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May 10, 1830.)
The Tariff

(H. OF R. less than the free men of the North 1 They have once taken desolation in some quarters of that State ? This, sir, is the benefit from this. It has been established by the constitu- poetical part of the subject. It would not have been well tion, that, for five of their slaves, they shall pay no more finished without the sketch of a ruin or two in the picture. tax than three of us free men pay. For what did they claim To be serious, for this is a very serious part of the questhis difference The history of that constitution will in- tion, how long will any country, any, plantation, any farm, form them, that it was because the five, as they alleged, sustain a course of crops of any kind, when all which is were, for every purpose of labor, no more efficient than raised on the land is sold and carried off from it! How the three. Is it wonderful, or a matter of complaint, that long will it endure such a course, if planted with cotton the slave does less than the free man; Observe them in the and tobacco ? These instances of exhausted fields and dihours of their toil. The free man works for himself. He lapidated buildings may be found in every long settled part looks forward to his reward, and is encouraged and quick of the country. Sir, they are so many monuments, in which ened in his course by hope. The slave works for another. we may read the fate of all those countries wbich bave exHe looks back to his punishment, and is paralyzed by fear. bausted the virgin fertility of their lands, to furnish the Like the tired horse, when he feels the lash, be springs up greatest possible agricultural export. from the ground, but does not, and cannot, quicken bis pace. The progress of agricultural production furnishes anJo the language of the gentleman from Massachusetts, other cause of this dereliction of old worn out plantations in [Mr. GORHAM] “ the free mau does as much as he can; South Carolina. Sugar bns, in the employment of southbut the slave does as little as he can."

ern capital, taken the place, to a considerable extent, of South Carolina has told us that capital in that State is cotton, us that product formerly took the place of tobacco. less profitable than in the North. Is it so? It has been This could not be done without a change of residence. shown that each man earns forty-five dollars and sixty-two Men bave, therefore, migrated from South Carolina to the and a half cents per annum. Jo 1824, Dr. Cooper, the sugar climate, and more fertile and fresher lands of Louigreat political economist of that State, said in his lectures, siana. Their moveable capital has migrated with them; that to raise a prime field slave, cost two hundred and fifty and what but decay and 'desolation could they leave to dootlars. The member from South Carolina has told us, in their former seats Solitude is in those balls because, the this debate, that every thing is there reduced one balf in toil and the song of labor bave departed from the fields. value. Such a slave is, therefore, worth at this time one How then does South Carolina sustain her complaint and hundred and twenty-five dollars. Add to this the value allegations against the American system? If demand for of ten acres of land, cultivated in cotton, with implements cotton has not been diminished, but mightily increased by of culture, at ten dollars per acre; and the whole amount that system ; if reduction of the price of cotton be merely is two hundred and twenty-five dollars. On this part of nominal, so that all other things are equally as much, and his capital be clears forty-fire dollars and sixty-two and a cotton cloth more reduced ; if the appreciation of money half cente, equal to twenty per cent per avoum. One- (as alleged by the Southern Review) be the cause of this half of bis slaves are women. The increase keeps the old diminution of price; if labor be more productive, and capistock good, and doubles it in twenty-five years. This gives tal more profitable in South Carolina than in the manufactwo prime slaves in that time, worth one hundred and turing States; if that State export more abundantly than twenty-five dollars each, and both equal to two huudred those States ; and fioally, if she export more at this time, aud fifoy dollars. Tbis amounts to teu dollars per auuum, according to her population, than she did in 1816, when and is equal to four per cent. on this part of his capital. Mr. Lowodes and Mr. Calboun placed the tariff upon the The South Carolina planter, it appears, realizes forty-five labor and capital of the northern States ; tben, sir, what dollars and sixty-two and a balf cents on the labor of each damage has that State suffered by the operations of the of bie men, and ten dollars ench per aupum on the labor American system? Wby, then, all ibis complaint ? this claof each of his women. The average is about sixteen per mor? this abuse? this crimination against that system, and cent. Sir, ao capital in the manufacturing States gives the friends of that system? Would they of the South win any thing like such a profit. This profit would soon be a political boop? Would a presidency, like the medicated reduced by competition from those States, did not clinate, fruits of mythology, quiet this. awaked Cerberus, wbose and the condition of southern labor, secure a monopoly to ungry roar las so ofteu echoed through these balls ? No the capitalist of the South.

mutter for their vigorous, increasing, and productive labor; Has oppressiou, indeed, made South Carolina 80 very no matter for their abundant and profitable capital, inpoor! What are her domestic exports ?

creased or various exports, cheapened and enriched conIo 1827, she sent to foreign countries, in

sumption. No matter for all these. No, sir, no. The crafty, cotton,

$7,100,000 but envious Amalekite, in the proud court of the Asiatic Oue-third as much to the manufacturing

empire, advanced to the second rank of power, the second J States,

2,366,666 condition of favor, the Vizier, the Viceroyalty, pot of twentyTo the western States, as stated in 1828,

four, but of oue bundred and twenty provinces, when surtbree millions of dollars ; but, us now stated,

rounded by bis congratulating family and friends, with a E about

2,000,000 scowl of discontent, and in the topes of malediction, ex

claimed, “ All this availeth me nothing, so long * as Mor

$11,466,666 decai the Jew sits at the king's gate. W ben, sir, when will The population of South Carolina is about five hundred anbition learn wisdom from the records of experience ?" thousand.' One-half are slaves, or capital. It is about Sir, we are told by South Carolina that words have been forty-eight dollers a head for each free mun. No account invented of fraudful, sorcerous import; wherewithal the is liere taken of indigo, rice, or tobacco, of which, and of manufacturing wizards of the North abuse the honest and other products, more than a milliou was that year export. credulous ear of the nation. These foul magicians, as it is ed. These will more than balance the amount, for any said, cry encouragement, protection, domestic industry, expenditure made on account of their labor... What State American system; and thereby raise, array, and drive a in the Union, sir, exports in a ratio to be compared with crysade against the rights and interests of the South. Sir, this! It will be found, on full examination, that South have not the managing meu of that region a school for words? Carolina never exported in any year in a rativ disclosing State rights, independent sovereignty, consolidation, slave.

condition of greater prosperity. If to this be added the ry; what words are these ? May not men conjure with such appreciated exchangeable value of all these exports, that words? Have they not called up spirits by them! Aye, State will have still less cause of complaint.

sir, and spirits as dark and mischievous as ever visited the What, then, I shall be asked, is the cause of decay and/moulight of this world. In this very debate, has not a

VOL. VI.-117.

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H. OF R.)

The Tariff

(May 10, 1830.


word been caught; and tortured, and abused, that men may hear, may consider, be convinced, and redeem them. might hear, and run mad even at the very echo of it? Tax; selves from the “forked councils” of crooked politicians. wby, sir, when just, the word makes men stare; whep un Are these people, then, thus grossly wronged by the th just, unequal, oppressive, it drives them frantic. Sir, these American system? Does South Carolina pay a duty, 4 be sorcerers of the sultry South bave, during this debate, with tax of forty, sixty, or any other per cent. on all, or any of the skill of masters, repeated this word either alone or her exported cotton or other products First of all

, is coupled with most inflaming adjectives.

such duty deducted from the price of those exported pro Permit me, sir, to pass within the magic circle, and, if it ducts, when sold in the foreign market! This South Os the may be done, to disclose and reveal their juggling mys- rolioa doctrine presupposes that all commerce is merely a teries. They announce to this nation that they, the plan- harter trade in different commodities. The gentlernas tation, or, as they cabalistically call themselves, staple from Mnesachusetts (Mr. Davis) bas, under that view of States, being but one-quarter or three millions of the whole the doctrine, exposed its absurdity. I will not repeat the people, do, in their own proper persons, pay two-thirds of what he has so ably said. In this argument it is alleged da all the taxes. To illustrate this hypothesis, they tell us that the duty on imported commodities is deducted froe 1: that South Carolina, in 1827, exported cotton amounting the price of the exported products, when sold in the foto seven million one hundred thousand dollars. On all reigo market; because those products are sold in that this amount of cotton, they affirm that they did pay, and market for such commodities as, when imported, are they do now pay, on all their .like export, into the treasu- charged with such duty. It is said South Carolina cotton ry of the United States, an export duty amounting to thirty, is sold in Liverpool for cotton cloth, or for woollen cloth; in forty, fifty, some say sixty per cent. This duty is alleged but because such cloth cannot come into the United States

, to be paid ou the export, because a like duty is laid on the upless a duty of sixty per cent. is first paid upon it, the goods purchased by their export, when they are brought English manufacturer, or his agent, the Liverpool mer into the country. These gentlemen tell us that "the cus- chant, does deduct the amount of such duty from the price the tom-house is a turnpike gate, and it matters not whether of the cotton, and pays the balance only to the planter who you pay the toll when you go to market, or when you re- bas raised and exported it. So long as the United States

, turu from it." It is as if the collector took two or three by their protecting system, continue to place this duty or out of every five yards of cloth brought home for cotton the cottons and woollens of England, the English maresold in England.

facturer will indemnify himself

, by deducting the duty If these allegations be not mere words, contrived to charged on cloths, from the price of South Carolina cotte provoke excitement, and, under a storm of loud and bois- received in payment for them, and thereby compel the terous passion, to obscure the true state of the question, South Caroliva planter to pay the whole amount of it. This then must they be founded ou some facts and arguments is the whole argument, however it may have been expand by which they are supported in the minds of reasonable ed by illustration, or amplified by repetition. South Carolimen. When South Carolina alleges that the exports of na cotton is sold for English cloth. Sixty per cent. is dedactthe United Stutes pay all the duties imposed by the tariff ed from the price of the cotton in England, because sixty s on iraports, she sustains this allegation, so far as she has per cent. duty is charged on the cloth in the United States hitherto attempted to sustain it, by one of three argu Let us for a moment look at the course of trade. When ments. First. When the products of the South are sold, two bundred millions of pounds of cotton are exported to they are sold for goods, to be imported into the United England, and placed in the markets of Liverpool, 00 aC States; and whatever duty is imposed on such goods, when count of whomsoever it may concern, for what is this eot80 imported, must and will be deducted from the exported top sold! Do manufacturers bring their cloths into that southern products, when sold abroad. Second. The im- market to barter for that cotton! No, sir ; it is purchased port of the staple or plantation States being equal to their by a class of merchants, who afterwards sell it out to made export, and their consumptiou being equal to such import, facturers in such parcels as they may want for consum de they, as consumers, pay all the duty ou their import, and, tion. These merchants bave no cloths, and probably dere som therefore, they pay duty, or tax, as they call it, exactly in deal in them. In all great markets the business is so di proportion to their export. Third. The tariff so diminish vided, that the man who deals in one commodity never es the value of their export or import, or both, as that this deals in any other. Cotton merchants are never cloth of diminution is exactly equal to the whole duty on their hardware merchants. Nay, so divided and distributed is whole import.

this trade, that each species of cotton will have its distinet This question is not without difficulty, for it capoot be class of merchants, who deal in that species, and in easy to disprove what is not proved by any evidence; or to other. In what does be, and all other purchasers of cotoverthrow, by any course of reasoning, what is sustained ton, choose to pay for a parehased cargo of that come by no argument. South Carolina avers that she pays six- dity? Why, truly, in that by which all purchases are made ty per cent. on all her eigbt millions of export. It is a tax in a great market; the circulating medium of all commerof four million two hundred thousand dollars per annum, cial countries. Jo England, this is either coin, bullich, and in ten years amounts to forty-two millions of dollars. bank notes, or bills of exchange. When the exporter of If we say, as we do say, this is not so, the allegation of South Carolida cotton goes into the Liverpool market South Carolina falls to the ground, as a mere cunningly de- with bis cargo, for what does he choose to sell ? He vised fable, incredible in its nature, and not believed at chooses to sell for the same medium which the cotton nier all, unless by those who have been suitably trained to the chants choose to pay bim: coin, bullion, bank notes, or faith, and can exclaim in the very words of ancient credu- bills of exchange. The buyer will choose to pay in these lity, " I believe, because it is impossible.”

or in some one of these, because he will have nothing else In the very ouset of this argument against this South on hand with which to pay; and the seller will choose to Carolina dogma, we must encounter the most invincible take these, or some one of them, io payment, because it propensities of man; bis avarice, bis party spirit, pride may be what he wats, or he can with it more easily pur of opinion, lust most indomitable, lust of power; and worst chase wbut he wants for the market of his own country of all

, if there be any thing worse, the subtle, fraudful, up. If he take coin or bullion, it will be because he wishes to dermining perseverance of demagogues, devoted to an io- ship coia or bullion to the United States. If he take bank fluence, such as finally laid the sovereignty of Athens at the votes, it will be because he bas occasion for bank notes foot of the Macedonian Philip. The effort, however, is wor. in the course of bis trade. If he intends loading his ship tby of patriotism, and surely worth making. The argument at any other port, be will take bills of exchauge on some may reach the South. The candid, the honest, the many house at such port. How, then, will the cotton merchuot

MAY 10, 1830.]

The Tariff

(H. OF R. on any pretence, deduct fifty or sixty per cent. from the Such is the course of the cotton trade, according to the cotton of the South Carolina planter? It must be, says doctrines of South Carolina. Will this speculation ever the South Carolina doctrine, because the article, in which be repeated! Was ever such a speculation made? It he pays him, is charged with fifty or sixty per cent. duty seems incredible that men of sane minds should avow such when imported into the United States. Not so, for if he absurdities. I have nevertheless heard the avowal. Thoupays him in bank notes, they are put off in his trade in sands, both here and elsewhere, have heard the same. = Eogland, at the same rate at wbich all other men pass Thousands of honest men are made to believe it. South them, and without any deduction, because they have been Carolina planters have been told that from every hundred received in pay for South Carolina cotton. li he receive bales of cotton, sent abroad to market, sixty are taken by bills of exchange on Amsterdam, Copenhagen, or St Pe. the collector, as a tax on the planter. Aye, sir, from this tersburg, the merchants of those cities will surely pot pay word, tax, the table orator of South Carolina has drawn them at a discount of sixty per cent., because they were large discourse, as the bees of Trebisond draw from cer- dravo and received in payment for South Carolina cotton. tain flowers a honey that drives men mad. Since the duty -If the English cotton merchants pay the South Carolina on foreign wine is reduced, it may be hoped that the tariff cotton planter in coin or bullion for his exported cotton, toasts of the South will now be drank in a more generous can be deduct sixty per cent from the price, because sixty vintage. Nothing but bad wioe could have inspired such "per cent. duty will be charged, at the American custom anti-American sentiments; for we are told by high authohouse, on that coin or bullion, when imported into the rity, that " in good wine there is truth.” United States. Surely not; because no such duty, and Í hasten to the second proof of unequal payment of do duty whatever, is charged on coin or bullion when imposts, as it is alleged by the South Oarolina doctrine. imported into the United States under the tariff, protec- Their import and their consumption must be equal to one tion law, or American system of this country, If

, then, another, and each must be equal to their export; but they the English cotton buyer do befool the South Carolina pay duty on all their consumption, and, therefore, the duty cotton planter, and deduct sixty per cent. from the price paid by them is in exact proportion to their export. The of his cotton, whenever that amount of duty is charged in whule of this argument goes on the ground ibat every the Voited States on the medium received by the planter duty added to imported commodities does, in fact, raise in payment for bis cotton; yet, as he may, and always does the price of such commodities, by a sum equal to such receive in payment a medium, on which po duty is charged duty. This is sometimes true, but not always so; and it on its arrival in the United States, then no deduction from often happens that added duty does not increase the cost such price is ever made. The South Carolina doctrine to the consumer. The customers attending at any market, is a mere theoretical dogma, fit only to amuse and delude. must, if they buy, pay the cost of all commodities which It is like some other exhalations, which never appear but they buy. Men will cease to bring such commodities to in a dark and troubled atmosphere. Wbeo light and sud- market, wbeu they cannot be reimbursed the expense of

sbine return to the earth, they vanish, are seen po more, bringing them there. The consumption of all the world and the traveller, returning to the right path, goes on bis must pay the cost of the production of all the world. way, rejoicing

When manufactured fabrics are placed in the market, their Sir, if the South Carolina doctrine be true, what must cost cannot be less than the cost of the raw material, the be the condition of the exporting cotton merchant? Per- wages of labor, and the use of capital employed by that mnit me to propose a case.

A merchant of Boston, Provi- labor in fabricating from such raw material their products, dence, or New York, invests ten thousand dollars in cotton and placing them in the market. When the manufacturer at Charleston, and, shipping it to Liverpool, sells the whole, has paid for the raw material and for labor, all which rewith the intention of investing the amount of sales in maius is for the use of capital. This balance is sometimes woollen clutbs, to be sbipped to the United States for the more, and sometimes less; but can never be, for any length Ainerican market. For the purpose of exhibiting the of time, less than what is sufficient to keep bis capital in South Carolina doctrine in the simplest form, I will leave good and efficient repair. If it be less, his capital must out of the statement all account of freight, insurance, or continually deteriorate, and fioally be consumed. He can profits on the outward voyage; and add the freigbt, insur. contioue to work without profits, but he cannot continue auce, and duties only on the homeward. His cotton sells, to work at a loss. When his balance is more than enough in Liverpool, for ten thousand dollars. From this amount to pay for raw material, labor, and use of capital, this surthe English manufacturer, or bis agent, the Liverpool cot- plus constitutes the profits of the manufacturer. These ton merchant, deducts sixty per cent, because the English profits are, therefore, a part of the market price of all wcolleds, which are to be received in payment, will be fabrics, when sold in the country where they are procharged with a duty of sixty per cent. when imported into duced. When such fabrics are exported from the counthe United States : four thousand dollars remain. This sum try where they are produced, and imported into another is received in woollen cloths. Fifteen per cent. is paid country, to be sold and consumed there, if a duty be for freight and insurance, equal to six hundred dollars. A imposed on their importation, this duty must either be duty of sixty per cent is paid on this investment of four paid by the consumer, or deducted from the profits of the thousand dollars, on its arrival in the United States. This producer, or it may be divided and borne partly by each amounts to two thousand four hundred dollars. It is pre of them. When the manufacturers of the importing sumed the woollen cloths will sell for the original cost, with country produce fabrics of the same kind and quality, the freight and insurance added, together with the duties. competition for the market often compels the foreign manik How will the account stand ?.

facturer to deduct a part or the whole duty from bis Cost of cotton is

$10,000 profits. These principles are illustrated by the history of Freight and insurance of woollen goods home 600 tbe molasses trade between the United States aud Cuba. Duty op do in the United States

2,400 When the tariff of 1828 added five cepts a gallon to the Total amount paid out $13,000 duty on imported molasses, the manufacturers of that

proFor reimbursing this sum, the merchant will have on band duct in Cuba took that amount from each gallon, and it Woollen goods at cost


came to the consumption of the United States without any Feight and insurance


additional price, io consequence of the additional impost Amount of duty paid

2,400 duty. The planters of Cuba made this deduction from

their profits, rather thap hazard the loss of our market in · Total amount receivable in return


a competition with the planters of Louisiana. This will Total amount of loss

$6,000 | always be the course of trade. So long as foreiga

H. OF R.)

The Tariff

(May 10, 1830

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manufacturers can pay for raw materials, wages, and when be sold his crop. To take bis share of the goods, as deterioration of capital, they will, rather than lose your if concerned in the original adventure, and in proportion market, lower profits, as you raise impost duty, until all to the amount of bis cottop! What claim bas be to this their profits are gone. Nay, trade is sometimes continued He sold his cotton on the wharf, took his money, and, if for years to one market, only to sustain labor and preserve every bale, when shipped, had gone to the bottom, or been capital, while other markets are looked after for profits; consumed by fire, it would have been no concern of his and the hope of a change of times encourages the expecta. The cotton planter of South Carolina has no more con tion of a more prosperous condition of trade.

nexion with the commerce of the United States, than the With these general remarks, I proceed to a more par- tea planter of China bas with the same commerce. He ticular examination of this part of the question. For this does not, therefore, come into the home market for foreign purpose, let it be admitted that all impost duties on im- goods, to get bis share of those goods; nor is be obliged to ported commodities do, lo an equal amount, add to their take the amount of bis cotton crop, or any other amout, market price. By whom is this additional price paid ? Is in cotton or woolleu cloths, or hardware, or any other comit paid by South Carolina, because she exports seven mil. modity. His money is in his pocket, and it cannot be lion one hundred thousand dollars in cotton, and imports, drawn out but by his own option. If he must expend it and consumes a like amount in some other product! This all, be need not expend it all in the market of foreign comquestion cannot be answered without some examination of modities ; for be will find, side by side with this, another the course of trade. The labor of our country, like that market, abounding in all the products of the land, laber, of all other countries, employs capital, either in producing and capital of our country. Here he may indulge bis paraw material, or manufactured fabrics, or in buying and triotism, and satisfy his wants. selling such raw material or manufactured products. The From which of these markets is South Carolina labor, great laboring classes of our country are, accordingly, em- and the employers of tbat labor, supplied ? The answer ployed in agrieulture, manufactures, or commerce. If the to this question will determine who pays the duty on implanters of South Carolina employ their capital in growing ported products. Does that labor consume fisk! The cotton, they do not employ it in commerce. The com- planter buys them in New England, not only without merce of the country is conducted by merchants. Money bouoty, but cheaper for the bounty on exported fish. The is the medium, the great machine by which they conduct bounty on exported fish enables the fisherman to supply all their transactions. Barter is no part of the trade of the home market at a reduced price; so that the bounty merchants. It belougs to a condition of society, anterior to is really divided between bim and the South Carolina a perfect division of employments, and before any circulat- planter. He buys shoes. The leather was made from ing medium of exchange bas been established. Accord- hides, bought in Ohio at one and a half cents a pound; ! in ingly, we find the merchants of our country employed in the shoes manufactured by labor, fed, with cora at tei, buying up and collecting all surplus products, either of and wheat at twenty-five cents a busbel, and with meat at the seas, of the forests, of the soil, or of manufactures. two cents a pound. The planter buys shoes at fifty cents For these they give, in exchange, money, the circulating a pair, sbirting at six and a quarter, stripes at eight

, and medium of the country, either gold or silver coin, or paper, satinets at thirty-seven cents a yard. The whole yearly which may, at the pleasure of the holder, be exchanged clothing for a man coats less than five dollars. Not ove for such coin. That part of these products not wanted article is of foreign manufacture. Not ope article taxed for home consumption, merchants export, in pursuit of a with a duty, or made dearer by such a tax. Nay, not ode market, to foreign countries. These are not bartered, but which could, on any day of the year, be purchased cheaper sold by them, in such markets, for money: This money, in the English market. What feeds the labor of Sovib or such part of it as may be required, is reinvested in Carolina i Is it ten, coffee, sugar! Not an ounce. The foreign products, such as cloths, hardware, tea, coffee, whole two hundred and fifty-eight thousand laborers of sugar, aromatics, fruits, wines, spirits, silks, fancy goods, South Carolina do not consume to the amount of one and all such commodities as ntay be required in the home cent of any article charged with any amount of duty, li market, either for consumption or re-exportation. All these they do, what is it? Gracious Godi And notwithstandcommodities are imported, together with the money ba- ing all this

, the owners of these slaves, the capitalisis lance, invested in gold or silver coin, or bullion. This im- of South Carolina, wbo, in the language of the member mense importation, amounting, in some years, to one hun from that State, [Mr. McDUFFIE] * drive them day and dred millions, comes back charged with all the costs of night, summer and winter, to work harder and make more

, these multifarious transactions; and, when further aug- these mild and merciful capitalists are, by their agent bere, mented in price by the addition of such duties as by law clamorous, outrageous, and abusive against the laborers of are imposed on each class of them, they are all placed in New England, because they pay less than their share of the markets of the United States.

impost, of tax, on imported commodities. If there be an efficient demand for these commodities in What do New England laborers pay? They pay the our country, and they can be sold without a loss, then who duty on all they buy and consume. They consume coffee ever buys and consumes them must pay for all their ori- at a duty of thirty per cent., tea at thirty-five, and sugar 3 ginal cost

, together with the cost of importation, and the as the Southeru Review asserts, at fifty-two per cent. All impost duty, in addition to all these various amounts. Men these are consumed by the whole labor of New England. go to this market, not to receive pay for what they had sold The skilled, or manufacturing labor, in addition to these

, to merchants who purchased and exported their products; consume fancy goods. Yes, sir, fancy goods ; shawls from much less do they go in quest of their share of these comtEngland, silks from France, crapes from India, tortoise modities, as if concerned in the great adventure of send- shell combs from Canton, and Leghords from Italy. This ing their products abroad to be exchanged, and brought may seem a paradox to those who cannot, even in thought

, bome in money, or in the products of other countries. Do separate labor from servitude; to whom work is slavery

, you find, in this great market

, the whaler with the invoice and exemption from it freedom; " whose bigh and palivy of his oil; the fisherman, with that of his fish; the log-roller, condition of liberty is rendered more lofty, because ma showing the amount of his lumber ; the peltrist, with his pured, and cultured, and contrasted by a toiling, debased

, knotted strings of account for furs; the farmer or manu- and wretched servitude around it. Pell, sir, tell these facturer, each with full statements of either provisions, or bigh-minded votaries of factitious liberty, that the freedom bread stuffs, or wrought fabrics ? How, then, does the of the North is felt and enjoyed the more, because it South Carolina planter come to this market? To get pay felt and enjoyed by all; and that if southern liberty should for his cotton sold to the merchant I No: that be receive wither and perish for lack of slavery to feed, and support


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MAY 10, 1830.]

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(H. OF R.

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its growth, northern freedom will grow and flourish, after duty imposed on all the foreigo goods purchased by the 1 the sun, in the whole longitude of his course, shall have money for which all the cotton of South Carolina is sold.

ceased to shine on the head of a single slave. In the In other words, if machinery and cottou spioning had been North, labor is not slavery. The persons of whom I speak, left to England, and never introduced into the United States, are the free descendants of the free and highly respected or encouraged and protected by that system, the cotton people of New England. They are the daughters or of South Carolina would now have brought in the market graoddaughters of those wives and mothers who clothed, not only seven million one hundred thousand dollars, but and armed, and blessed, and bustened their husbands, and sixty per cent or four million two hundred and sixty thousods and brothers, to the fields of Lexington and Bunker sand dollars, in addition to that amount. That State would Hill, Bennington and Saratoga. They are not mero bo- bave received, in 1827, eleven million three hundred and dies, though beautiful and blooming ; they have miods well sixty thousand dollars for the exported cotton of that year. instructed ; they have read, and thought. You will see Let us examine this paramount absurdity. In 1789, the them, modestly ornamented by the labor of their own first Congress enacted the law providing for revenue, for bands, and accompanied by their parents and brothers, at- encouragement and for protection of manufactures. South tending the anniversaries of our literary institutions, the Carolina then planted no cotton. A few years before that yearly discourses at the celebration of our national indepen. time, cotton spinning, by machinery, was brought into dence, and in the weekly assemblies for the public worship Rhode Island by Samuel Slater. England, in that year, of the great God, and Father of the whole human family imported from all the world, and spun about one million

Do you ask how those who labor in the North can af five hundred thousand pounds of cotton. A small duty furd to consume euch imported commodities ! This can was laid on imported cotton, expressly to encourage its not be done by labor in France and England. Labor is production in the Southern States. A like duty was laid paid, in any country, in proportion to the demand and sup-on imported cotton cloths, to encourage cotton spinning in ply, in the market, for the labor of that country. In this this country. From what material was the clothing of country, the demand for skilled labor is comparatively Europe and America then fabricated ? Almost entirely great, and the supply comparatively small. This labor, from sheep's wool, flax, hemp, or silk. What has been therefore, receives a much greater share of the products the progress of machinery for spinping and weaving cotof labor in this country, than the same kind of labor re- ton, and wbat have been the effects of that progress A ceives in England and France. This, operating alike on demand for cotton was created and increased by this new labor in all employments, prevents the manufacturer from and expeditious method of manufacturing it into cloth. raisiog the price of his products, and compels him to lower By the progress of this trade, hemp for clothing is driven the rate of his profits." All the necessaries of life being from the market. Flax has nearly followed it; silk is much lower in this than in most other countries, labor not sustained as a luxury only, and sheep's wool would, at only receives a larger proportion of the annual productiou this time, were it not for the necessities created by cliof the country, but can live at a much smaller expense for mate, be entirely out of use. necessaries; and has, therefore, a much larger amount, How has this been effected ! By a competition between either to lay up for future use, or to consume in accommo- the great manufacturers of England, France and the dations and ornaments. This, sir, is the great secret of United States. The ioventions of ope have been follownorthern prosperity ; a condition not the most propitious ed by the inventions of otbers, and a succession of imto the capitalist, but the most beneficial to labor; and de- provements has advanced them on to perfection. The monstrating that while the labor of South Carolina con- spindle was followed by the speeder-the siugle by the sumes no imported products, and pays pot a cent of im- double speeder. The flying picker took place of the post duty, or tax, the labor the North, made prosperous band, in cleaning cotton; and the power loom now almost by the American system, pays into the treasury a great- excludes manual weaving Chemical science, applied to er amount of impost duty, of wational tax, than even the bleaching, performs in a few hours what once required South Carolina capitalists themselves. For what do these days or weeks, aided by the sun, the winds, and water, for capitalists buy, and consume, from the two great markets its performance

. This rivalry of nations has not ouly imof our country! First, what does the southern plupter proved, but multiplied machinery. In 1789, the wiole buy? Carriages, harness, saddlery, horses, household furnii- number of spindles in the United States did not exceed ture. These are not imported, but, by the American sys- three hundred. The number increased but slowly for the tem, protected, and not made dearer by that protection. first fifteen years. The embargo multiplied them; the They buy fine cottons at eighteen cents a yard, which, im- non-intercourse multiplied them; the war multiplied ported in 1815, cost one dollar and twelve cents. They them; and, above all, the tariff of 1816, introducing the buy prints, carpets, glass, pails, and all quite as cheap, as minimum principle of protection, bas multiplied them; such commodities can be bought in England. Of woollen uptil, at this time, there cannot be a less number in the

cloths, hardware, iron, hemp, sailcloth, cordage, who buys United States than one million five hundred thousand. } most, the northern or the South Carolina capitalists? If, They have, indeed, multiplied like the progeny or the pa

tben, the producer of exports, whether oil, fish, lumber, triarch in the land of their servitude; and, like that propeltry, provisions, bread stuffs, or cottop, sell for money, geny, those who were once their patrons, would now throw and buy for money-and buy, at his option, either foreign them into the river. or domestic commodities, the amount of duties, the tax The same competition bas pushed forward the produce paid by him, is governed by his consumption, and bis con- tion of England, not only in this, but in every other branch sumption is governed by bis choice, and not by the amount of iron and steel manufacture. English hooks fish every of his export. If he sells for money, he may keep his mo- sea, lake, and river: English guns bring down birds of every ney in his pocket, live from the produce of his own plan- clime, and every wing: the Arab, the Tartar, rides with

tation, and pay not a cent for any imported commodity. English pistols in his belt; and the Sheffield bhade has won & The South Carolina degina, the tax in proportion to ex more and greater victories than that of Toledo or Damas

port, is unsupported by fact, and must bave been contrived cus. These are but minor products. The wars of Euto deceive, to delude, to create popular excitement, and tope multiplied ber spindles; these are the great instruachieve political objects.

ments of the wealth and power of England. Alexander The third and last reason for this monstrous and mad- by the long spear, and the compacted phalanx, pushed his deniog doctrine is, that the American system does, io its conquests from the Granicus to the Ganges. Eogland, operations, decrease the demand, and thereby diminish the with her spindles and looms, bas manufactured a fabric of market price of cotton to the full amount of all the power, whích, like the broad belt of the Zodiac, en wraps


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