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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. coasts have been only partially explored, except the eastern, on which the first settlement was made. There are mountains whose summits are covered with perpetual snow; but a large portion of the country appears to be flat land, which is sometimes marshy and flooded with water, and at other times so parched as to be a perfect desert. A chain of mountains extends nearly parallel with the eastern coast, at a distance which varies from 50 to 80 miles. Different parts of this range have received the names of the Warragong and the Blue Mountains. The most fertile soil is confined to the higher regions, which are separated from each other by extensive sandy deserts.
Lying to the south of the equator, its seasons are the reverse of ours. One-third lies within the torrid and two-thirds in the temperate zone. The climate of the latter is subject to great vicissitudes of temperature and moisture. A year of complete drought is sometimes followed by a year of floods : but here the hot is generally the dry season—a circumstance favourable to health. The heat of December rises to 112° Fahrenheit, and the forests and grass have been known to take fire spontaneously. (M. B.)
The aboriginal inhabitants are classed in the same grand division of the human race with the African negro, but appear to be decidedly inferior, both in their physical constitution and in their intellectual and moral faculties. They are the only people of whom we have any knowledge that go completely naked.
Of 5440 species of plants which have been discovered, only 270 are indigenous in the other divisions of the globe. The forests consist entirely of evergreens, and ferns and grasses in some cases attain the size of trees. A species of acacia which bears no leaves is very numerous, and gives a singular aspect to the forests. They also contain the cedar, rosewood, and a kind of mahogany, (Eucalyptus.) The palms are not very abundant, and are confined to the intertropical regions. There is a remarkable deficiency of useful native fruits and alimentary plants. Animal life in Australia assumes a form still more anomalous than that which marks its vegetation. Among 58 species of quadrupeds which exist here, 46 are peculiar to this continent; and 33 of these belong to the order of Marsupials, including the kangaroo, which is the largest animal of the country. The singular Ornithorhyncus paradoxus, is found only here, an oviparous quadruped which is covered with fur, but has webbed feet and a bill like a duck. The dogs, it is said, never bark, and the swans are entirely black.
The mineral resources of Australia are extremely great. Immense coal-fields occur in the Blue Mountains, and on the eastern coast, and copper is found in abundance. In May, 1851, a gold mine, which is said to rival those of California in richness, was discovered near the Macquarrie river. The locality is in a hilly and barren region, 33 m. W. from Bathurst, and 148. m. from Sidney. Before the end of the year, another rich deposit was found, 40 or 50 miles from the town of Geelong, on the southern coast. These discoveries, of course,
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne, or pine, pin; nd, nôt; öð as in good; produced a prodigious excitement in the colony. Before five months had elapsed, 10,000 persons had collected at this “Ophir of the Antipodes,” and hundreds were arriving daily. The ships in the ports were deserted by their crews, and ordinary business was paralysed.
The Australian journals estimate that the increase of population in 1852, will not be less than 100,000, which will raise that of the continent to half a million. See New South WALES.
AUSI-TR!-A (Ger. Oestreich, Öst/-rike), an empire of Europe, lying between 420 and 51° N. Lat., and 8° 30' and 26° 50' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Saxony and Prussia, N. E. and E. by the republic of Cracow and by the Russian and Turkish provinces, S. by Turkey, the Gulf of Venice, the territories of the Pope, Modena, and Parma, and W. by the Sardinian States, Switzerland, and Germany. The length is estimated at 870, the breadth at 690 m. The superficial extent, according to Balbi, is about 259,300 sq. m. The pop. in 1848 amounted to 37,850,000. The empire of Austria is composed of the kingdoms of Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Illyria, Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, and the governments of Lower and Upper Austria, Styria, Trieste, Tyrol, Transylvania, the Military Frontier, and Austrian Italy, or the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, besides some smaller districts, such as Great and Little Cumania, &c. These will be treated of under their respective heads. The name Oestreich, which signifies “ eastern empire,” arose from this territory having been the eastern part of the dominions of Charlemagne. The area of Austria at that time scarcely exceeded that of the present archduchy. Vienna is the capital.–Adj. and inbab. Avsl-TRI-AN.
AUSTRIA, ARCHDUCHY of, which constitutes the principal part of the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria, is bounded on the N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, S. by Styria, Illyria, and Tyrol, and W. by Tyrol and Bavaria. Area about 14,881 sq. m. It is divided into Lower and Upper Austria. The former occupies the eastern, the latter the western portion of the archduchy.
AU-TAU-GẠ, a co. in the central part of Ala., N. of, and bordering on the Alabama r. Pop. 15,023. Co. t. Washington.
Autun, 7'-tun, a city of France, on the r. Arroux, in the dep. of the Saône and Loire, 164 m. S. E. of Paris. This town existed before the Roman conquest under the name of Bibrac/te; after the time of Augustus, it was called Augustodu'num, of which Autun is a corruption. A number of interesting ruins may be seen here. Lat. 46° 57' N., Lon. 4° 18' E. Pop. 10,000.
AUVERGNE, o'-vern/ or o'-vairñ, formerly a prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Cantal and Puy de Dôme. The name is derived from the Arverni, an ancient nation who inhabited this part of Gaul.
AUXERRE, ö^-sair', (Anc. Autissiodu/rum,) a city of France: cap. of the dep. of Yonne, on the r. Yonne, 92 m. S. E. of Paris. Lat. 47° 48 N, Lon. 3° 34' E. Pop. 10,989. (B.)
AUXONNE, Öx'-onn, or AUSSONNE, ö-sonn', a fortified t. of France, in
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. the dep. of Côte d'Or, on the Saône, 19 m. S. E. of Dijon. Pop. in 1832, about 5,000. (P. C.)
Ava. See BIRMA.
AVALLON, å-vål-lon', a t. of France, in the dep. of the Yonne, 120 m, S. E. of Paris. Pop. above 5,000. (P. C.)
AVEIRO, å-vale-ro, a city of Portugal, in the prov. of Beira. Lat, 40° 38' N., Lon. 8° 38' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
AVELLA, å-vell-lå, a to in the kingdom of Naples, 20 m. N. E. of the capital. Near to it are the ruins of the ancient Abella, from which its name has been derived. Pop. 5,000. (M.)
AVELLINO, å-věl-leel-no, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Naples: cap. of the prov. of Principato Ultra, 30 m. E. by N. of Naples. Lat. 40° 55' N., Lon. 14° 45' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
AVENCHES, a'-vảnshl, (Lat. Aven/ticum,) a little t. of Switzerland, about 3 m. from the Lake of Morat, and 20 m. W. S. W. of Bern, remarkable for the Roman antiquities found in its vicinity.
AVERNO, å-ver/-no, (Anc. Aver/nus,) a celebrated lake in the vicinity of Naples, abont 2 m. N. W. of Pozzuoli. It is circular, and about lj in. in circumference.
AVERSA, å-vềR/-sả, a t. in the kingdom of Naples, 12 m. N. by W. of the capital. It contains a large foundling hospital, and a lunatic asylum, which ranks among the best establishments of the kind in Europe. Lat. 40° 57' N., Lon. 14° 11' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)
AVESNES, å -vaini, a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, 123 m. N. E. of Paris. Pop. about 4,000. (P. C.)
AVEYRON, å - và'-ron, a r. in the S. of France, flowing into the Garonne.
AVEYRON, a dep. in the S. of France, on the above r. Pop. 370,951. (B.) Capital, Rodez.
AVEZZANO, å-vét-sål-no, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Abruzzo Ultra, about 20 m. nearly S. of Aquila. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)
AVIGNON, av-een-yon, or å-veen'-yon', (Anc. Avelnio,) a celebrated city of France; cap. of the dep. of Vaucluse, on the left bank of the Rhone, just above the mouth of the r. Durance. Avenio was a very ancient city; it appears to have been a town of some importance before the Roman conquest, and holds a conspicuous place in the history of the middle ages. About the year 1308, Pope Clement V., himself a native of France, removed his court from Rome to Avignon, which continued to be the papal residence till 1376, when Gregory XI. left it, to return to Rome. It afterwards became the residence of the anti-popes Clement VII. and Benedict XIII. Lat. 43° 57' N., Lon. 4° 48' E. Pop. 31,000: in the 14th century it amounted to 100,000. (B.)
Avila, ål-ve-lå,* a t. of Old Castile, Spain; cap. of a prov. of the same name, with a university. Lat. 40° 42' N., Lon. 4° 50' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
*“Lerma 'the generous,' AVILA 'the proud.'”-Rogers' Voyage of Columbus
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pīne, pin; no, not; čð as in good;
Avlona, åv-lol-nå, or Valona, (Anc. Aullon,) a town of Albania, on a gulf to which it gives its name, formed by the celebrated Acrocerau nian promontory. Lat. 40° 29' N., Lon. 19° 26' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
Avon, àl-von, the name of several small rivers of Great Britain. Thé principal and most interesting is that which rises at a source called Avon-well, in Northamptonshire, and, flowing by the village of Stratford, the birth-place of Shakspeare, cmpties itself into the Severn, in Gloucestershire, after a course of about 100 in.
Av. -OY-ELLES', a parish of La., on the S. side of the Red r. Pop. 9,326. Seat of justice, Marksville.
AVRANCHES, ảv'-rảnsh!, (Anc. In'gena, afterwards Abrincaltui and Abrin/cæ,) a city of France, in the dep. of Manche, 195 m. nearly W. from Paris. Lat. 48° 41' N., Lon. 1° 25' E. Pop. 7,000. (P. C.)
A-wats/-ka or Av-ATCH-KA, a bay on the E. coast of Kamtchatka. Also the name of a r. which flows into this bay, and of a small village situated at its mouth.
Awe, Loch, a fresh water lake of Scotland, in the co. of Argyle. It is about 24 m. long, while its average breadth is only about 1 m.
Ax-oom', written also Axoum and Axum, (Gr. Azovlees,) a t. of Abyssinia ; formerly cap. of a powerful kingdom of this name, which appears to have extended its dominions over a great part of Abyssinia, a part of Arabia, and even to have received tribute from the Byzantine emperors. There are at this place several remains of antiquity, which show that the Axumites were highly skilled in the art of sculpture, and acquainted also with the Greek language. The town at present contains about 600 houses. (B.) Lat. 14° 7' N., Lon. between 38° and 39° E.
AYAMONTE, i-yå-mon-ti, a fortified t. of Spain, in the kingdom of Seville. Lat. 37° 12' N., Lon. 7° 14' W. Pop. 6,347. (P. C.)
AYASOOLOOK, ål-yả-soo-look', (Fr. spelling Ayasalouk,) a miserable village of Asia Minor, on the site of the ancient Ephesus, with a mosque, castle and aqueduct, constructed out of the ruins of that once magnificent city. Here have been discovered, among other antiquities, the remains of the great temple of Diana, which is mentioned in the 19th chapter of the Acts. Lat. 37° 55' N., Lon. 27° 20' E.
AYLESBURY, ailzl-ber-re, a t. of Buckinghamshire, England, on the road from London to Warwick, 38 m. from London. It is a very ancient place, and is said 10 have been one of the strongest garrisons of the Britons, in their struggle against the Saxons. Pop. of the borough, with an area of about 5 sq. m., 5,429.
Ayr, air, a r. of Scotland, which rises in Ayrshire, and, after a course of about 30 m. nearly due W., falls into the sea at the t, of Ayr, where its estuary forms a fine harbour.
Ayr, à sea-port t. of Scotland, cap. of Ayrshire, on the above r., near its mouth; 67 m. S. W. of Edinburgh. Entire pop. of the parish, 8,264.
AYRI-SHIRE, a co. in the S. W. of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 164,356.
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng.
AZERBAÏJAN, åz-er-bil-jản', a prov. in the N. part of Persia, lying around L. Ooroomeeyeh. Tabreez is the capital.
Azl-of or Azov, (Anc. Pallus Mæo'tis,) a sea of Russia, forming a part of the boundary between Europe and Asia, and connected with the Black Sea by the Strait of Yenicalë. Its greatest length is about 200 m.; the breadth varies exceedingly, but perhaps, on an average, inay be estimated at about 70 m. The only considerable river which it receives is the Don.
AzoREs, azl-orz* or az-örz, (Port. Açores, å-sol-rés,) called also the Western Islands, are situated in the Atlantic, about 800 m. W. of Portugal. They consist of nine islands, in three distinct groups, lying in the direction of W. N. W. and E. S. E., and extending about 330 m. The north-western group contains the small islands of Corvo and Flores; the central, Terceira, St. George, Pico, Fayal, and Graciosa the south-eastern, St. Michael and St. Mary. They are included between the parallels of 36° 57' and 40° N. Lat., and the meridians of 25° and 31° 15' W. Lon. The several islands will be treated of under their respective names. As these islands, when first discovered by the Portuguese, were entirely destitute of human inhabitants, as well as of beasts, they called them Açores (the plural of açor, a hawk or bird of prey), from the number of this kind of birds found here.—Adj. and inbab. Az-o-RI-AN.
BA-BEL-MAN/-DựL, (see Int. XII.,) or, more correctly, BAB-EL-MANDEB, the strait which connects the Red Sea with the Indian Ocean, lying between Arabia and Abyssinia. The width of this strait is estimated at about 16 m.
BACCHIGLIONE, bảk-keel-yol-na, a r. in the Venetian States, which rises in the Alps, and, flowing S. E., passes through the t. of Vicenza, and afterwards by the walls of Padua, 30 m. below which it enters the Adriatic at Brondolo. Its entire course is about 90 m.
BAD-AG/-ry, a t. on the Slave Coast of Guinea, cap. of a small kingdom of the same name, about 6° 15' N. Lat., and 2° 50' E. Lon. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (P. C.)
BADAJos, båd-a-hoce, (Sp. Badajoz, bå-på-HÒth'; Lat. Pax Augus ta,) a fortified t. of Spain, cap. of Estremadura, on the Guadiana. The bridge over the Guadiana, 1,874 feet in length, is one of the finest in Europe. Lat 38° 52' N., Lon. 6° 48' W. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
* This accentuation, though perhaps not the most prevalent, is sanctioned by the general tendency of our language, (see Int. XII., Obs. 2.) as well as by the practice of many
of the best speakers. The second pronunciation may be objected to as being neither native nor English. If we would pronounce like the natives we must follow the example of Milton, and divide the name into three syllables (See Paradise Lost, Book IV., line 592.) The authority of Cowper is in favour of the first pronunciation.
“Those Ausonia claims, Levantine regions these: the Azores send Their jessamine."
The Task, Book 1.