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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; čð as in goot ;


BADEN, bảl-den, a grand-duchy of Germany, extending along the right bank of the Rhine, and situated between 47° 30' and 49° 50' N. Lat., and 7° 30' and 9° 50' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt, E. by Würtemberg, S. by Switzerland and the Lake of Constance, and W. by the Bavarian circle of the Rhine and by France, from which it is separated by the Rhine. Length near 190 m.; greatest breadth about 100. The area is estimated at 5,973 sq. m. Pop. 1,130,000. (B.) Carlsruhe is the capital.

BADEN (the Civitas Aurelia Aquen/sis of the Romans), a t. situated in the centre of the grand-duchy of Baden, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. Hence originated the name, Bad in German signifying a "bath.” Lat. 48° 46' N. Lon., 8° 15' E. Pop. 4,200. (B.)

BADEN (Anc. Ther/mæ Celtiæ), a t. in the arch-duchy of Austria, about 15 m. S. of Vienna. It is annually visited by many thousand strangers, on account of its warm springs and baths. Permanent pop. about 3,000. (B.)

BADEN, a t. in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland, on the Limmat (the outlet of the Lake of Zürich), 13 m. N. W. of Zürich, celebrated for the warm mineral springs and baths in its vicinity, known to the Romans by the name of Ther/mæ Helveticæ. Pop. 1,700. (B.)

BADENWEILER, bål-den-wil-ler, a small village in the grand-duchy of Baden, 5 m. E. of Brisach, remarkable for the remains of a vast Roman bathing establishment, arranged for both cold and warm, as well as vapour-baths. It contains 50 chambers, furnished with all the conveniences for bathing, and an altar, still existing, dedicated to Diana Anoba. (B.).

BAEZA or BAEÇA, bå-1-thả, (Anc. Bea/tia,) a t. of Spain, in Jaen. Lat. 37° 57' N., Lon. 3° 28' W. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

BAFFA, båfl-få, a small seaport t. on the W. coast of the island of Cyprus, with a castle. Its name is a corruption of the ancient Paphos, the ruins of which are still to be seen here. Lat. 34° 54' N., Lon. 32° 30' E.

BAF/-FIN's Bay, a large gulf on the N. E. coast of America, between that continent and Greenland. It is comprised between the parallels of 68° and 78° N. Lat. and the meridians of 51° and 80° W. Lon., extending in a N. N. W. direction. It is about 780 m. long, and, on an average, about 280 wide. The name is derived from William Baffin, by whom it was discovered in 1616.

BAGDAD, båg-dád!, * or Bag/-dad, a large and celebrated city of Asia.

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Southey appears always to place the accent on the last sy” le of this namo, which accords with the native pronunciation. “ The old man answered, 'To BAGDAD I go.'"

stands not BAGDAD
Near to the site of ancient Babylon ?"
• At length BAGDAD appeared,
The city of his search.”—Thalaba, Books IV. and V.


ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this : n, nearly like ng. tic Turkey, formerly the capital of the empire of the Caliphs, and now of a pashalic of its own name, situated on both sides of the Tigris, about 200 m. in a direct line above the junction of that river with the Euphrates. It stands in a forest of date trees, and is surrounded by a high and thick wall of brick and mud, which is flanked at regular distances with round embattled towers. The whole wall of the city is about five miles in circumference. The citadel is on the E. bank of the Tigris and on the N. side of the town. Bagdad was formerly a great emporium of eastern commerce; besides the traffic with its own manufactures, it was the entrepôt for the commodities of eastern and western Asia. But its trade has recently much declined. This city was founded by the Caliph Aboo Jaafer al Mansoor, in the year 763, and was afterwards greatly improved by the celebrated Haroon-er-Rasheed (Harun al Raschid). Little, however, of its ancient magnificence now remains. Though, to the approaching stranger, its numerous minarets and domes, seen by glimpses through the date trees, present an interesting and even imposing spectacle, the meanness of the buildings within, miserably disappoints the expectation which the exterior view may have raised. Lat. 33° 19' N., Lon. 44° 25' E. Pop. estimated at about 100,000. (B.)

BAGNÈRES DE BIGORRE, bản'-yair'd'be'-GOR!, (Lat. Vilcus Aquen/sis,) a t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Pyrenees, celebrated for its warm springs and great bathing establishment: 16,000 strangers are said to visit this place annually. Lat. 43° 3' N., Lon. 0° 8' Ē. Pop. 5,633. (P. C.)

BAGNÈRES DE LUCHON, bản -yair'd'lü'-shón', (the Alquæ Convena'rum of the Romans,) a bathing t. of France, in the dep. of Upper Garonne. Lat. 42° 47' N., Lon. 0° 34' E. This is a small, but constantly improve ing place. Pop. in 1826, near 2,000. (P. C.)

BAGNOLS, bản -yole', a t. of France, in the dep. of Gard, 26 m. N.N.E. of Nîmes. Lat. 44° 9' N., Lon. 4° 35' E. Pop. in 1832, 3,800. (P. C.) -Also a t. in the dep. of Lozère, remarkable for its warm mineral waters. Lat. 44° 30' N., Lon. 3° 38' E.

BAHAMA CHANNEL is between Florida and the Bahamas.

BA-HA/-MẠs, or Lucavos, loo-kil-yoce, a chain of low islands, stretching, in a north-westerly direction, from the N. side of St. Domingo to the coast of E. Florida, and comprised within the parallels of 20o and 27° 40' N. Lat., and the meridians of 68° 40' and 79° 20' W. Lon. They belong to the British crown. Some of the largest islands, as the Great Bahama, and Lucayo (now called Abaco), with many smaller ones, remain without inhabitants. Entire pop. in 1831, 16,788. (P. C.)

Bahar, bả-har', an extensive prov. of Hindostan, lying on both sides of the Ganges, and bounded on the N. by Nepaul and Bootan, E. by Bengal, S. by Gundwana, and W. by Gundwana, Allahabad and Oude. It is computed to contain about 50,000 sq. mn. It belongs to the presidency of Bengal.

Bahar, a t. of the above prov., situated in 25° 13' N. Lat., and 85° 35' E. Lon., with about 5,000 houses. (P. C.)

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin ; no, nðt; õõ as in good ;

Bahra, bå-eel-å, an important maritime prov. of Brazil, between 9° and 16° S. Lat., and 37° and 45° W. Lon.

BAHIA or SAN SALVADOR, sản sil-vi-doRel, an archiepiscopal city of Brazil; cap. of the above prov., and, next to Rio Janeiro, the most comnercial and most populous town in S. America, is situated on the strait which leads from the Atlantic to All Saint's Bay (Bahia de Todos os Santos), whence both the city and province of Bahia derived their name. It has one of the finest harbours in America, and is moreover the principal fortress of the empire. The chief scientific and literary institutions of Bahia are—the School of Surgery, the College, and the Public Library, with from 60,000 to 70,000 vols. (M.) Lat. 13° S., Lon. 38° 30' W. Permanent pop. estimated by Balbi at about 120,000.

Bahrein. See LAHSA.

Bahrein, bảh-ranel, a small i. in the Persian Gulf, 275 m. long, and 10 m. across. (P. C.) Lat. 26° 14' N., Lon. 50° 36' E. It gives its name to a group of small islands, noted as the centre of the pearl fishery. Total pop. estimated at 60,000. (M.)

Baikal, bil-kål, a great mountain lake of Asia, situated between 51° and 56° N. Lat., and between 104° and 110° E. Lon. Its length is said to be about 400 m.; its mean breadth, between 30 and 40 m. The superficial extent is estimated at 14,800 sq. m. This lake is very deep; in some places the bottom has not been reached by a line of a hundred fathoms. Its surface is about 1,793 feet above the level of the sea. Among other smaller streams, it receives the Selenga and Upper Angara : the Lower Angara is its only outlet, and, though a very rapid river, is said not to carry off the tenth part of the mass of waters brought into it by the other streams.-Adj. BAIKALEAN or BAIKALIAN, bi-kal-e-an.

BAIREUTH, bil-ruth, (Ger. pron. bil-roit), a well-built t. of Bavaria ; cap. of the circle of the Upper Main, 125 m. N. of Munich. Lat. 490 57' N., Lon. 11° 37' E. Pop. about 13,000. (B.)


Baja, bål-yå, (Anc. Baiæ,) Gulf of, is situated on the S. E. coast of Naples, between Cape Misenum and Pozzuoli.

BA-KER, a co. in the S. W. part of Ga., intersected by the Flint r. Pop. 8,120. Co. t. Newton.

Bakoo, bi-kool, or Badku, a walled t. of Asiatic Russia, in the prov. of Shirvan, situated on the shore of the Caspian. Lat. 40° 22' N., Lon. 49° 40' E. Pop. between 3,500 and 4,000. (P. C.)

BAL'-A-GHAUTS', an extensive district in the S. of India, so called from its being situated "above the Ghauts." It forms a part of the presidency of Madras.

Balaruc, bå-lå -rük', a village of France, in the dep. of Hérault, celebrated for its warm mineral springs. Lat. 43° 28' N., Lon. 3° 41'E.

BAL/-A-SORE', an important seaport of Hindostan, belonging to the Danes, in the prov. of Orissa. Lat. 21° 32' N., Lon. 86° 56' E. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (P. C.)

BAL-BEC or Bååll-bec', an ancient city of Syria, situa' ed at the foot of

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TK, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the mountain range called Anti-Libanus. The Greek name of this city, Heliopolis, signifies the same as Baalbec; i. e. "city of the sun." Only a small part of the town is now inhabited; it is chiefly interesting for its ruins. Lat. near 34° N., Lon. 36° E.

Båld-win, a co. in the central part of Ga. Pop. 8,148. Co. t. Milledgeville.

BALDWIN, a co. in the S. part of Ala., E. of, and bordering on the Mobile r. Pop. 4,414. Co. t. Blakely.


BAL-E-Aal-IC ISLANDS (Anc. Balea/res), situated in the Mediterranean Sea, off the E. coast of Spain. They consist of Majorca, Minorca, and Iviça, besides the two very small ones of Formentera and Cabrera.

BALFUROSH, båt"-fur-osh', or BaL'-FROOSH', the third t. of the kingdom of Persia, is situated in the prov. of Mazanderan, about 12 m. from the S. shore of the Caspian Sea. Lat. 36° 33' N., Lon. 52° 45' E. Pop. estimated at 100,000. (B.)

BALIZE, bả-leez', (Mex. Sp. Baliza, bả-leel-sả,) a r. of British Honduras, Mexico, which flows into the Bay of Honduras. Balize is a corruption of Waliz, a name given by the Spaniards to this place, from its having been discovered, and resorted to by an English pirate named Wallice.

Balize, a t. situated at the mouth of the above r. Lat. 17° 29' N., Lon. 88° 8' W. Pop. in 1833, 3,794. (P. C.)

Balkan, bål-kản', (Anc. Hæ/mus,) a chain of mountains in European Turkey, between Bulgaria and Rumelia, which commences near the Adriatic, and terminates at the Black Sea.

Balky, bảlk, (Anc. Zarias pa and Backtra,) one of the most ancient and, formerly, one of the largest and most populous cities of Asia, situated in the kingdom of Bokhara. Lat. 36° 40' N., Lon. 67° 18' E. Present pop. only about 2,000. (B.)

BaL'-LẠRD, a co. at the V. extremity of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 5,496.

Ballina, bal'-lin-å', a small t. of Ireland, in Mayo co., 6 m. S. by E. of Killala.

BAL'-1IN-AS-LÕE', a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Galway, 80 m. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 4,140. (P. C.)

BALLSTON SPA, bållsl-ton spå, a village of Saratoga co., N.Y., situated 30 m. N. of Albany, famous for its mineral springs.

Ball-uy, or Bali, or LITTLE JAVA, an i. separated from the E. extremity of Java by a strait called the Strait of Bally. Its length is above 90 m.; its greatest breadth about 50 m. It is intersected by the parallel of 8° 30' S. Lat., and the meridian of 115° E. Lon.

BALʻ-1.9-SHANI-NỘN, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Donegal, 112 m. N.W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 3,775. (P. C.)

BÅ1/-tic, a sea in the N. of Europe, which separates Sweden and the Danish islands from Germany, Prussia, and Russia, extending from 54° to 66° N. Lat., and from 10° to 30° E. Lon. It is about 900 m. long The superficial extent is estimated at above 160,000 sq. m. Towards the northern extremity it forms two large branches, the Gulf of Both

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good; nia, which runs nearly N., and the Gulf of Finland, extending in an easterly direction. It is connected with the ocean by the gulf called Cattegat.

BÅL-TJ-MORE, a co. of Md., on the W. side of the Chesapeake Bay N. of the Patapsco r. Entire pop. 210,646.

BALTIMORE, a city, port of entry, and seat of justice of the above co., OA the N. side of the Patapscor., 14m. from its entrance into the Chesapeake Bay; about 38m., by the railroad, N.E. of Washington, and 93ın.W.S.W. of Philadelphia. This town is admirably situated both for foreign and internal commerce. It is built round a basin, which affords a secure and spacious harbour; and it has communication by railroads not only with Philadelphia and Washington, but with Winchester, Annapolis, Cumberland, Frederick City, York, Lancaster, and Harrisburg. Among the remarkable buildings of Baltimore may be noticed the Washington Monument, on the summit of which stands a colossal statue of Washington, at a height of 163 feet from the ground. This city is the seat of a medical school, called the University of Maryland; and of St. Mary's College, a flourishing institution under the direction of the Roman Catholics. It is also the residence of a Catholic archbishop. All strangers agree in extolling the agrecable society of Baltimore, which is said to resemble, more than any other of our cities, the gay and polished capitals of Europe. Lat. 39° 17° N., Lon. 76° 37° W. Pop. 169,054.–Inhab. BLL-TI-MO-REAN.

BẢL-TING-GLASS, a small t. of Ireland, in the co. of Wicklow, 33 m. S. W. of Dublin.

BAM-BAR/-RẠ, an extensive country in the interior of N. Africa, the exact boundaries of which are not known. On the N. it borders on the Great Desert; and it extends to 5° W. Lon.

BAMBERG, bảm/-bérg, an archiepiscopal t. of Bavaria, on the Regnitz, about 3 m. above its influx into the Main, and 30 m. W. of Baireuth. Besides its medical and surgical schools, it has a lyceum, in which a complete course of divinity and philosophy is given. Lat. 49° 56' N., Lon. 11° E. Pop. 21,000. (B.)

BAM'-BOOK', a country of Africa, extending between 12° and 14° N. Lat., and 8o and 11° W. Lon., containing mines of gold, silver, and iron. It is esteemed one of the richest gold regions on the globe. The inhabitants are Mandingoes.

Banl-cẠ, an i. near the N. coast of Sumatra, between 1° 30'and 3° 8' 13. Lat., and 105° 9' and 106° 51' E. Lon. Its greatest length is 135 m.; its breadth, 65 m. Banca owes its importance to its inexhaustible tin mines, first discovered about the year 1710.

BAN-DẠ ISLANDS, a group of small islands in the eastern seas, between 4° 20' and 4° 40' S. Lat. and 129° 40' and 130° 10' E. Lon.

Banff, sometimes written and always pronounced Bamff, the cap. of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Doveron, 39 m. N. N. W. of Aberdeen. Pop. of the burgh and parish, 3,202.

BANFFSHIRE, bamf/-shịr, a co. in the N. of Scotland, bordering on Moray Frith. Pop. 49,679.

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