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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; öö as in good; Bengal. Of the early history of Assam, little is known. It has more recently been under the dominion of the Burmese, till in 1824, when they were expelled by the English, and it is now a dependent of the East India Company. Present pop. estimated at 200,000. (P. C.)

ASSEN, ås-sen, a little t. of Holland; cap. of the prov. of Drenthe, 15 m. S. of Groningen. Pop. 1,200. (B.)

Assist, ås-see-se, (Anc. Assi/sium,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal State and prov. of Umbria. Lat. 43° 4' N., Lon. 12° 35' E. Pop. estimated at 4,000. (B.)

ASSOUAN or ASSUAN. See Asswan.

ASSUMPTION, as-sump/-shun, a parish in the central part of Louisiana, W. of New Orleans. Pop. 10,538. Seat of justice, Assumption c. h.

ASSUMPTION (Sp. Asuncion, å-soon-the-one or å-soon-se-one/), the сар. of Paraguay, in South America, situated on the E. bank of the r. Paraguay. Lat. 25° 22' S., Lon. 57° 40' W. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

As-SwẢN (Assuan or Assouan), a small t. of Upper Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, remarkable for its commerce, its picturesque situation, and the monuments of antiquity which are found in its neighbourhood. Close to it, on the south, may be seen the ruins of the town built by the Arabs, on the site of the ancient Syene. Lat. 24° 5' N., Lon. 32° 55' E.-Adj. and inhab. As-swẢN-EE.

ASTERABAD, ås'-ter-å-bảd', or Astrabad, a small prov. in the N. E. part of Persia.-Also the cap. of above. Lat. 36° 50' N., Lon. 54° 35' E. Pop. estimated at 40,000. (B.)

Asti, ås-te, (Lat. Ast/a,) a t. of Piedmont, cap. of a prov. of the same name on the N. bank of the Tanaro, on the high road from Turin to Alexandria. This place has been distinguished both in ancient and modern history, and is remarkable as being the birth-place of the great Italian poet, Alfieri. Lat. 44° 57' N., Lon. 8° 12' E. Pop. 22,000. (P. C.)

Astorga, ås-tor/-gả, (the Astu/rica Augus/ta of the Romans,) a t. of Spain, in Leon. It was once the capital of Astu/res, and is called by Pliny a magnificent city. It contains some interesting remains of antiquity. Lat. 42° 27' N., Lon. 6° 10' W. Pop. 4,000. (M.)

As-To-R1-a, a settlement at the mouth of the Columbia r., made by the American Fur Company, so called from Mr. Astor, of New York. Lat. 46° 14' N., Lon. near 126° W.

As'-TRA-KŅAN', (Russ. pron. ås-trå-kản!,) a t. of Russia, in Europe, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on an island formed by the Volga at its entrance into the Caspian Sea. It has a fine citadel, called Krem, or Kremlin, and numerous churches, with steeples and minarets; but the houses are generally of mean appearance, and built of wood; the streets unpaved, irregular and dirty. Astrakhan is remarkable for its manufactures as well as its commerce; its harbour is the most frequented of any on the Caspian. It is the seat both of an Armenian and Russian archbishopric. Lat. 46° 21 N., Lon. 48° 3' E. Permanent pop. about 40,000. (P.C.)—Adj. and inhab. As'-TRA-KHAN-EE'.

Asturias, ås-tool-re-ås, a prov. in the N. of Spain; bounded on the N. by the Bay of Biscay, E. by Old Castile, S. by Leon and W. by

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Galicia. Length, from E. to W., about 150 m.; breadth, from N. to S., 50 m.--Adj. and inhab. Asturian, ås-tool-re-an.

ATACAMA, åt-å-cảl-må, a district of S. America, belonging to Bolivia, and comprehending all the country of that republic which lies between

Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is bounded on the N. by the r. Loa, between 21° and 22° S. Lat., and on the S. by the Salado, near 26° S. Lat.; so that it extends along the coast perhaps 250 m., while its breadth is from 25 to 40 m. It is divided into the Upper and Lower country. The latter is in almost every part an uninhabited desert. No rain ever falls on this coast, but in some places the soil is occasionally refreshed by mists and dews. (P. C.)

ATCHAFALAYA, ach-af-a-lil-a, (an Indian word, signifying “lost water,”) a large bayou in La., which detaches itself from the right bank of the Red r., near its confluence with the Mississippi; and, after receiving the waters of L. Chetimaches and the r. Plaquemines, flows into Atchafalaya Bay. Its whole course is about 200 m.

ATCH-EEN', or ACHEEN, a kingdom on the N. W. part of the island of Sumatra. Also, the chief city of the above kingdom. Lat. 5° 36' N., Lon. about 95° 20' E. It contains about 8,000 houses, built chiefly of bamboo. (B.)- Adj. and inhab. ATCH-IN-EŞE'.

Ar'-FE', sometimes written Atrih, (Anc. Aphroditop/olis, or "city of Venus,") a town of Egypt, on the right side of the Nile, 45 m. S. of Cairo. Lat. 29° 28' N., Lon. 31° 28' E. Pop. about 4,000. (B.)

Ath or AATH, ååt, a commercial t. of Belgium, in the prov. of Hainault, on the Dender, 32 m. W. S. W. of Brussels. Lat. 50° 42' N., Lon. 3° 46' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)

ATH-A-PESI-cow or ATHABASCA, the name of a river and lake in the N. W. part of N. America. The river rises near the Rocky Mountains, and flowing, for the most part, in a northerly direction, falls into the lake of the same name, by several channels.

ATHAPESCOW LAKE, also called the Lake of the Hills, is situated about 170 m. S. E. of the great Slave Lake; it is nearly 200 m. long, but its average width is not more than 20 m. Fort Chipewyan, at the W. S. W. extremity of the lake, is in Lat. 58° 42' N., Lon. 111° 18' W.

ATH-BOY/, a t. of Ireland, in Meath, 30 m. N. W. of Dublin.

ATH!-ENS, (Lat. Athe/ne, Gr. Abrvac,) a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of ancient Attica, founded, according to common account, by Cecrops, about 1550 B. C. It is situated about 5 m. from the seacoast; the little river Ilissus flows near the city, on the S. E., and the Cephisus on the N. W.-Passing over the well-known epoch in which Athens was the most powerful and most illustrious of all the Grecian states, we shall briefly mention that it was captured by the Romans under Sylla (86 B. C.). This was the first time the fortifications of Athens had been forced by an enemy. After remaining several centuries in a state of inglorious repose, it shared the fate of the rest of the empire, in being ravaged and plundered by the barbarians. Soon after the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, it was completely incorporated with the Turkish dominions; in which condition it remained till the late

Tate, får, fåll, fit; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nôt; oč, as in good, successful struggle for Grecian freedom. Notwithstanding all the vicissitudes which Athens has undergone, there still remain ample monuments to attest its former grandeur. The ruins of the temple of Theseus, the arch of Hadrian, and the buildings of the Acropolis, espe cially the Parthenon, may be mentioned as among the most remarkable. The walls of this once magnificent city are entirely demolished, but their foundations have been traced, by late travellers, under the shrubs which cover the plains. Athens is situated in Lat. 37° 58'N., Lon. 23° 46' E. The pop., before the late insurrection which threw off the Turkish yoke, was estimated from 12,000 to 15,000, but, at the termination of the war, did not probably amount to a third of the number. (B.) In 1834, it was declared the capital of the new kingdom of Greece, and it seems likely to recover, in time, some share of its former importance. P. 1845 27,800. Adj. and inhab. ATH-E-NL-AN.

ATHENS, a t. of Ga., in Clark co., on the Oconee, 92 m. W.N. W. of Augusta : it is the seat of the University of Georgia. Pop. 3,795.

ATHENS, a co. in the S. E. part of Ohio. Pop. 18,215.

ATHENS, a small t. of Ohio, cap. of the above co., with a college called the University of Ohio, founded in 1821.

ATHENS, New, a small place in Ohio, 18 m. N. W. of Wheeling: it is the seat of Franklin College.

ATH-LONE', a borough of Ireland, on the Shannon, being partly in the co. of West Meath, and partly in that of Roscommon, about 70 m. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 11,406. (P.C.)

Athl-os, Mount, (It. Monte Sacro, Gr. Hagion Oros, i. e. Holy Mountain, so called from the number of monasteries, chapels, &c., on its sides,) a celebrated mountain of Macedonia, on a peninsula W. of the island of Lemnos, and rising abruptly from the sea to the height of 6,349 feet. Lat. 40° 9' N,, Lon. 24° 20' E.

Arhy, ath-il, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Kildare, about 38 m. W.S.W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 4,494. (P. C.)

Atina, å-teel-nå, an ancient t. of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, 10 m. N. of Aquino. Pop. about 4,000. (B.) It mentioned under its present name by Virgil (Æneid. Lib. VII. 630), as at that time an important city.

AT-LANI-TIC OCEAN, that part of the ocean which separates the old from the new world: it washes the eastern shore of America and the western shores of Europe and Africa. Its width may be estimated at 3,000 m The name was given on account of its vicinity to the Atlas mountains.

ATLANTIC, a co. in the S. E. part of N. J., bordering on the sea. Pop. 8,961. Co. t. May's Landing.

Ar/-LẠs, a chain of mountains running through the north-western part of Africa, and separating the cultivated country from the great desert. The highest summits are estimated to be 2,000 toises (B.), or about 12,790 English feet above the level of the sea.

Aroor. See Atur.
ATRI, &-tre, (anciently Hat/ria Pice/na,) a t. of Naples, in the prov


ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. of Teramo, about 4 m. from the coast of the Adriatic, and 12 m. S. E. of Teramo. Hatria was once a place of considerable importance, but the present town is a small and poor place, and partly in ruins.

ATI-TA-LA, a co. in the central part of Miss. Pop. 10,999. Co. seat, Kosciusco.

ATTIGNY, åt'-teen'-yel, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Ardennes, on the Aisne, 31 m. N. E. of Rheims, anciently one of the summer resi. dences of the kings of France.

AT TOCK', or ATTOCK BENARES (ben-ål-rez), a city and fortress on the E. bank of the Sinde or Indus, belonging to Lahore. Lat. 33° 52' N., Lon. 72° 10' E.

Atur, å-too-il, one of the Sandwich islands, in Lat. 21° 57' N., Lon. 160° W.

AUBE, öbe, a small r. of France, flowing into the Seine.

Avbe, a dep. in the N. E. central part of France, intersected by the above r. and by the Seine. Pop. 253,870. (B.) Capital, Troyes.

Aul-BURN, the chief t. of Cayuga co., N. Y., about 170 m. W. of Albany, on the outlet of the Owasco lake, a fine stream, with numerous mill seats. It is incorporated, and contains a theological seminary, founded by the Presbyterians in 1821. It is chiefly remarkable for the state prison established bere, and conducted on a peculiar system of prison discipline. Pop. 9,548.

AUBUSSON, 7'-büs'-són', a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. o Creuse, on the r. Creuse, 23 m. S.E. of Guéret. Pop. above 4,000. (P.C.,

Auch, osh, an archiepiscopal t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Gers, on the r. Gers. Among its buildings the ancient cathedral deserves to be mentioned. Lat. 43° 38' N., Lon. 35' E. Pop. 10,461. (B.)

Aude, õde, (Anc. Astax,) a r. in the S. of France, rising in the Pyrenees, and flowing into the Mediterranean.

AUDE, a dep. in the S. of France, intersected by the above r., and bordering on the Mediterranean. Pop. 281,088. (B.) Capital, Car

AUERBACK, oul-er-båk, a t. of Saxony, 70 m. W. S. W. of Dresden, famous for its manufacture of a metallic composition, called Rodewisch, which employs about 2,500 persons from the neighbouring villages. Pop. 3,000. (B.)

Aucs/-BURG (Ger. pron. outs/-bóÕRG), the cap. of the circle of the Upper Danube, in Bavaria, at the confluence of the Wertach and Lech. It has numerous scientific and literary institutions, and is distinguished for its works in gold and jewelry, its manufactures of clocks and watches, and of philosophical and mathematical instruments. Lat. 48° 21' N., Lon. 10° 54' E. Pop. 34,000. (B.) The Roman emperor Augustus planted a colony here about 12 years before the Christian era, which was called Augus/ta Vindelico'rum. Augsburg appears to be a contraction of August-burg ; i. e. the “castle of Augustus.”

Au-Gusl-TĄ, the cap. of the state of Maine, and of Kennebeck co., on


Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nốt; öö as in good, the r. Kennebec, about 52 m., in a direct line, N. N. E. of Portland. Lat. 44° 19' N., Lon. 69° 50' W. Pop. 8,225.

AUGUSTA, a t. of Ga., on the right bank of the Savannah r., about 80 m., in a straight line, E. of Milledgeville. Lat. 33° 28' N., Lon. 81° 54' W. Pop. 9,559.

AUGUSTA, a t. of Ky.; cap. of Brecken co. It has a college, under the direction of the Methodists, founded in 1825.

AUGUSTA, a co. in the centre of Virginia. Pop. 24,610. Co. t. Staunton.

AUGUSTINE, ST., sent au'-gus-teen', a city and port of entry of Florida; cap. of St. Jolin's co., on an inlet about 2 m. from the main ocean. The harbour is defended by a fort. This place is much resorted to during winter, by invalids from the northern states. Lat. 29° 48' 30" N., Lon. 81° 35' W. Pop. 1,934.

AURUNG ABAD, -rung-gạ-bảd', a prov. of Hindostan, situated in the Dekkan.—Also, the cap. of the above, formerly called Gurka, but, becoming a favourite residence of Aurungzebe (pronounced o-rungzeeb/), it received from this circumstance its present name. The palace of that monarch, now in ruins, covers an extensive space. The whole city is rapidly falling to decay, but in 1825 was said still to contain a population of 60,000. (P. C.) Lat. 19° 54' N., Lon. 75° 33' E.

Aus/-TER-LITZ (Ger. pron. ous-ter-lits), a t. of Austria, in Moravia, about 13 m. E. of Brünn, celebrated for a great victory obtained by Napoleon over the emperors of Austria and Russia, in 1805. Pop. about 2,000. (B.)


AUS-TRAI-L-4. (See Int. XI.) A term sometimes employed like AusTRALASIA, to designate the fifth grand division of the globe, but more generally restricted to that portion of Oceanica which is situated immediately Š. and S. E. of Malaisia, between 1° N. 55° S. Lat., and 110° and 180° E. Lon., including New Holland, (the Australian continent,) the islands of New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, the Solomon Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, Papua or New Guinea, besides many smaller islands.Adj. AUS-TRA-LI-ẠN.

AUSTRALIAN CONTINENT, or New HOLLAND, is situated in the South Sea, between 10°30' and 39° S. Lat. and 113° and 153° 20' E. Lon. Length from E. to W. about 2400 miles, greatest breadth from N. to S., near 2000 miles. Area estimated at 3,500,000 sq. miles. The form of this

continent is very compact, having only two large indentations, the Gulf of Carpentaria on the N. and Spencer's Gulf on the S. It is distinguished from all other parts of the globe by the general character of its plants and animals, as well as the nature of the country. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of this “ land of anomalies” is the absence of permanently navigable rivers. The Murray, which, with its affluents, drains a surface of 400,000 square miles, discharges its waters into the sea by a mouth so miserably small that it was overlooked by the first explorers of the coast.

The central regions of Australia are entirely unknown, and the

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