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into the contract, the change, so made, have had no means whatever of presnay be considered as operating virtu. ven'irg. ally as a breach of the Treaty itself, H s Majesty judged it most expedient, and as giving the party aggrieved 3 under the circumstances which then right to demand fa'istaction or coin- aifected Lurope, to ab tain from a repensition for any lubitantial difference currence to hoitilities on account of which fuch acis may have effected in the views of ambition and acts of their relative lituations; but whatever aggreflion manifeited by France on may be the principle on which the the Continent; yet an experience of Treaty is to be considered as founded, the character and dispositions of the there is indisputably a gene al Law French Government could not fail to of Nations, which, though liable to be imprets bis Majelty with a sense of limited, explained, or reltrained, by the neceility of increaled vigilance in Conventional Law, is antecedent to it, guarding the Rights and Dignity of and is that law, or rule of conduct, to bis Crown, and in protecting the Intewhich all overeigns and States huve reits of his people. Whilst his Majeity been accustomed to appeal, where Con- was actuated by these lentiinen:s, be ventional Law is admitted to have been was called upon by the French GoGleni. The Treaty of Amiens, and vei nment to evacuate the Itlard of every other Treaty, in providing for Muita. His Majesty had manifeised, the objects to which it is particularly from the moment of the fignature of di efted, does not therefore allume or the Definitive Treaty, an anxious dit imply an indifference to all other objects polition to carry into full effect the which are not fpecified in its ftipula. itipulations of the Treaty of Amiens tions, much less does it adjudge thein relative to that Idland. As soon as be to be of a nature to be left to the will was informed that an election of a and caprice of the violent and the Grand Master had taken place, under powerful. The justice of the cause is the aufpices of the Emperor of Ruthia, alone a sufficient ground to warrant and that it had been agreed by the the interpolition of any of the Powers diffe. ent Priories assembled St. of Europe in the differences which may Petersburgh, to acknowledge the perarise between other States; and the fon whom the Court of Rome thud application and extent of that just select out of those who had been nan..d interpofition is to he deterinined solely by them to be Grand Master of the by confiderations of prudence. There Order of St. John, his Majesty pro. principles can admit of no dispute; posed to the French Governinent, for but it the new and extraordinary pre- the purpole of avoiding any difficulties tension advanced by the French Go which might arise in the execution of vernment, to exclude his Majesty from the arrangement, to acknowledge that any right to interfere with reipećt to election to be valid: and when, in the the concerns of other Pouers, unless month of Auguit, the French Guvern. they made a specific part of the ftipula- ment applied to his Majefiy to permit tions of the Treaty of Amiens, was the Neapolitan troups to be sent to the that which it was pollible to maintain, Itland of Maita, as a preliminary mezthole Powers would have a right, at sure for preventing any unneceitary Jeait, to clai:n the benefit of this princi. delay, bis Majeity conlented, without ple, in every cale of difference between helitation, to inis proposal, and gave the two countries. The indignation directions for the admission of the of all Europe must surely, then, be Neapolitan troops into the Illand. His excited by the declarations of the Majelty had thus shewn bis difpofition French Government, that, in the event not only to throw no obitacle in the of hostilities, thele very Powers, who way of the exei ution of the Treaty, were no parties to the Treaty of but, on the contrary, to facilitate the dmiens, and who were not allowed to execution of it by every means in his derive any advantage from the reinon- power. His Majesty cannot, however, trances of his Majeliy in their behalf, admit, that at any period fince te are neverthelets to be made the victims conclusion of the Treaty of Amiens, of a war which is alledged to rise out of the French Government have had a the same Treaty, and are to be facri. right to call upon him, in conformity ficed in a contest which they not only to the itipulations of that Treaty, to have not occafioned, but which they withdraw his forces from the Idland of



Malta. At the time when this demand circumstances which it was not in the was made by the French Government, power of any of the contra&ting parties Several of the most important ftipulations to the Treaty to controul, his Majesty of the arrangement respecting Malta would nevertheless have had a right to remained unexecuted. “The election of defer the evacuation of the Illand by his a Grand Malter had not been carried into forces, until such time as an equivalent effect. The hoth Article had stipulated arrangement had been concluded for the that the Independence of the Island should preservation of the independence of the be placed under the guarantee and pro- Order and of the Illand. But if there tection of Great Britain, France, Austria, changes have taken place in consequence Rulia, Spain, and Prullia. The Empe- of any acis of the other parties to the ror of Germany had acceded to the gua. Treaty; if the French Government hall rantee, but only on condition of a like appear to have proceeded upon a system accellion on the part of the other Powers of rendering the Order, whose independ. 1pecified in the Article. The Emperor ence they had ftipulated, incapable of of Russia had refused his acceffion, except maintaining that independence, his Ma. on the condition that the Maltese langue jesty's right to continue in the occupation should be abrogated; and the King of of the Inand, under such circumitances, Prullia had given no answer whatever will hardly be contetted. It is indir. to the application which had been made putable that the revenues of the two to him to accede to the arrangement. Spanish langues have been withdrawn But the fundamental principle, upon the from the Order by his Catholic Majesty : existence of which depended the execution a part of the Italian langue has, in fact, of the other parts of the Article, had been abolished by France, through the been defeated by the changes which had unjult annexation of Piedmont and Parma, taken place in the conftitution of the and Placentia, to the French territory. Order lince the conclusion of the Treaty The Elector of Bavaria has been inttiof Peace. It was to the Order of St. gated by the French Government to John of Jerusalem that his Majesty was, lequestrate the property of the Order by the first Itipulation of the 10th Articles within his territories; and it is certain, bound to reitore the Illand of Malta. that they have not only fanctioned, but The Order is defined to consist of those encouraged, the idea, of the propriety of langues which were in existence at the separating the Russian langues from the time of the conclusion of the Treaty: remainder of the Order. the three French langues having been

As the conduct of the Governments abolished, and a Maltese langue added of France and Spain have, therefore, to the institution. The order contilted, in some instances directly, and in others therefore, at that time, of the following indirectly, contributed to the changes langues, viz. the langues of Arragon, which have taken place in the Order, Caitile, Germany, Bavaria, and Rullia. and thus destroyed its means of supportSince the conclusion of the Definitive ing its independence, it is to thole Go. Treaty, the langues of Arragon and vernments, and not to his Majesty, that Cartile have been separated from the

the non-execution of the roth Article of Order by Spain, a part of the Italian the Treaty of Amiens must be afcribed. langue has been abolished by the annexa- Such would be the just conclusion, it the tion of Piedmont and Parmi to France. 10th Article of that Treaty were conThere is strong reaton to believe that it lidered as an arrangement by itself. It has been in contemplation to lequeitrate must be observed, however, that this the property of the Bavarian langue; article torms a part only of a Treaty of and the intention has been avowed of Peace, the whole of which is connected keeping the Ruflian langues within the tigether, and the ftipulations of which dominions of the Emperor.

mult, upon a principle common to all Under these circumitances, the Order Treaties, be construed as having a reof St. John cannot now be considered as ference to each other. that body to which, according to the His Majelty was induced by the Treaty ftipulations of the Treaty, the Illand of Peace to content to abandon, and to was to be ieftored; and the funds indif- restore to the Order of St. John, the Inand penTably necessary tor its support, and for of Malta, on condition of its independ. the maintenance of the independence of ence and neutrality. But a further conthe Itand, have been nearly, it not wholly, dition, which must necellarily be fupfequeltered. Even if this had arisen from posed to have conliderable indjience with

his Vol. XLIII. MAY 1803.


his Majesty, in inducing him to make so paper cannot be considered as the public important a concellion was the acquief- cation of a private individual; it has cence of the French Government, in an

been avowed, and indeed bears evidence arrangement for the security of the Le- upon the face of it, that it is the official vant, by the eighth and ninih articles in Report of an accredited Agent, published the Treaty fiipulating the integrity of the by the authority of the Government to Turkish Empire, and the Independence which it was addressecl, who therehy have of the Ionian Inands. His Majesty has, given it their express sanction. This Re. however, fince learnt, that the French port had been published a very short Government have entertained views hof- time, when another indignity was ofitted tiie to both these objects; and that they to this country in the communication of even suggested the idea of a partition of the First Contul of France to the Legit. the Turkish Empire. These views must lative Bedy. In this communicatich he now be maniteit to all the world, from presumes to affirm, in the character of the official publication of the report of Chief Magikrate of that country, “ That Colonel Sebastiani; from the conduct of Great Britain cannot fingly cortend that Officer, and of the other French the power of France ;” an assertion as un. Agents in Egypt, Syria, and the Ionian : tounded as it is indecent, disproved by Blunds, and from the distinct admillion the events of many Wars, and by rone of the First Consul himself, in his com- more than by those of the War which has munication with Lord Whitworth. His been recently concluded. Such an aflere Majelty was, therefore, warranted in con- tion, advanced in the mot folemn official filtering it to be the determination of the act of a Government, and thereby meant French Goverrment to violate those ar- to be avowed to all the powers of Europe, ticles of the Treaty of Peace, which sti. can be considered in no other light thaa pulated for the integrity and independ- as a defiance publicly offered to his Maerce of the Turkin Empire and of tlie jesty, and to a brave and powerful People, Ionian Ilands, and consequently he would who are both willing and able to defend not have been justified in evacuating the his just rights, and those of their country, Illand of Malta, without receiving Tome againit every infult and aggreßion. other security, which might equally pro.

The conduct of the Firit Conful to bis vide for thefe important objects. His Niajesty's Ambasador at his audience, in Majelty accordingly feels thai he has an pre:ence of the Ministers of muft of the inconteftible claim, in consequence of the Sovereigns and States of Europe, fur. conduct of France tince the Treaty of nines another initance of provocation on Peace, and with seference to the objects the part of the French Government, which which made part of the stipulations of it would be improper not to notice that Treaty, to refuse, under the prefent on the present occasion; and the subiecircumitances, to relinquith the polleliion quent explanation of this tranfaction may of the Island of Malta. Yet, notwith- be confidered as having the effect of ag. landing this right, to clear and 10 un- gravating, initead of palliating the af. queitionabie, the alternative preiented by front. At the very time when his Mathe French Government to his Majetty's jesty was demanding latisfaction and ex. in language the most peremptory and me- planation on some of the points above Dlacing, was the evacuation of Malta, or mentioned, the French Minister at Hamiterenewal of War.

burgh endeavoured to obtain the infertion, If the views of ambition and aggran. in a Hamburgh Paper, of a molt grols dizeinent, which have thus been maniteit. and approbrious libel agaitt his Majetty; ed by the French Governiment fince the ard when difficulties were made respecta concluiion of the Treaty of Peace, have ing the infertion of it, he availed himicif in to very particular a manner altiacicd of his official character of Minister of the the attention of his Majetly, it has been French Republic, to require the public equally impofsible for tin not to feel, cation of it, by order of his Government, and not to notice, the repeated indignities in the Gazette of the Senate of that town. which have been offered by that Govern- Wirh this requifition to made, the Senate ment to his Crown, and to his people. of Hamburgh were induced to comply ;

The Report of Colonel Sebaitiani con. and thus has the independence of that tains the most unwauantable insinuations town been violated, and a free State made and charges against his Majelly's Gon the instrument, by the menace of the vernment, azainit ve Oincer who com- French Government, of propagating mandu I his forces in Egypt, and againit throughout Europe, upon their authority, the British anny in the quarter. This the most offentive and unfounded calum. nies against his Majesty and his Govern- felf, his Majesty will not avail himself of ment. His Majesty might add to this thele circumstances, to demand in comlitt of indignities, the requisition which pensation all that he is entitled to require, the French Government have repreatedly but will be ready to concur, even now, urged, that the laws and constitution of in an arrangement by which fatisfaction his country hould be changed relative shall be given to him, fer the indignities to the Liberty of the Press. His Majesty which have been offered to his Crown might likewise add, the calls which the and to his People, and subftantial security French Government have, on several oc. afforded against further encroachments on cafions, made upon him to violate the the part of France. Laws of Hospitality, with respect to per- His Majesty has thus diftin&tly and’unfons who had found an asylum within his reservedly stated the reasons of those prodoininions, and against whofe conduct no ceedings to which he has found himself charge whatever has at any time been compelled to resort. He is actunted by substantiated. It is impofiible to reflect no difpofition to interfere in the internal on these different proceedings, and the concerns of any other State; by no procourse which the French Government jects of conquest and aggrandizement; have thought proper to adopt respecting but folely by a sense of what is due to the them, without the thorough conviction honour of his Crown, and the interests of that they are not the effect of accident; his People, and by an anxious desire to but that they form a part of a Systein, obftruét the further progress of a syitem, which has been adopted for the purpose which if not relitted, may prove fatal to of degrading, vilifying, and insulting his every part of the civilized world. Majesty and his Government. Under all thele insults and provoca

The publication of the CORREStions, his Majdy, not without a due fente PONDENCE BETWEEN THE BRIof his dignity, has proceeded with every TISH AND FRENCH GOVERNdegree of temper' and moderation to ob. MENTS is much too voluminous for tain satisfaction and redress, while he has insertion in our Magazine ; but we may neglected no means confiftent with his observe, that it abounds with the strongest honour and the tafety of his dominions, to proofs of the perfidy, ambition, rancour, irduce the Government of France to con- and insolence of the First Contul. The cede to him, what is, in his judgment, principal topics which the Papers emabsolutely necessary for the future tran: brace are, Bonaparte's uniform infraction quillity of Europe. Jlis efforts in this of the Spirit of the Treaty of Amiens, and refpect' have proved abortive, and he has his conitant appeal to its letter--the comtherefore judged it necessary to order his pulsion exerciled over the Public JourAmbasador to leave Paris. In having nals in the free city of Hamburgh, and recourle to this proceeding, it has been the intult upon this Government, which his Majesty's ohitet to put an end to the a friendly and neutral State was forced to fruitle's discuslions which have too lorg publish--the attempt to overthrow our fublisted between the two Governments, Conftitution and change our laws at the and to close à period of suspence pecus bidding of Bonaparte, and the attack liarly injurious to the subjects of his upon the true Palladium of Liberty, the Majesty.

Preis--the pretenhon of excluding us But though the porovications which his from the Continent of Europe-ihe VoyMajelty has received, might entitle him age of the incendiary Spy and Commerto larger claims than those which he has cial Agent Sebastiani-the infamous ata advanced, yet anxious to prevent cala- tempt to send agents of the faine infernal mnities which might thus be extended to character into our own fea-ports-he every part of Europe, he is still willing, oppreilions of Switzerland - the violation as far as is confitent with his own ho- of the Treaty of Luneville--the breach pour, and the interests of his people, to of faith--the injuitice of burthening Holafford every facility to any just and lo. land with troops, contributions, and an nourable, arrangement, by which tuch uninterrupted syitem of vexation and opa, eviis may be averted. He has, therefore, prefiion. no difficulty in declaring to all Europe, His MAJESTY'S DECLARATION NOthat notwithitanding all the changes tices in a moderate, yet firm and dignified which have taken place fince the Treaty tyle, all there subjects of complaint ; but of Peace, notwithstanding the extention He think it our duty to ftate, (recorded of the pow r ct France, in repugnange to as it is by the British Ambasador), the thal treaty, and to the spirit of peace itn banguage of Bonaparte himself. Iord Whitworth in his letter of the 21st of He acknowledged, that the irritation February, to Lord Hawkesburv, says :- he felt against England increased daily,



I received a Note from M. Talleyrand, becaule every wind (I make use as much informing me the First Consul desired to as I can of his own ideas and expreffions) converfe with me, and that I would come which blew from England, brought noto him at the Thuilleries at nine o'clock. thing but enmity and hatred against him. He received me in his Cabinet with to. He now went back to Egypt, and told lerable cordiality, and, after talking on me, that if he had felt the smallet inclidifferent subjects for a few minutes, he nation to take postelion of it by force, he desired me to lit down, as he himlelt did might have done it a month ago, by serdon the other side of the table, and began. ing 25,000 men to Aboukir, who woul He told me that he felt it necessary, after have poffelled themselves of the whole what had passed between me and M. de Country in defiance of the 4000 Britih Talleyrand, that he should, in the most in Alexandria. That instead of that clear and authentic manner, make known garrison being a means of protecting his sentiments to me, in order to their Egypt, it was only furnishing him with being communicated to his Majesty ; and pretence for invading it. This be should he conceived this would be more effec- not do, whatever might be his desire to baru tually done by himself, than through any it as a colony, because he did not think it medium whatever. He said, that it was worth the risk of a war, in which he migét, a matter of infinite disappointment to perhaps, be considered as the aggrtljor, and him, that the Treaty of Amiens, instead by which he should lose more than he could of being followed by conciliation and gain, since sooner or later Egypt would be. friendship, the natural effects of Peace, long to France, either by the falling to pieces had been productive only of continual of the Turkish empire, or by some arrangeand increaring jealousy and mistrult; and ment with the Porte. that this mittruit was now avowed in luch As a proof of his desire to maintain a manner as must bring the point to an peace, he wished to know what he had to illue. He now enumerated the several gain by going to war with England. A provocations which he pretended to have descent was the only means of offence he received from England. He placed in had, and that he was determined to atthe firft line our not evacuating Malta and tempt, by putting himself at the head of Alexandria as we were bound to do by the expedition. But how could it be fup. Treaty. In this he said that no conside- posed, that after having gained the height ration on earth thould make him ac- on which he stood, he would risk his life quiefce; and of the two he had rather fee and reputation in such a hazardous ai. us in poliellion of the Fauxbourg St. tempt, unless forced to it by neceffity, Antoine than Malta. He then adverted when I be chances were, that he and ice to the abule thrown out against him in greatejl part of the expedition would go to the English public Prints; but this be ibe bottom of the sea? He talked much on laid he did not so much regard as that this subject, but never affected to diminih which appeared in the French Papers the danger. He acknowledged that ibere published in London.--This he contider- were one hundred cbances to one against ed as much more mitchievous, since it kim; but still ke was determined to attempt meant to excite this country against him it, if war should be the confequence of and his Government. He complained of the present discussion; and such was the the protection given to Georges and difpefition of the troops, that army afier others of his description, who instead of army sboull be found for the enterprize. being sent to Canada, as had been repeat- He then expatiated much on the naedly promifed, were perniitted to remain rural force of the two countries. France io England, handlonely pentioned, and with an army of four hundred and eighty conitantly commiering all sorts of crimes thousand men, for to this amount, it is, on ilie coaits of France, as well as in the he said, to be in mediately completed, all interior. In confirmation of this, he ready for the most desperate enterprizes; told me, that two men had within these and England with a fleet that made her few days been a; prehended in Normandy, mitress of the Stas, and which he did not and were now on their way to Paris, who think he should be able to equal in lels were hired atafins, and enployed by the

than ten years.

Two such countries by Bishop of Arras, by Georges, and by a proper underfanding might govern the Dutheil, as would be fully proved in a world, but by their itriles might overCourt of Justice, and made known to the turn it. He said, that if he had not telt world.

the enmity of the British Government on

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