS, a co. in the E. part of Arkansas, intersected by the Arkansas r. Pop. 3,245. Co. t. Arkansas.

AR-KEE -KO (Arkiko), a seaport on the W. coast of the Red Sea. Though a small and miserable place, it is the point through which all the maritime intercourse of Abyssinia is carried on. (P. C.) Lat. 15° 38' N., Lon. 39° 37' E.

ARLES, arlz, (Fr. pron. arl; Lat. Arela/te,) an ancient t. of France, on the left bank of the Rhone, about 50 m. W. N. W. of Marseilles. It formerly held a conspicuous place among the cities of Europe, but has fallen greatly to decay. The numerous existing ruins attest its former magnificence, and constitute its principal claims to our attention. Lat. 43° 40 N., Lon. 4° 38' E. Pop. 13,342. (M.)

ARMAGH, ar'-mål, an inland co. in the N. of Ireland. Pop. in 1831, 220,651. (P. C.)

ARMAGH, a city of Ireland, and cap. of the above co. In the middle centuries it was celebrated as a place of learning, and, according to the Irish historians, had, at one time, 7,000 students at its college. At present it possesses several establishments for education, an observaLory, a lunatic asylum, and a fever hospital. Armagh is the residence of an English archbishop, who is styled Primate of all Ireland. The Observatory is in 54° 21' 12" N. Lat., and 6° 38' 52" W. Lon. Pop. in 1834, 10,764. (M.)

ARMAGNAC, ÅR'-mån -yåkl, formerly a county of Gascony, in France; now chiefly comprehended in the dep. of Gers.-Adj. and inhab. AR

AR-ME-NI-A (Turk. Ermineelyeh), a country of Asia Minor. It is not defined by any permanent natural boundaries. In the course of its history, we find its liinits exposed to continual changes. In its widest application, it may be said to embrace the country from L. Ooroorneeyeh (Ourmiah), and the junction of the rivers Koor and Aras, on the E., to the upper course of the Kizil Ermac, on the W.; and from the upper course of the rivers Tchorak and Koor, on the N., to the Taurian Mountains, in the direction of Beer, Mardeen and Nisibis, on the S. The country, in general, is mountainous, and, owing to its height


* Arkansas, Ashley, Benton, Bradley, Carroll, Chicot, Clarke, Conway, Crawford, Crittenden, Desha, Drew, Francis St., Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Independence, Izard, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Lafayette, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Miller, Mississippi, Monroe, Montgomery,Newton, Phillips, Pike, Poinsett, Polk, Pope, Prairie, Pulaski, Randolph, Saline, Scott, Searcy, Sevier, Union, Van Buren, Washington, Washita, White, Yell.

ou, as in our , th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. above the level of the sea, is colder than might have been expected froin its geographical position. (See Ararat.) The principal productions are wheat, barley, cotton, hemp, tobacco, and manna, besides various fruits. Many of the Armenians are engaged in trade, and bear a high character for integrity in their dealings. They form the chief class of traders in the Persian empire, and are found scattered over various other parts of the world. Their religion is a species of Christianity.--Adj. and inhab. AR-ME-NI-AN.

ARMENTIÈRES, ar'-mản'- te-air!, a t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, near the Belgian frontier, on the Lys, 10 m. N. N. W. of Lille. Lat. 50° 41' N., Lon. 2° 52' E. Pop. 7,700. (M. B.)

ARM-STRONG, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. E. of Pittsburg, and intersected by the Alleghany r. Pop. 29,560. Co. t. Kittaning.

ARN-HEM (supposed to be the Roman Arenacum), a fortified city of the Netherlands; cap. of Guelderland. It was formerly one of the Hanse towns. Lat. 52° N., Lon. 5° 52' E. Pop. about 11,000. (B.)

Arl-no (Lat. Arnus), the principal river of Tuscany, rises in the Apennines, and, passing through Florence and Pisa, flows into the sea, about 5 m. W. of the latter town. Length about 150 m. It is navigable to Florence.

ARNSBERG, arns/-berg, or ARENSBERG, a t. of the Prussian States; cap. of a circle of the same name; the largest of the three circles which form the prov. of Westphalia. Lat. 51° 24' N., Lon. 8° 1' E. Pop. 3,200. (B.)

ARNSTADT, arn/-stått, a t. of Saxony, on the Gera, 11 m. S. of Erfurt. Lat. 50° 49' N., Lon. 10° 57' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

AR-Oos-Took, a co. forming the N. E. part of Maine. Pop. 12,535. Co. t. Houlton.

ARPINO, AR-peel-no, (Anc. Arpi/num,) a city of Naples, near the confines of the kingdom, about 60 m. S. E. of Rome. It is celebrated as the birth-place of Cicero and Marius, to which circumstance it was once indebted for its preservation. In the wars between the houses of Anjou and Aragon, for the possession of the kingdom of Naples, Arpino took part with the French against the Aragonese and the Pope. The pontiff (Pius II.) generously commanded Orsini, his successful captain, to “spare Arpino for the memory of Caius Marius and Marcus Tullius." It has manufactories of parchment, leather, paper, and of the best cloth made in the kingdom. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. estimated at above 8,000. (B.)

AR'-RA-CAN or ARACAN (called by the natives Rakhaing), a country of Chin-India, lying along the E. shore of the Bay of Bengal, between 17° and 21° 30' N. Lat., and 92° 20' and 94° 30' E. Lon. It formerly belonged to the Burmese empire, but in 1826 became one of the possessions of the East India Company. Its extreme length, from N.N W. to S. S. E., is, perhaps, 230 m., and its average breadth about 50 m. (P. C.) ARRACAN, the ancient cap. of the above prov., on a small river of the

It was once a flourishing and populous city, so that the

same name.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good, number of its inhabitants was estimated at above 100,000, but at present it does not probably amount to a third of that number. (B.) Lat. 20° 43' N., Lon. 93° 25' E.

AR-RAN, a mountainous and romantic i. on the W. coast of Scotland, forming a part of Buteshire. It is more than 20 m. long, and about 12 wide. Pop. 6,241.

AR-RAS (Fr. pron. år'-rås/), a fortified and important t. of France; formerly the cap. of Artois, and now of the dep. of Pas de Calais, on the s. bank of the river Scarpe, which begins here to be navigable, 108 m. N. by E. of Paris. It was the cap. of the ancient Atreba/tes, from which it derives its name, and was a manufacturing t. in the time of St. Jerome, about the beginning of the 5th century. Robespierre was a native of Arras. Lat. 50° 17' N., Lon. 2° 46' E. Pop. 23,485. (B.)

ARROE. See ÆRÖE. ARI-TA (Anc. Ambra'cia, Turk. Narl-då), a t. of Albania, on a river of the same name. It was a few years since a flourishing place, with a population estimated at above 9,000, (B.); but it suffered greatly in the struggle for Grecian freedom. Lat. 39° 13' N., Lon. 21° 4' E.

Artois, ar'-twål, a former prov. of France, now comprehended in the dep. of Pas de Calais. It takes its name from the Atreba/tes, a nation of the ancient Gauls, who inhabited this region, and from whose name ARRAS is also derived.

ARUNDEL, årl-un-del, a t. of England, on the Arun, in the co. of Sussex, 50 m. S. S. W. of London. Lat. 50° 51' N., Lon. 0° 33' W. Pop. 2,624.

Asaph (azl-af) St., an ancient city of Wales, in Flintshire, about 5 m. from the sea. Pop. of the parish, 3,338.

ASCENSION, as-sen-shun, an i. in the S. Atlantic, between Africa and Brazil. It is 73 m. long, and 6 m. wide. It owes its name to the circumstance of its having been discovered on Ascension-day, in 1501. It was then barren and entirely uninhabited by men. In 1815 the British took possession of the island, as a military station, and established a garrison there. Lat. of the fort, 7° 56' N., Lon. 14° 24' W.

ASCENSION, a parish in the central part of Louisiana, lying on both sides of the Mississippi. Pop. 10,752. Seat of justice, Donaldsonville.

ASCH-AF/-FEN-BURG or å-shảf/-fen-boort', a principality of Germany, now belonging to Bavaria.-Also, a to in the above principality, 25 m. S. E. of Frankfort. Lat. 50° 1' N., Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

ASCHERSLEBEN, åsh'-ers-là/-ben, a t. of Germany, in a circle of the same name, 18 m. S. E. of Halberstadt. Lat. 51° 46' N., Lon. 11° 27 E. Pop. 9,00. (B.).

Ascoli, ås/-ko-le, (Lat. As'culum), a t. of the Papal State, 15 m. N. W. of Teramo. It was a place of importance in the time of the Romans, and we find it often mentioned both in ancient and modern history. Ascoli is one of the best built and most pleasant towns in the Papal State. Lat. 42° 50' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.)

ASH-ANI-TEE, a powerful kingdom of Africa, on the Gold Coast, Counded during the last century, by Saï Tootoo. Little is known to

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng. Europeans respecting the internal geography of this country; along the coast, it is considered as extending from the r. Volta, or Aswada, which separates it from Dahomey on the E., to the r. Assinee on the W. But its actual extent, including the tributary kingdoms, appears to be somewhat greater. The Ashantees are a brave, and, to a considerable degree, may be regarded as a civilized people. Their military enterprises have been attended with the most wonderful success; and a multitude of different states, announting to near fifty, according to ono writer, have been either incoporated into the empire or reduced to the condition of tributaries. Even the English, on the coast, were at one time compelled to purchase, with liberal presents, the peace of this warlike and powerful nation.— The Ashantees have schools, where the pupils are taught to read and write Arabic, and appear also to possess sorne skill in sculpture and other arts. They manufacture cloths of cotton, and sometimes of cotton and silk interwoven. Many of these cloths are of great fineness of texture, and their colour of the highest brilliancy. They also make earthenware, tan leather, and work in iron. The pop. of the empire of the Ashantees is estimated by Balbi at 3,000,000. The capital is Coumassie.

Ashe, a co. forming the N. W. extremity of N. C. Pop. 8,777. Co. t. Jeffersonton.

ASHTABULA, ash'-ta-bul-la, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Ohio, bordering on Lake Erie. Pop. 28,766. Co. t. Jefferson.

Ashl-TỢN-UNDER-Lyne, a manufacturing t. of Eng. in Lancashire, 61 m. E. of Manchester. It is a well built and rapidly increasing town. The pop. in 1831 exceeded that in 1821 by more than 5,000, and the last census gives 7,841 more than that of 1831. This great increase is attributed, in part, to the employment of labourers on the Sheffield and Manchester railroad. Present pop. 22,678.

Asia, dl-she-a, one of the five grand divisions of the globe, bounded on the N. by the Black Sea and the Frozen Ocean, E. by the Pacific, S. by the Indian Ocean, W. by the Red Sea, the Mediterranean, the Archipelago, the Sea of Marmora, the Black Sea, the river Ural, the Ural Mountains, and lastly, by the river and sea of Kara. The most northern point of this continent is Northeast Cape, near 78° N. Lat., and 104° E. Lon. : the most southern is formed by the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, which extends to about 1° 20' N. Lat. Cape Baba, in Asia Minor, in Lat. about 39° 30' N., Lon. 26° 5' E., forms its western, and East Cape, in 66° 5' N. Lat. and Lon. 169° 40' W., its eastern extremity. The extreme length of this continent, from the Isthmus of Suez to Behring's Strait, is above 7,000 m.; the greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 5,300. The area is estimated by Hassel, at about 16,700,000 sq. m. Pop. estimated by Balbi, at above 525,000,000.Adj. Asiatic, a'-she-at-ik, and Asian, al-she-an (poetical). Inhab. ASIATIC.

As'-SAM, a country of Asia, lying beyond the Ganges, bounded on the N. by the mountains of Bootan and s'hibet, E. by the countries tributary to Ava and China, s. by the Garrow Mountains, and W. by


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